James Scott House
The James Scott House at 5635 Stanton Avenue in the Highland Park neighborhood of Pittsburgh, was built in 1900 in the Colonial Revival style. A carriage house was added two years later. James Scott was an executive for U. S. Steel and an immigrant from Scotland; the house was the starting point of an elopement covered by the national press. Scott's daughter Helen eloped on October 10, 1906 with Frederick Fairbanks, son of Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks; the couple were married on October 11 in Steubenville and their story made the front page of the New York Times the next day. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 30, 1997
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017 the population was 1,223,048, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code; the county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning.
All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three elected county commissioners. On January 1, 2000 the Home-Rule Charter went into effect, it replaced the three elected commissioners wi
University of Pittsburgh Press
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh. The university and the press are located in Pennsylvania, in the United States; the Press publishes several series in the humanities and social sciences, including Illuminations—Cultural Formations of the Americas. The Press is known for literary publishing its Pitt Poetry Series, the Agnes Lynch Starrett Poetry Prize, the Drue Heinz Literature Prize; the press publishes the winner of the annual Donald Hall Prize, awarded by the Association of Writers & Writing Programs and the winner of the Cave Canem Poetry Prize. One of its perennial bestselling titles is Thomas Bell's historical novel Out of This Furnace, reissued by the press in 1976; the Press was established in September 1936 by University of Pittsburgh Chancellor John Gabbert Bowman. Paul Mellon committed the majority of the necessary startup funding from the A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust.
Other contributors were the Buhl Foundation, the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, the university itself. The first full-time director of the Press was Agnes Lynch Starrett, followed by Frederick A. Hetzel, Cynthia Miller, Peter Kracht. In recent years the Press was housed on the fifth floor of the Eureka Building on Pitt's main campus in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh, but moved into a new the university's Thomas Boulevard Library Resource Facility in the Point Breeze section of Pittsburgh in July 2013; the University of Pittsburgh Press is a Charter Member of the Association of American University Presses. In 2008, the Press began making out-of-print scholarly books available on-line at the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions collection through the University Library System’s D-Scribe Digital Publishing program. By 2010, the University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions included more than 750 titles, more than 350 out-of-print titles have been reissued in paperback format as Prologue Editions.
The Press is collaborating with the University Library System on a new online scholarly journals program. Most of the journals are open access and published in electronic format only, while a few titles are available in print editions through the Espresso Book Machine in the University Book Center. In 2010, the Press received major funding from the A. W. Mellon Foundation to develop a history of science list and expand its existing philosophy of science list, working in collaboration with the University's History and Philosophy of Science Department and World History Center; this new program will lead to a 50% increase in the number of new titles published by the Press each year. Alberts, Robert C.. Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787-1987. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7; the Pittsburgh Reader: Seventy-Five Years of Books about Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2011. University of Pittsburgh Press website. About the University of Pittsburgh Press.
Retrieved January 10, 2006. University of Pittsburgh Press Homepage
Bloomfield is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is located three miles from the downtown area. Bloomfield is sometimes referred to as Pittsburgh's Little Italy because it was settled by Italians from the Abruzzi region and has been a center of Italian–American population. Pittsburgh architectural historian, Franklin Toker, has said that Bloomfield "is a feast, as rich to the eyes as the homemade tortellini and cannoli in its shop windows are to the stomach." Neighborhood has as attracted young adults and college students as a "hip" neighborhood. Liberty Avenue is the neighborhood's main business thoroughfare; every year Bloomfield hosts Little Italy Days, a large festival celebrating the neighborhood's rich Italian history. Bloomfield is a plateau above the Allegheny River; this last boundary is somewhat disputed – many residents believe that Bloomfield abuts the neighborhood of Friendship at Gross Street. Here the provincial frame rowhouses give way to stand-alone brick Victorian homes, which were built larger on each street heading east.
The City of Pittsburgh, claims that Bloomfield extends east as far as Graham Street. The East Busway is set into Skunk Hollow, a ravine that separates Bloomfield from Polish Hill to the west, North Oakland to the southwest, Shadyside to the south; the neighborhoods are within sight of one another, are connected by the Bloomfield Bridge and the South Millvale Bridge, both of which span this gap. Bloomfield does not appear to have been an independent borough prior to its annexation by the City of Pittsburgh in 1868; the land here was stolen from the native Delaware tribe by Casper Taub, one of the area's earliest European settlers. Taub sold the land to his son-in-law John Conrad Winebiddle, whose descendants divided it into lots and sold it for development beginning around the time of the 1868 annexation; the community most was named for the abundant blooming flowers near the original town site. In the decades following 1868, Bloomfield was settled by German Catholic immigrants, who in 1886 built St. Joseph's Church.
