Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai is a volcano located about 30 kilometres south-southeast of Fonuafoʻou, an island, part of the nation of Tonga. The volcano is part of the active Tonga-Kermadec Islands volcanic arc, a subduction zone extending from New Zealand north-northeast to Fiji; the volcano lies about 100 kilometres above a active seismic zone. Magma is formed as two tectonic plates melt together under high heat and pressure, the superheated rock is forced to the surface; the island arc is formed at the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Indo-Australian Plate. The volcano itself is a submarine volcano that breached sea level in 2009 due to a volcanic eruption and lies underwater between the two islands, which are the remnants of the western and northern rim of the volcano's caldera; the two islands are about 1.6 kilometres apart, each is about 2 km long and composed of andesite. Hunga Tonga reaches an elevation of 149 metres, while Hunga Haʻapai comes to only 128 metres above sea level.
Neither island is large: Hunga Tonga is 390,000 square metres and Hunga Haʻapai is 650,000 square metres in size. Neither island is developed due to a lack of an acceptable anchorage, although there are large guano deposits on each island. Submarine eruptions at a rocky shoal - about 3.2 kilometres southeast of Hunga Haʻapai and 3 kilometres south of Hunga Tonga - were reported in 1912 and 1937. Another eruption occurred from a fissure 1 kilometre south-southeast of Hunga Haʻapai in 1988; the islands figure in Tongan mythology as one of the few islands which were not overfished, hence thrown down from heaven to land on earth. Tongans called them the islands which "jump back and forth"; the first Europeans to see the islands were those with the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire in 1616, although the British explorer Captain James Cook visited them several times in 1777 and learned their Tongan names. The current extent of the island includes both the former islands of Hunga Haʻapai.
The initial eruption linked the emerged land with the more westerly Hunga Haʻapai. Hunga Tonga, in the northeast, has since become attached via a tombolo, further sandy deposits have built up at the southern end of the connection with Hunga Haʻapai; the caldera itself has eroded in the south allowing an opening of the crater to the ocean in the southeast. This has become forming a lagoon, it was believed that the entire island would be eroded but scientists now believe that the process may take decades. On March 16, 2009, a submarine eruption near Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai began spewing steam, smoke and ash thousands of feet into the sky above the ocean. By March 21, Tonga's chief geologist, Kelepi Mafi, reported lava and ash issuing from two vents—one on the uninhabited island Hunga Haʻapai and another about 100 metres offshore; the eruption had filled the gap between the two vents, creating new land surface that measured hundreds of square metres. The eruption devastated Hunga Haʻapai, covering it in black ash and stripping it of vegetation and fauna.
The volcanic eruption drew worldwide attention. The volcano was featured in a segment of the television program Angry Planet in 2009. In November and December 2014, volcanic activity at volcanoes and a series of earthquakes occurred north of Tonga for several weeks, indicating renewed volcanic activity in the area. A new eruption began at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai on December 19, 2014. Local fishermen reported a tall white steam plume rising from the ocean over the undersea volcanic mount. Satellite images taken on December 29 showed the eruption continuing, with a smoke and ash plume rising from the site, discolored seawater; the eruption continued into 2015, with a tall ash cloud rising 3 kilometres into the sky on January 6, 2015. The eruption entered a new stage on January 11, 2015, when the volcano began sending ash plumes as high as 9 kilometres into the sky. An Air New Zealand flight on January 12 had to be diverted to Samoa, while a number of other flights between New Zealand and Tonga were cancelled.
An ash plume reached 4.5 kilometres on January 13, the large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus released underwater produced a sudden increase in the growth of algae and causing a red tide. Officials identified two vents, one on Hunga Haʻapai and another about 100 metres offshore and underwater. Large rocks and wet, dense ash were being ejected up to 400 metres into the air. By January 16, a new island had been formed by the explosion. Tongan officials estimated the new island to be 1 kilometre wide, 2 kilometres long, 100 metres high, although geologists said the new island would exist only a few months until ocean waves wore it down. Ash and acid rain were falling in an area about 10 kilometres from the new island, Hunga Tonga and Hunga Haʻapai had both been denuded of vegetation. Despite the volcano's ongoing eruption, spewing a steam cloud 1 kilometre into the air, international flights to Tonga resumed on January 16, as volcano and aviation experts deemed the eruption no longer a threat to airliners.
