Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Saxe-Altenburg was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 1323 square kilometers and a population of 207,000 of whom about one fifth resided in the capital, Altenburg; the territory of the duchy consisted of two non-contiguous territories separated by land belonging to the Principality of Reuss. Its economy was based on agriculture and small industry; the state had a constitutional monarchical form of government with a parliament composed of thirty members chosen by male taxpayers over 25 years of age. The duchy had its origins in the medieval Burgraviate of Altenburg in the Imperial Pleissnerland, a possession of the Wettin Margraves of Meissen since 1243. Upon a partition treaty of 1485, Altenburg fell to Ernst, Elector of Saxony, the progenitor of the Ernestine Wettins. After the Division of Erfurt in 1572 among Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony and his nephews, Altenburg fell to his Duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
When Johann Wilhelm's son and successor Friedrich Wilhelm I died in 1602, the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar passed to his younger brother Johann II. In 1603 Frederick William's eldest son Johann Philipp received the newly created Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg as compensation, it was an Imperial State in its own right, with a vote in the Reichstag, for much of the 17th century until the extinction of its ruling line in 1672 when it was inherited by Ernest I the Pious, the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, who had married the heiress. Saxe-Altenburg thereafter remained part of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg until the extinction of that house in 1825, when Gotha and Altenburg were divided up, with Gotha going to the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Altenburg to the Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, who in exchange gave up Hildburghausen to the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; this family ruled the duchy until the end of the monarchies in the course of the German Revolution of 1918–19. The succeeding Free State of Saxe-Altenburg was incorporated into the new state of Thuringia in 1920.
Saxe-Altenburg had an area of 1,323 km² and a population of 207,000. Its capital was Altenburg; the Saxe-Altenburg line became extinct following the death of Prince George Moritz in 1991. The leadership of the house passed to Michael, head of the genealogically more senior house of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Johann Philipp, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Friedrich Wilhelm II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Friedrich Wilhelm III, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Line extinct, inherited by Saxe-Gotha, thereupon Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Georg, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg Georg Moritz, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Altenburg In 1991 the Saxe-Altenburg line became extinct in the male line, its representation was merged with the one of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Two branches descend from duke Ernest the Pious, the father of the progenitor of the Saxe-Altenburg branch: Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Ernestine duchies Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Saxe-Altenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Saxe-Altenburg at Wikimedia Commons Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Princess Margriet of the Netherlands
Princess Margriet of the Netherlands is the third daughter of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. As an aunt of the reigning monarch, King Willem-Alexander, she is a member of the Dutch Royal House and eighth and last in the line of succession to the throne. Princess Margriet has represented the monarch at official or semi-official events; some of these functions have taken her back to Canada, the country where she was born de facto, to events organised by the Dutch merchant navy of which she is a patron. The Princess was born in Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa to Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, her mother was heir presumptive to Queen Wilhelmina. The Dutch family had been living in Canada since June 1940 after the occupation of the Netherlands by Nazi Germany; the maternity ward of Ottawa Civic Hospital in which Princess Margriet was born was temporarily declared to be extraterritorial by the Canadian government. Making the maternity ward outside of the Canadian domain caused it to be unaffiliated with any jurisdiction and technically international territory.
This was done to ensure that the newborn would derive her citizenship from her mother only, thus making her Dutch, which could have been important if the child had been male, as such, the heir of Princess Juliana. It is a common misconception that the Canadian government declared the maternity ward to be Dutch territory. Since Dutch nationality law is based on the principle of jus sanguinis it was not necessary to make the ward Dutch territory for the Princess to become a Dutch citizen if the parent is Dutch. Since Canada followed the rule of jus soli, it was necessary for Canada to disclaim the territory temporarily so that the child would not become a Canadian citizen. Princess Margriet was named after the marguerite, the flower worn during the war as a symbol of the resistance to Nazi Germany, she was christened at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Ottawa, on 29 June 1943, her godparents included Franklin D. Roosevelt, Queen Mary, Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway, Martine Roell, it was not until August 1945, when the Netherlands had been liberated, that Princess Margriet first set foot on Dutch soil.
Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard returned to Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, where the family had lived before the war. It was while she was studying at Leiden University that Princess Margriet met her future husband, Pieter van Vollenhoven, their engagement was announced on 10 March 1965, they were married on 10 January 1967 in The Hague, in the St. James Church, it was decreed that any children from the marriage would be styled HH Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven, titles that would not be held by their descendants. Together, they had four children: Princes Maurits, Pieter-Christiaan, Floris; the Princess and her husband took up residence in the right wing of Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn. In 1975 the family moved to Het Loo, which they had built on the Palace grounds. Princess Margriet is interested in health care and cultural causes. From 1987 to 2011 she was vice-president of the Dutch Red Cross, who set up the Princess Margriet Fund in her honour, she is a member of the board of the International Federation of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
From 1984 to 2007, Princess Margriet was president of the European Cultural Foundation, who set up the Princess Margriet Award for Cultural Diversity in acknowledgement of her work. She is a member of the honorary board of the International Paralympic Committee. 19 January 1943 – 10 January 1967: Her Royal Highness Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld 10 January 1967 – present: Her Royal Highness Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Mrs Van Vollenhoven Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Royal Silver Wedding Medal of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard, 1962 Royal Wedding Medal 1966 Queen Beatrix Investiture Medal Royal Wedding Medal 2002 King Willem-Alexander Investiture Medal Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Cameroon: Grand Cordon of Order of Merit Chile: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Finland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland France: Grand Cross of the Order of National Merit Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Ivory Coast: Grand Cross of the Order of the Ivory Coast Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown Jordan: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Luxembourg: Commemorative Medal of the marriage of TRH Prince Henri and Princess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg ° Mexico: Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle Nepalese Royal Family: Member 1st Class of the Order of the Three Divine Powers Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olav Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Christ Socialist Republic of Romania: Grand Cross of the Order of 23 August Senegal: Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion Spain: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Suriname: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Yellow Star Sweden: Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Polar Star Venezuela: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Liberator Royal
Danish royal family
The Danish royal family is the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family except Queen Margrethe II hold the title of Prince/Princess of Denmark. Dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness; the Queen is styled Her Majesty. The Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, a branch of the Royal House of Oldenburg; the Queen's children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat, were given the concurrent title Count/Countess of Monpezat by royal decree on 30 April 2008. The Danish royal family enjoys remarkably high approval ratings in Denmark, ranging between 82% and 92%; the Danish royal family includes: The Queen The Crown Prince and Crown Princess Prince Christian Princess Isabella Prince Vincent Princess Josephine Prince Joachim and Princess Marie Prince Nikolai Prince Felix Prince Henrik Princess Athena The Dowager Princess of Sayn-Wittenstein-Berleburg The Queen of the Hellenes Most of the members of the deposed royal family of Greece hold the title of Prince or Princess of Greece and Denmark with the qualification of His or Her Highness, pursuant to the Royal Cabinet Order of 1974 and as agnatic descendants of George I of Greece, who, as the son of the future King Christian IX of Denmark, was a "Prince of Denmark" prior to his accession to the throne of Greece in 1863.
Until 1953 his dynastic male-line descendants remained in Denmark's order succession. However, no Danish act has revoked usage of the princely title for these descendants, neither for those living in 1953, nor for those born subsequently or who have since married into the dynasty. There are three members of the Greek royal family who are not known to bear the title of Prince/ss of Denmark with the qualification of His/Her Highness. Marina, consort of Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark Princess Alexandra, Mrs. Mirzayantz The Duchess of ApuliaThe following, consorts of royal monarchs today, were born with the titles of Prince/Princess of Greece and Denmark although they are not descended from King Constantine and Queen Anne-Marie: Queen Sofia of Spain The Duke of Edinburgh The royal family of Norway descends in the legitimate male line from Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II's great-grandfather. Haakon VII of Norway, born Prince Carl of Denmark as Frederick VIII's younger son, like his uncle, George I of Greece, invited to reign over another nation.