Beginning around 1900, Italians from five towns in the Abruzzi region settled here, forming Immaculate Conception Parish in 1905. Descendants from both groups, with ethnic Italians outnumbering the Germans, still give the neighborhood its character today. In 2001 the national churches of St. Joseph's and Immaculate Conception were merged to form a single parish. Since the early 21st century, Bloomfield is one of the neighborhoods that has attracted young adults, including those described as creative and "hip." Pittsburgh's affordability and ethnic history, compared to some other cities, have resulted in new residents settling here. The business district is concentrated along Liberty Avenue, with a variety of businesses and services. In addition to the two churches and Western Pennsylvania Hospital, the street has many restaurants and bars, a supermarket and two Italian markets and hair salons and card shops, two barber shops, a cobbler, a vacuum repairman, more. A small park beside the Bloomfield Bridge holds public bocce courts, a playground, a softball field, a skateboarding area, a dek hockey rink.
Many restaurants serve Italian cuisine, although the neighborhood features a noted Polish restaurant. Two Thai and two Chinese restaurants are located on Liberty Avenue. Baltimore Colts' Hall of Fame quarterback, Pittsburgh native Johnny Unitas returned to this neighborhood to play. After being cut by the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1955, Unitas played one season for the semipro Bloomfield Rams on Dean's Field, located under the Bloomfield Bridge; the semipro league has long since folded, the Bloomfield Rams no longer exist. The former Dean's Field was renamed as Officer Paul J. Sciullo Memorial Field, after a policeman killed in duty, it is now part of a public recreational complex. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods The Bulletin, a monthly community newspaper serving Bloomfield Bloomfield Development Corporation Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map The Western Pennsylvania Hospital Bill Toland, "Watch out Portland, Pittsburgh's lookin' hip", Post-Gazette, 15 January 2012 "Inside Izzy's World", Post-Gazette, 31 May 2006 Bloomfield Dek Hockey
United States Census
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce; the first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. The current national census was held in 2010. For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the American Community Survey.
Title 13 of the United States Code governs how its data is handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U. S. C. § 9. Refusing or neglecting to answer the census is punishable by fines of $100, for a property or business agent to fail to provide correct names for the census is punishable by fines of $500, for a business agent to provide false answers for the census is punishable by fines of $10,000, pursuant to 13 U. S. C. § 221-224. The United States Census is a population census, distinct from the U. S. Census of Agriculture, no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau, it is distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions. Decennial U. S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U. S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants; the Census Bureau bases its decision about. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time.
The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted. The Census uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown; this practice is seen by some as controversial. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are excluded from being counted in the census though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U. S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."According to the Census Bureau, "Census Day" has been April 1 since 1930. From 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August, it moved to June in 1830, April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920.
The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U. S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. In 2010 Jaime Grant director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."
Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics. In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census. On March 26, 2018 the U. S. Dept of Commerce announced plans to re-include a citizenship question in the 2020 census questionnaire which has not been included on the long form since 1950 but was part of the short form starting in 1910 until its removal in 2010; the citizenship question will be the same as the one, asked on the yearly American Community Survey. Proponents of including the question claimed it is necessary to gather an accurate statistical count, while opponents claimed it might suppress responses and therefore lead to an inaccurate count. Multiple states have sued the Trump administration arguing that the proposed citizenship question is unconstitutional and will intimidate immigrants, resulting in inaccurate data on minority communities. In January 2019 a federal judge in New York ruled against the proposal.
Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is located in spans the Allegheny River; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses 15 Engine in the Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar section of the city. Lincoln and Lemington were former neighborhoods in the northeastern section of the city. Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar is a predominantly black neighborhood, once a white neighborhood from the early 1920s until the early 1970s. Belmar was a neighborhood atop a steep hill. Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is subdivided at Lemington Ave into two parts, "Upper Lincoln" and "Lower Lincoln". Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar is one of the steepest neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, with Downtown Pittsburgh visible from many parts of Upper Lincoln; the Veterans Hospital and the Shuman Juvenile Detention Center sit off Highland Drive in the northern part of the neighborhood. Larimer borders Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar to the west and is connected by the Lincoln Avenue Bridge and the Larimer Avenue Bridge. Homewood borders Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar to the south and is connected by Upland Street, Apple Avenue off Lincoln Avenue, by Stranahan Avenue from atop Belmar.
Penn Hills lies east of Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar, is reached via Lincoln and Lemington avenues, by Brushton Avenue streaming in from Homewood. Highland Park is separated by Washington Boulevard to the west. Part of the neighborhood extends across the Allegheny. Lincoln–Lemington contains the Waterworks Mall and St. Margaret Hospital, part of the UPMC health system; the section north of the Allegheny River has three borders: Aspinwall to the west, Fox Chapel to the north and O'Hara Township to the east. Its larger counterpart south of the river has five borders, including Penn Hills to the east and the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Homewood North and Homewood West to the south, Larimer to the southwest and Highland Park to the west. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods
Oakland is the academic and healthcare center of Pittsburgh and one of the city's major cultural centers. The neighborhood is home to three universities and hospitals, as well as an abundance of shopping and recreational activities. Oakland is home to the Schenley Farms National Historic District which encompasses two city designated historic districts: the residential Schenley Farms Historic District and the predominantly institutional Oakland Civic Center Historic District, it is home to the locally designated Oakland Square Historic District. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire has Fire Station No. 14 on McKee Place and Fire Station No. 10 on Allequippa Street in Oakland. Oakland is divided into four neighborhoods: North Oakland, West Oakland, Central Oakland, South Oakland; each section has a unique identity, offers its own flavor of venues and housing. Oakland is Pittsburgh's second most populated neighborhood with 22,210 residents, a majority of these residents being students. North Oakland can be loosely defined as the area of Oakland between Neville and Bouquet Streets, encompassing all of Craig Street and running north to Polish Hill.
The Cathedral of Learning, the engineering or midsection of the University of Pittsburgh campus, the Craig Street business district are in North Oakland. RAND's Pittsburgh center is located in North Oakland as well as the long time RIDC business incubator on Henry Street; the Islamic Center of Pittsburgh, the largest mosque in the city, is located in North Oakland. This sector is home to the Schenley Farms Historic District and many mid-rise condominium and apartment buildings. Central Oakland is bordered by Schenley Park, the Boulevard of the Allies, Fifth Avenue, Halket Street. Many students at the University of Pittsburgh who decide to live off-campus reside in this neighborhood. Many of its homes are historic masonry structures dating from the turn of the century; the area is mistakenly called South Oakland. Its Main Business District runs along Forbes and Fifth Avenue, contains a diversity of restaurants and financial services; these businesses are organized by the Oakland Business Improvement District.
Smaller business districts in Central Oakland provide additional dining options along Atwood Street and Semple Street. It is the location of the isolated and historic neighborhood of Panther Hollow which runs along Boundary Street in Junction Hollow as well as the Oakland Square Historic District. South Oakland runs along the Monongahela River and forms a triangular shape between the Monongahela River, the Boulevard of the Allies, the western bank of Junction Hollow. Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC and the Pittsburgh Technology Center are major landmarks of this neighborhood; the neighborhood is split between a riverfront flood plain to the southwest and a plateau to the northeast. The plateau is divided into two residential areas which are separated from one another by Bates Street, which runs up a valley from the flood plain to the plateau; the residents of the neighborhood on the north side of Bates Avenue call their neighborhood Oakcliffe. The flood plain was packed with industrial sites such as the Pittsburgh Works Consolidated Gas Co. and the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. but presently, the Pittsburgh Technology Center hosts facilities such as the Entertainment Technology Center of Carnegie Mellon University.
Some residents of Central Oakland think of their neighborhood as being part of South Oakland. However, the border between Central Oakland and South Oakland is further south; the area between Forbes Avenue and Boulevard of the Allies is part of Central Oakland. Articles in some news media have made this error. South Oakland is reputed to be a student neighborhood, but only 36.9% of its population is between the ages of 18 and 24, compared to Central Oakland's figure of 74.1%. The difference is because the area between Forbes Avenue and the Boulevard of the Allies houses many undergraduate students. While it is considered to be in South Oakland, it is the heart of Central Oakland. South Oakland was the childhood home of Andy Warhol, the residence of fellow pop artist Keith Haring. Haring had his first art show while living in Oakland. NFL Hall of Fame Quarterback Dan Marino was born in Oakland, not far from Warhol's home. Dan Marino Field on Frazier Street was named in honor of its native son. Although they were not contemporaries and Marino grew up on the same block with their former houses only a few doors apart.
West Oakland, the smallest of the four districts, is bordered by Fifth Avenue in the south, DeSoto Street in the east, the Birmingham Bridge to the west, Allequippa Street to the north. Carlow University and most of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center can be found there. Although the campus of Carnegie Mellon University and parts of Schenley Park, including Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens and Flagstaff Hill are popularly referred to as being in Oakland, are located with the 15213 zip code, they are part of the adjacent neighborhood of Squirrel Hill North; the border between Oakland and Squirrel Hill runs along Junction Hollow. The name first appeared in 1839 in Harris' Intelligencer; the area got its name from the abundance of oak trees found on the farm of William Eichenbaum, who settled there in 1840. Oakland developed following the Great Fire of 1845 in Downtown Pittsburgh, with many people moving out to suburban territory. By 1860, there was considerable commercial development along