Black Forest, South Australia
Black Forest is an inner southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Unley, bounded by the Glenelg Tramline, the Seaford railway line, South Road and East Avenue. "A dense area of bush known as the Black Forest once covered the Unley region of the Adelaide Plains. The woodland forest was a mix of grey-box, blue gum, red gum, native pines and sheoak trees, with grass trees, native grasses and orchids; these plants had deep roots that held the soil together and the plant debris that fell on the earth decomposed releasing nutrients into the soil."In the early years of colonial settlement, the Black Forest was "frequented by bush rangers and cattle thieves". There have been three Post Offices named Black Forest: the first opened on 1 September 1899 and was renamed Glandore in 1915, the second opened on 10 November 1947 and was renamed Clarence Park West in 1966, the third, located on South Road between Byron and Cowper Roads, opened on 8 January 1996; the 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,846 persons in Black Forest on census night.
Of these, 47.2% were male and 52.8% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being England and Greece. Black Forest Primary School opened in 1919, it is located off School Avenue, between Forest Avenue and Addison Road. The east end of the school grounds are adjacent to the "Forest Avenue Reserve"; the Forest Avenue Reserve is located on Forest Avenue near the centre of the suburb. There is the Princess Margaret Playground, at the east end of Byron Road; the Uniting Church History Centre is based in the former Church of Christ building on East Avenue. The Clarence Park Community Centre is located in the Institute Building and surrounding buildings on the corner of East Avenue and Canterbury Terrace; the centre includes a childcare facility and a men's shed. Black Forest is serviced by South Road, to a lesser degree by East Avenue. Black Forest is serviced by three tram stops, two train stations and buses on East Avenue and South Road. All services are run by the Adelaide Metro.
List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Unley". Official website. City of Unley. Retrieved 14 April 2011
Unley Park, South Australia
Unley Park is a southern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Unley. Its postcode is 5061, it is located on east of the Belair railway line. Access via public transport is from the Unley Park railway station, Millswood railway station and the Unley Road "Go Zone". A feature of the district is leafy Victoria Avenue—Adelaide's wealthiest street, containing many large and luxurious houses built between the two World Wars. Politically, the suburb is safe for the Liberals. Unley Park Post Office opened on 2 January 1946 and closed in 1999. Two historic private schools were located on Thornber Street, Unley Park: Kyre College at number 4, Mrs. Thornber's School associated with Tormore House School, at number 39. Both were dissolved early in the 20th Century. Heywood Park
Everard Park, South Australia
Everard Park is a small inner south-western suburb of Adelaide in the City of Unley, once part of the extensive land holdings of the prominent colonist Dr. Charles George Everard, the location of "Marshfield", the home of part of his family, it is the location of Ackland House, built for chaff merchant William Ackland in 1901. The suburb is bounded by Anzac Highway to the northwest, South Road to the west, Norman Terrace and the Glenelg tramline to the southeast, Third and Fourth Avenues to the east. Surrounding suburbs are Forestville, Ashford and Black Forest; the triangular Everard Park Reserve is located in the northern part of the suburb surrounded by Africaine and Hillsley Avenues. Aveo Ackland Park retirement village and Lifecare Parkrose Village are located on Norman Terrace; the suburb is served by Glenelg tram stop 5 to the southeast, stop 6 to the south west, by many bus routes along South Road and Anzac Highway. The art deco Roxy picture theatre building is located on Anzac Highway
Millswood, South Australia
Millswood is an inner-southern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Unley. It is dissected by Goodwood Road, which travels north to the Adelaide city centre from the southern suburb of Pasadena. On the west side of Goodwood Road it is surrounded by the suburbs of Goodwood, Black Forest and Clarence Park. On the east side of Goodwood Road it is surrounded by the suburbs of Goodwood, Hyde Park, Unley Park and Kings Park. At the northern edge of the west side of the suburb, the Adelaide-Goodwood railway line forks with the Seaford railway line going south-west and the Belair railway line going south-east. Within the triangle formed by the fork and Millswood Crescent are the SASMEE Park and the Millswood croquet and lawn tennis clubs; the Goodwood Oval and grandstand, with playground, barbeque facilities, soccer pitch and grandstand, cricket practise nets, eight hard tennis courts, are located to the west of the fork in the railway line. The former Goodwood Orphanage and the surrounding Orphanage Park are located on the south-east corner of Goodwood Road and Mitchell Street and now houses Tabor College Australia.
Millswood had its own railway station on the Belair line on the southern edge of the suburb, but this was closed in the 1990s. It was reopened in 2014. Goodwood Road passes under the railway line in a deep underpass, known as the Goodwood Subway, which floods during heavy rain
White's Rooms known as Adelaide Assembly Room, was a owned function centre which opened in 1856 on King William Street, South Australia. It became Garner's Theatre in 1880 passed through several hands, being known as the Tivoli theatre, Bijou theatre, Star picture theatre and in 1916 the Majestic Theatre and Hotel. George White was a Gloucestershire tailor who emigrated with his family to South Australia on the Royal Admiral, arriving in Adelaide in January 1838, he set up a tailoring business in Hindley Street took up a position with William Pearce in Rundle Street. Pearce quit the business in May 1843, White purchased much of his stock, around 1852 moved to larger premises in King William Street, his Assembly Rooms were opened on 26 June 1856 with a Grand Masonic Ball, were for many years the only place of public entertainment in the city. James Allison, better known for his association with Samuel Lazar and the Theatre Royal, was in 1877 lessee of the rooms. In 1878 Thomas Waterhouse purchased the property from George White's estate, it remained in that family for many decades.
The building at 80–88 King William Street was designed by George Kingston. Its Assembly Room was 41 by 86 feet with a 30-foot-high ceiling, the complex included offices, retail business spaces and an Arbitration Room, where daytime auction sales and other gatherings were held, was co-located with the Clarence Hotel; the place was remodelled several times to keep abreast of the competition, Below the main hall, founded in 1856 and attached to the Clarence Hotel, was Bayston & Aldridge's restaurant, from November 1858 managed by George Aldridge. It was here that John McDouall Stuart was given a grand reception, presided by Sir Dominick Daly, on the evening of 21 January 1863, on his return from crossing the continent from south to north. In 1868 Aldridge left to take over the restaurant associated with the new theatre in Hindley Street, F. W. Lindrum, father of Frederick and Walter Lindrum, took it over, naming it "Shades" or "Adelaide Shades". One of the large underground halls was set up by him as the finest in the city.
In 1880 White's Rooms was remodelled by George Gordon to become Garner's Theatre, for entrepreneur Arthur Garner with Wybert Reeve the theatre manager. It was not successful, the name reverted somewhat to Garner's Rooms, it has been asserted that the change of name was to avoid losing patronage of the Wesleyans, to whom the word "theatre" connoted sin and blasphemy, no matter what the performance may be. In 1884 T. P. Hudson took over the lease, after more redecoration reopened the theatre as The Bijou. Among its users between 1890 and 1899 were the Garrick Club theatre group and the South Australian Literary Societies' Union. Harry Rickards became the next proprietor in 1900, demolishing much of the old structure and renaming it The Tivoli, it closed in August 1913 to reopen as the New Tivoli Theatre in Grote Street. Bud Atkinson promptly took over the lease and in September 1913 it became the Star Theatre, a cinema screening a one-hour programme continuously from 11 am to 10.30 pm daily. It was the start of a chain of movie theatres.
In 1916 the building, the Clarence Hotel, were demolished to become the Majestic Theatre and hotel. In 1928 Sir Benjamin Fuller, John Fuller and Bert Lennon purchased the theatre from the owners A. E. and F. Tolley; the annual full-dress Masonic Ball was the first event held in the Rooms, was held there every succeeding year until 1863. The Bachelors' Balls were held there Adelaide Educational Institution held their prizegivings there each June and December; the Horticultural and Floricultural Society held exhibitions there. It served as a meeting hall for the Rev. Silas Mead for twelve months while the Flinders Street Baptist Church was being built. A public breakfast was tendered to McDouall Stuart in White's Rooms on the return of his party's fourth expedition into the interior; the annual meeting of the Bible Society was held there. The South Australian Institute, whose library was in Neales Buildings, King William-street, held its quarterly soiree in White's Rooms. Visiting artistes Henry Farquharson, Anna Bishop, Charles Lascelles, the Carandini Company, the Beaumont and Wilkinson Concert Company.
Messrs. Horace Poussard and Rene Douay, who composed and performed Dead Heroes, as a tribute to the ill-starred Burke and Wills. Carl Linger, who composed the music to the Song of Australia was a frequent performer, in September 1863 a concert was held in his memory. A concert was given by the Adelaide Philharmonic Society for the benefit of the widow and child of R. B. White, the leader of the Society, with several others, was drowned while crossing the Gulf on a holiday excursion; the soloists were Mesdames Harris and Peryman, Mr. E. H. Hallack, C. Lyons. Fritz Heydecke and R. W. Kohler were popular local instrumentalists, staged regular concerts. Tragedians Boothroyd Fairclough and Walter Montgomery gave recitals there. George White married
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until