Geologists from Tonga and New Zealand who visited the volcano on January 19 said the eruption had quieted in the last 24 hours. They noted that nearly all the eruption was now coming from the vent on the new
Tofua Caldera is the summit caldera of a steep-sided composite cone that forms Tofua Island in Tonga. Tofua Island is in Tonga's Ha'apai island group. Pre-caldera activity is recorded by a sequence of pyroclastic deposits and lavas constituting the older cone, followed on the northern part of the island by froth lavas or welded and unwelded ignimbrite. Following the caldera collapse, lavas were erupted from the northern part of the island and the caldera-rim fissure zone and lavas from the caldera-wall fissure zones and lavas from intracaldera cones, recent pyroclastic fall deposits on the outer cone. Eruptive products are basaltic andesites and andesites, plus occasional dacite flows within the older cone. A postcaldera cone with fumarolic activity is in the northern part of the caldera. Most historical eruptions have been small explosions from Lofia cone along the northern caldera rim; the eruptions of 1958-59 caused most of the islanders to evacuate for a year or more. Tofua is visited by fifty men from Kotu Island for 2 weeks each year.
They are there to grow kava for export to Tongatapu. This gives the island an average yearly population of 2; the Mutiny on the Bounty took place about 30 nautical miles from Tofua. Captain William Bligh navigated the overcrowded 23-foot open launch on an epic 41-day voyage first to Tofua and to Timor equipped only with a sextant and a pocket watch — no charts or compass, he recorded the distance as 3,618 nautical miles. He passed through the difficult Torres Strait along the way and landed on June 14; the only casualty of his voyage was a crewman named John Norton, stoned to death by the natives of Tofua, the first island they tried to land on. At Tofua and eighteen loyalists sought refuge in a cave to augment their meager provisions. In the March 1968 issue of the National Geographic Magazine, Luis Marden claimed to have found this cave and the grave of John Norton. Both findings were disproved by Bengt Danielsson in the June 1985 issue of the Pacific Islands Monthly. Danielsson identified Bligh's cave as lying on the sheltered northwest coast, where Bligh identified it.
Additionally, Danielsson thought it unlikely that the Tofuans would have allotted any grave site to Norton, or that the grave, if allotted, would have been preserved for two centuries. In May 1943, a lifeboat containing 23 survivors from the Liberty ship SS Phoebe A. Hearst, which sank after being torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I19 on 30 April 1943, landed; the crew survived on shellfish and coconuts until spotted by a Lockheed Hudson patrol aircraft of the Royal New Zealand Air Force and were picked up the following day by the YMS-1 class minesweeper YMS-89 of the US Navy and taken to Tongatapu. In the early 1970s a group of eight Tongan fishermen were shipwrecked on Ata island and survived for 18 months before being rescued by an Australian millionaire who, upon visiting the island out of curiosity, came upon the naked bearded men when scanning the island's coast through his binoculars, it took the men eight months to create fire and the flame was maintained through wind and gale for the subsequent 10 months with each taking shifts to protect it.
Before making fire they lived on coconuts and raw seafood. After being documented by ABC news in America the story faded away. E. W. Gifford, recording Tongan myths and tales in the 1920s, documented this explanation for Tofua's caldera and the creation of Kao Island to the north: "Three deities from Samoa, Tuvuvata and Faingaa, conspired to steal Tofua. So they came and tore up the high mountain by its roots and its place was taken by a large lake; this enraged the Tongan gods much and one of them, essayed to stop the thieves. He stood on the island of bent over so as to show his anus, it shone so brilliantly that the Samoan deities were struck with fear, thinking that the sun was rising and that their dastardly works was about to be revealed. Hence, they fled to Samoa; the mountain became the island of Kao." List of volcanoes in Tonga United States Geological Survey Pitcairn Islands Study Center Bauer, G. R.. The geology of Tofua Island, Tonga. Pacific Science, 24, 333-350. Tonga Visitors Bureau
The tooth-billed pigeon known as the manumea, is a large pigeon found only in Samoa. It is the only living species of genus Didunculus. A related extinct species, the Tongan tooth-billed pigeon, is only known from subfossil remains in several archeological sites in Tonga; the tooth-billed pigeon is the national bird of Samoa and featured on the 20 tālā bills and the 50 sene pieces of the 2008/2011 series. The tooth-billed pigeon is a medium-sized 31 cm long, dark pigeon with reddish feet and red bare skin around the eye; the underparts and neck are greyish with a slight blue-green iridescence, the tail, wings-coverts and tertials are rufous chestnut, while the remaining remiges are blackish. It has a large and hooked bright red bill with tooth-like projections on the lower mandible. Both sexes are similar, but the juvenile is duller with a browner head, with a black bill with only the base a pale orange; the species was found in October or November 1839, by the United States' Exploring Expedition under Commander Wilkes.