As with the Greek branch's descendants, members of the Norwegian line no longer have succession rights to the Danish crown, but unlike the Greek dynasts they discontinued use of Danish royal titles upon ascending to the Norwegian throne in 1905. The Ducal Family of Schleswig-Holstein descends in the legitimate male line from Christian III of Denmark; as with the Greek branch's descendants, members of the Schleswig-Holstein line no longer have succession rights to the Danish crown, but unlike the Greek dynasts they discontinued use of Danish royal titles upon ascending their foreign throne in 1564. Danish princes who marry without consent of the Danish monarch lose their dynastic rights, including royal title; the ex-dynasts, not being members of the Danish royal family, are usually accorded the hereditary title "Count of Rosenborg". They, their wives, their legitimate male-line descendants are: Count Ingolf and Countess Sussie of Rosenborg Countess Josephine of Rosenborg Countess Camilla of Rosenborg Countess Feodora of Rosenborg Count Ulrik and Countess Judi of Rosenborg Count Philip of Rosenborg Countess Katharina of Rosenborg Countess Charlotte of Rosenborg Count Axel and Countess Jutta of Rosenborg Count Carl Johan of Rosenborg Count Alexander of Rosenborg Countess Julie of Rosenborg Countess Désirée of Rosenborg Count Birger and Countess Lynne of Rosenborg Countess Benedikte of Rosenborg Count Carl Johan and Countess Lisa Jeanne of Rosenborg Countess Caroline of Rosenborg Countess Josefine of Rosenborg Countess Désirée of Rosenborg Countess Karin of Rosenborg Count Valdemar of Rosenborg Count Nicolai of Rosenborg Countess M
Duchy of Brunswick
The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick, it was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire, it was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany; these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands became divided between them; the unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II.
Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Albert the Tall 1269–1279. Received the southern half of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Prince of Wolfenbüttel while his brother John became Prince of Lüneburg. Albert's sons first ruled jointly, but in 1291 divided the Wolfenbüttel territory: Henry the Admirable became Prince of Grubenhagen 1291–1322 Albert II the Fat became Prince of Göttingen 1286–1318 William received Wolfenbüttel proper but died in 1292. Wolfenbüttel fell to his brother Albert II. Otto the Mild 1318 -- 1344, son of Albert II, was Prince of Prince of Göttingen. After his death his son Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367. Magnus the Pious became Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1344–1369. Magnus' son Magnus II with the Necklace, Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1369–1373, claimed the Principality of Lüneburg against Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg.
The War of the Lüneburg Succession continued until 1388. Frederick 1373–1400, son of Magnus II, conquered Lüneburg in 1388. Succeeded by his brothers: Henry the Mild, 1400–1408 Bernard, 1409–1428. Returned control of Wolfenbüttel to his nephew, Henry's son. William the Victorious 1428–1432, nephew. Was deprived by his brother: Henry the Peaceful 1432–1473, moved the residence to Wolfenbüttel. William the Victorious 1473–1482, again. William regained control of Wolfenbüttel after his brother's death, left the Principality to his two sons: Frederick III 1482–1484. Imprisoned and deprived of power by his younger brother: William IV 1484–1491. Took control of all of Wolfenbüttel ceded Wolfenbüttel to his sons. Died 1495. Co-rulers, sons of William IV: Eric I 1491–1494. Divided the territory in 1494, taking Calenberg. Henry IV 1491–1514. Sole ruler in Wolfenbüttel from 1494. Henry V 1514–1568. Son of Henry IV. Converted to Lutheranism. Julius 1568–1589. Son of Henry V. Acquired Calenberg in 1584 on the death of his cousin Eric II.
Henry Julius 1589–1613, son. Frederick Ulrich 1613–1634, son. Last of the male descendants of Albert the Tall. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. Wolfenbüttel was awarded to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Augustus 1635–1666 Augustus's sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together: Rudolph Augustus 1666–1704 Anthony Ulrich 1685–1702, 1704–1714. Disputed with Hanover. Deposed 1702–1704 for allying with France in the War of the Spanish Succession. Converted to Catholicism 1709. Anthony Ulrich's sons succeeded him in sequence: Augustus William 1714–1731 Louis Rudolph 1731–1735 Ferdinand Albert March–September 1735. Grandson of Augustus the Younger. Charles I 1735–1780. Son of Ferdinand Albert. Moved the ducal court from Wolfenbüttel to Braunschweig in 1753. Charles William Ferdinand 1780–1806. Son of Charles I. Died in battle at Jena. Frederick William 1806–1807, 1813–1815. Son of Charles William Ferdinand. During the Napoleonic Wars, from 1806 to 1813, France occupied Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Died in battle at Quatre Bras. Frederick William's son Charles became the first Duke of independent Brunswick; the territory of Wolfenbüttel was recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. the Elector of Hanover, but the Wolfenbüttel line retained its independence from Hanover. The Wolfenbüttel principality had for the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia; the Congress turned it into an independent country under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William, was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority. In 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts.
After the German Confederation intervened, Charles was forced to accept those laws. His administration was considered misguided. In the aftermath of the July Revolution in 1830, Charles had to abdicate, his absolutist governing style had alienated the nobil
Burke's Peerage Limited is a British genealogical publisher founded in 1826, when Irish genealogist John Burke began releasing books devoted to the ancestry and heraldry of the peerage, baronetage and landed gentry of the United Kingdom. His first publication, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom, was updated sporadically until 1847, when the company began releasing new editions every year as Burke's Peerage and Knightage. Other books followed, including Burke's Landed Gentry, Burke's Colonial Gentry, Burke's General Armory. In addition to the peerage, Burke's published books on royal families of Europe and Latin America, ruling families of Africa and the Middle East, distinguished families of the United States and historical families of Ireland; the firm was established in 1826 by progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds. His son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms.
After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people. Apart from the Burke family, editors have included Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Alfred Trego Butler, Leslie Gilbert Pine, Peter Townend, Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd. From the start, Burke's works suffered from pomposity and carelessness. Readers may have accepted as a minor eccentricity of style the idolisation of medieval figures who were little more than brigands and the ludicrously reverential tone adopted towards otherwise insignificant people who happened to possess a title or were related to a titled person; the major fault of substance, was the frequent and evident inaccuracy of the articles. Without much knowledge of history or genealogy, one could see improbabilities and inconsistencies both within articles and between articles. Errors in existing articles remained uncorrected between editions and new errors were added in new articles. A minor example can be found as late as 1953, where the article on the Baden-Powell barony contained a statement about the relationship of the first baron to the family of the first Earl Nelson, not supported by the article on the Nelson earldom, because there was no relationship and the statement was untrue.
When such carelessness was shown over recent links, what hope had readers of finding accurate guidance over titles with complicated ascents going back to remote medieval times? Serious scholars have always taken little account of Burke's books, exposing their flaws from time to time. In 1877, the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman attacked in language of unexampled scorn, the fables and the fictions in Burke's, where he could find a pedigree, purely mythical – if indeed mythical is not too respectable a name for what must be in many cases the work of deliberate invention …. All but invariably false; as a rule, it is not only false, but impossible … not fictions, but that kind of fiction which is, in its beginning and interested falsehood. The reputation of the imprint in informed circles was well established by 1893 when Oscar Wilde in the play A Woman of No Importance wrote: "You should study the Peerage, Gerald, it is the one book a young man about town should know and it is the best thing in fiction the English have done!"
Such barbs had little effect for, writing in 1901, the historian J. Horace Round aimed many blows at the old fables and grotesquely impossible tales still being perpetuated by Burke's. More recent editions have been more scrupulously checked and rewritten for accuracy, notably under the chief editorship, from 1949-59, of L. G. Pine-, sceptical regarding many families' claims to antiquity: - and Hugh Massingberd. Almanach de Gotha Burke’s Landed Gentry Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage European royalty Hereditary peers Life Peers Baronets Burke's Peerage website Burke's Peerage Foundation website College of Arms website Lyon Court website Standing Council of the Baronetage website 1st edition - 1826 - Hathitrust 3rd edition - 1830 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Google Books 4th edition - corrected to 1833 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 5th edition - 1838 - Google Books 6th edition - 1839 - Hathitrust 7th edition - 1843 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 10th edition - 1848 - Hathitrust 12th edition - 1850 - Hathitrust 20th edition - 1858 - Hathitrust 22nd edition - 1860 - Hathitrust 23rd edition - 1861 - Hathitrust 27th edition - 1865 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 37th edition - 1875 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 48th edition - 1886 - University of Dusseldorf 53rd edition - 1891 - University of Dusseldorf 76th edition - 1914 - Archive.org 99th edition - 1949 - Archive.org 102nd edition - 1959 - Hathitrust