The discovery of the bird was announced by Hugh Edwin Strickland in September 1844 as being among the rarities obtained by Mr. Titian Peale, the naturalist of the expedition; the formal description was made by William Jardine, under the name of Gnathodon strigirostris, although that genus name was in use for a mollusc. It has no close living relative, but it has been shown to be genetically close to the dodo, the genus name Didunculus means "little dodo"; the English name of dodlet was suggested by Sir Richard Owen. The jaw and tongue structure, the superficially parrotlike bill have suggested a relationship to the parrots, but these features have arisen from its specialised diet rather than any real relationship; the following cladogram, from Shapiro and colleagues, shows the tooth-billed pigeon's closest relationships within Columbidae, a clade consisting of ground-dwelling island endemics. A similar cladogram was published in 2007, differing only in the inverted placement of Goura and Dicunculus, as well as in the inclusion of the pheasant pigeon and the thick-billed ground pigeon at the base of the clade.
The tooth-billed pigeon is confined to undisturbed forests of Samoa in the Pacific. Natural habitats for the tooth-billed pigeon in Samoa include the Central Savai'i Rainforest, Tafua Preserve, Fagaloa Bay – Uafato Tiavea Conservation Zone on Upolu Island, Nu'ulua island. Little is known about the ecology and biology of the species but it is believed to feeds on the fruits of Dysoxylum, a tree in the mahogany family. Manuscripts from the 1800s suggest; however the location of nests is still unconfirmed. Because of ongoing habitat loss, limited range, small population size and occasional cyclones as well as the impact of introduced species such as pigs, dogs and cats, the tooth-billed pigeon is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Surveys suggest numbers are critical and that 70 to 380 individuals survive in the wild, there is no captive population. No juveniles had been sighted during any recent surveys until the 2013 sighting of a single juvenile in the lowlands of Savaii during a survey of the Samoan Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment.
It is likely that chick mortality is high and the observed population are an aged population of adult birds. Actions to save this species will require conservation education to reduce hunting risk, knowledge of the biology of the population and the reasons behind the current decline. Population control for rats and cats is to be critical, as is continuing deforestation and disappearance of old-growth forests. BirdLife Species Factsheet Extinction warning: racing to save the little dodo from its cousin's fate Samoan birds
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, transcendent or sacred spheres. "End of the world" scenarios refer to the end of human history in religious contexts. The history of the world is understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without implying participation of every part of the world; the world population is the sum of all human populations at any time. Terms such as "world championship", "gross world product", "world flags" imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states; the English word world comes from the Old English weorold, worold, a compound of wer "man" and eld "age," which thus means "Age of Man."
The Old English is a reflex of the Common Germanic *wira-alđiz reflected in Old Saxon werold, Old Dutch werilt, Old High German weralt, Old Frisian warld and Old Norse verǫld. The corresponding word in Latin is mundus "clean, elegant", itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos "orderly arrangement." While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a "domain of Man" as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation as an act of establishing order out of chaos. "World" distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, world history is a field of history that examines events from a global perspective. Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects. "World" was classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: "The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, all other naturall thinges contained in them."
The earth was described as "the center of the world". The term can be used attributively, to mean "global", or "relating to the whole world", forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts. By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body when it is thought of as inhabited in the context of science fiction or futurology. World, in its original sense, when qualified, can refer to a particular domain of human experience; the world of work describes paid work and the pursuit of a career, in all its social aspects, to distinguish it from home life and academic study. The fashion world describes the environment of the designers, fashion houses and consumers that make up the fashion industry. Historically, the New World vs. the Old World, referring to the parts of the world colonized in the wake of the age of discovery. Now used in zoology and botany, as in New World monkey. In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up the physical universe.
In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense. While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate; the question of what the world is has by no means been settled. The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world is mistaken, that the reality of the world is'One Being': an unchanging, indestructible whole. In his Allegory of the Cave, Plato distinguishes between forms and ideas and imagines two distinct worlds: the sensible world and the intelligible world. In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy of history, the expression Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht is used to assert the view that History is what judges men, their actions and their opinions. Science is born from the desire to transform the World in relation to Man.
The World as Will and Representation is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation, he believed, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body. Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, suggest the range of available opinion. "The world is everything, the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1921. This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism, with its assumption that there is one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them. Martin Heidegger, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, notwithstanding t
Samoa the Independent State of Samoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia; the Lapita people settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed Samoan cultural identity. Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions; the country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976; the entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. New Zealand scientists have dated remains in Samoa to about 2900 years ago; these were found at a Lapita site at Mulifanua and the findings were published in 1974. The origins of the Samoans are studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing.
Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa and Tonga, the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included Queen Salamasina. Nafanua was a famous woman warrior, deified in ancient Samoan religion. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa; the Salem brig Roscoe, in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, the Maro of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa.
The whalers came for fresh drinking water and provisions, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people." The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa.
Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties; the Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict; the Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia.
Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. The eastern island-group was known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received termination of German rights in Tonga, all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, territorial alignments in West Africa; the German Empire governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. Wilhelm Solf was appointed the colony's first governor. In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands; the German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands." Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu
Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra