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In Greek mythology, Hilaera was a Messenian princess. Hilaera was daughter of Inachus, she and her sister Phoebe are referred to as Leucippides. In another account, they were the daughters of Apollo. Hilaera bore him a son, named either Anogon or Anaxis. Hilaera and Phoebe were priestesses of Artemis and Athena, betrothed to Lynceus and Idas, the sons of Aphareus. Castor and Pollux carried them off; when Idas and Lynceus tried to rescue their brides-to-be they were both slain, but Castor himself fell. Pollux persuaded Zeus to allow him to share his immortality with his brother. Hilaera and Phoebe are both portrayed in The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus painting. Media related to Phoebe and Hilaeira at Wikimedia Commons

Synod of Verona

The Synod of Verona was held November 1184 under the auspices of Pope Lucius III and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. The meeting was to address numerous issues; some of these were the dispute over claims between empire and papacy in central Italy, the proprietary concerns of the bishopric of Gurk, plans for a crusade to the Holy Land, a dispute over the investiture of the rival Archbishops of Trier, Folmar of Karden and Rudolf of Wied, the condemnation of heresy. It addressed the issue of marriage in response to the condemnation of marriage by the Cathars listing it as a sacrament. Though Lucius and Frederick were able to agree on Gurk, a new crusade and heresy issues, the remaining issues were left unsettled; the most significant event of the synod was the declaration of the papal bull Ad abolendam and the joint condemnation of Arnoldists, Humiliati, Patarenes and Waldensians as heretics. The Waldensians were charged for being in rebellion since they continued to preach despite being forbidden from doing so.

The synod identified this group as part of the Humiliati or "Poor Men of Lyons" and put them in the same category as the Cathari and Patarenes, anathematizing them in the process. A decree was included that detailed a system of punishment for heretics. Robinson, I. S.. The Papacy. Cambridge University Press. Lambert, Malcolm. Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from Bogomil to Hus. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. Freed, John B.. Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth. Yale University Press. Morris, Colin; the Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250. Oxford University Press; the Inquisition

Worm's Eye View

Worm's Eye View is a 1951 British Technicolor comedy film directed by Jack Raymond and starring Ronald Shiner as Sam Porter and Diana Dors as Thelma. Based on the successful play of the same name by R. F. Delderfield, it was produced by Byron Film; the film is set in a family home during World War II. Their bitter landlady is not pleased by five fighters from the Royal Air Force who are staying there and she re-directs unjustly her frustrations against the family. Part of the film appears in Shiner. Ronald Shiner as Sam Porter Garry Marsh as Pop Brownlow Diana Dors as Thelma John Blythe as Duke Bruce Seton as Squadron Leader Briarly Digby Wolfe as Corporal Mark Trelawney Eric Davies as Taffy Everley Gregg as Mrs. Bounty Christina Forrest as Bella Bounty Jonathan Field as Sydney William Percy as Mr Bounty TV Guide wrote, "some mild amusement is to be found here in the dialogue, though all in all this is nothing special. British filmgoers thought otherwise, making both the film and Shiner big successes."Worm's Eye View was the sixth most popular film at the British box office in 1951.

Worm's Eye View at AllMovie Worm's Eye View at the British Film Institute's Film and TV Database Worm's Eye View on IMDb

Sirtuin 2

NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SIRT2 gene. SIRT2 is an NAD+ -dependent deacetylase. Studies of this protein have been divergent, highlighting the dependence of pleiotropic effects of SIRT2 on cellular context; the natural polyphenol resveratrol is known to exert opposite actions on neural cells according to their normal or cancerous status. Similar to other sirtuin family members, SIRT2 displays a ubiquitous distribution. SIRT2 is expressed in a wide range of tissues and organs and has been detected in metabolically relevant tissues, including the brain, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of mice. Of note, SIRT2 expression is much higher in the brain than all other organs studied in the cortex, striatum and spinal cord. Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory proteins with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Cytosolic functions of SIRT2 include the regulation of microtubule acetylation, control of myelination in the central and peripheral nervous system and gluconeogenesis.

There is growing evidence for additional functions of SIRT2 in the nucleus. During the G2/M transition, nuclear SIRT2 is responsible for global deacetylation of H4K16, facilitating H4K20 methylation and subsequent chromatin compaction. In response to DNA damage, SIRT2 was found to deacetylate H3K56 in vivo. SIRT2 negatively regulates the acetyltransferase activity of the transcriptional co-activator p300 via deacetylation of an automodification loop within its catalytic domain. Human SIRT2 gene has 18 exons resides on chromosome 19 at q13. For SIRT2, four different human splice variants are deposited in the GenBank sequence database. SIRT2 gene encodes a member of the sirtuin family of homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. Members of the sirtuin family are characterized by a sirtuin core domain and grouped into four classes; the protein encoded by this gene is included in class I of the sirtuin family. Several transcript variants are resulted from alternative splicing of this gene. Only transcript variants 1 and 2 have confirmed protein products of physiological relevance.

A leucine-rich nuclear export signal within the N-terminal region of these two isoforms is identified. Since deletion of the NES led to nucleocytoplasmic distribution, it is suggested to mediate their cytosolic localization. Benzamide compound # 64 -2-Pentyl-6-chloro,8-bromo-chroman-4-one: IC50 of 1.5 μM selective over SIRT2 and SIRT3 3′-Phenethyloxy-2-anilinobenzamide: IC50 of 0.57 μM The functions of human sirtuins have not yet been determined. Yeast sirtuin proteins are known to regulate epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNA. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Sirt2tm1aWtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty five tests were carried out on homozygous mutant adult mice, however no significant abnormalities were observed.

SIRT2 suppresses inflammatory responses in mice through p65 deacetylation and inhibition of NF-κB activity. SIRT2 is responsible for the deacetylation and activation of G6PD, stimulating pentose phosphate pathway to supply cytosolic NADPH to counteract oxidative damage and protect mouse erythrocytes. Several studies in cell and invertebrate models of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease suggested potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition, in striking contrast with other sirtuin family members. In addition, recent evidence shows that inhibition of SIRT2 protects against MPTP-induced neuronal loss in vivo. Several SIRT2 deacetylation targets play important roles in metabolic homeostasis. SIRT2 thus may protect against insulin resistance. SIRT2 sensitizes cells to the action of insulin by physically interacting with and activating Akt and downstream targets. SIRT2 mediates mitochondrial biogenesis by deacetylating PGC-1α, upregulates antioxidant enzyme expression by deacetylating FOXO3a, thereby reduces ROS levels.

Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16, thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. During the cell cycle, SIRT2 associates with several mitotic structures including the centrosome, mitotic spindle, midbody to ensure normal cell division. Cells with SIRT2 overexpression exhibit marked prolongation of the cell cycle. Mounting evidence implies a role for SIRT2 in tumorigenesis. SIRT2 may promote tumor growth in a context-dependent manner. SIRT2 has been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor by preventing chromosomal instability during mitosis. SIRT2-specific inhibitors exhibits broad anticancer activity. SIRT2 has been shown to interact with: α-tubulin, TUG, β-catenin, PGAM2, TIAM1, ApoE4, p53, PEPCK, FOXO1, p300, 14-3-3 protein, G6PD, CBP. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q8IXJ6 at the PDBe-KB

French battleship Bretagne

Bretagne was the lead ship of her class of three dreadnought battleships built in the 1910s for the French Navy. Bretagne entered service in February 1916, after the start of World War I, she spent the bulk of her nearly 25-year-long career in the Mediterranean Squadron and sometimes served as its flagship. During World War I she provided cover for the Otranto Barrage that blockaded the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the Adriatic Sea, but saw no action; the ship was modernised in the interwar period, when she was on active duty, conducted normal peacetime cruises and training manoevres in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. After World War II broke out in September 1939, Bretagne escorted troop convoys and was deployed to the Atlantic in search of German blockade runners and commerce raiders. Germany invaded France on 10 May 1940 and the French surrendered only six weeks at which time the battleship was stationed in Mers-el-Kébir, French Algeria. Fearful that the Germans would seize the French Navy, the British attacked the ships there on 3 July 1940 after the French refused to surrender or demilitarise the fleet.

Her wreck was broken up for scrap. The Bretagne class of dreadnought battleships was designed as an improved version of the preceding Courbet class with a more powerful armament, but the limited size of French drydocks forced the turrets to be closer to the ends of the ships, adversely affecting their seakeeping abilities; the ships were 166 metres long overall, had a beam of 27 m and a mean draught of 9.1 m. They displaced 23,936 tonnes at 26,600 tonnes at deep load, their crew numbered 34 officers and 1,159 men as a private ship and increased to 42 officers and 1,208 crewmen when serving as a flagship. The ships were powered by two licence-built Parsons steam turbine sets, each driving two propeller shafts, using steam provided by twenty-four Niclausse boilers; the turbines were rated at a total of 28,000 metric horsepower and were designed for a top speed of 21 knots, but none of the ships exceeded 20.6 knots during their sea trials. They carried enough coal and fuel oil to give them a range of 4,700 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots.

The Bretagne class's main battery consisted of ten Canon de 34 cm modèle 1912 guns mounted in five twin-gun turrets, numbered one to five from front to rear. Two were in a superfiring pair forward, one amidships, the last two in a superfiring pair aft; the secondary armament consisted of twenty-two Canon de 138 mm modèle 1910 guns mounted individually in casemates along the length of the hull. She carried a pair of Canon de 47 mm modèle 1902 guns mounted in the forward superstructure in single mounts. Five older 47 mm weapons were installed for sub-calibre training, one on each turret roof, before they entered service; the Bretagnes were armed with a pair of submerged 450 mm torpedo tubes on each broadside and could stow 20–28 mines below decks. Their waterline belt was thickest amidships. Armour plate, 300 mm thick protected the gun turrets and 160 mm plates protected the casemates; the curved armoured deck was 40 mm thick on the 70 mm on the outer slopes. The armour of the conning tower was 266 mm thick.

The ship was named in honour of the province of Brittany. Bretagne was laid down on 22 July 1912 at the Bret Arsenal, launched on 21 April 1913, completed on 29 November 1915, commissioned into the fleet on 10 February 1916. After entering service, she was assigned to the 1st Division of the 1st Battle Squadron and became the flagship of Vice-Admiral Dominique-Marie Gauchet, commander of the squadron, on 10 May, they spent the majority of their time at Corfu to prevent the Austro-Hungarian fleet from attempting to break out of the Adriatic. They supported the Otranto Barrage, a barrier erected to block German and Austro-Hungarian U-boats operating in the Mediterranean; the fleet's presence was intended to intimidate Greece, which had become hostile to the Triple Entente. In the war, men were drawn from her crew for anti-submarine warfare vessels; as the Austro-Hungarians remained in port for the duration of the war, Bretagne saw no action during the conflict. In fact, she did not leave port at all for the entirety of 1917, due to a severe shortage of coal at Corfu.

The 47 mm modèle 1902 guns were replaced by a pair of Canon de 75 mm modèle 1897 guns on anti-aircraft mounts in 1918. Bretagne returned to Toulon after the war's end in November; the ship received a lengthy refit there from 12 June 1919 to 18 October 1920. This included modifications to her gun turrets which increased the elevation of her main armament from 12° to 18° and thus their maximum range; the four forward 138 mm guns were removed and their casemates plated over, because they could only be worked in good weather—in rough seas, water would rush over the guns. The 75 mm AA guns were replaced by four 75 mm modèle 1918 AA guns mounted amidships; the ship's foremast was replaced by a tripod mast and her mainmast was shortened to allow the ship to fly a captive kite balloon. A Vickers fire-control director, equipped with a 3.66-metre rangefinder was installed atop the tripod mast. Flying-off platforms were fitted t

Capable of Honor

Capable of Honor is a 1966 political novel written by Allen Drury. It is the second sequel to Advise and Consent, for which Drury was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1960. Capable of Honor examines the role. Advise and Consent and its sequels had been out of print for 15 years until WordFire Press reissued them in paperback and e-book format in 2014. In the novel, Harley Hudson, the affable but inept Vice President from Advise and Consent, is now president and seeking a term of his own against a backdrop of Soviet-instigated war, as the Soviet Union backs rebel governments in Panama and in the fictitious African republic of Gorotoland. Hudson responds with U. S. troops in both countries, the conflicts soon bog down. The election season soon turns on these foreign policy questions, with the media and others seeking a peace candidate — and finding it in the popular but weak-willed Governor Ted Jason of California. Having announced his candidacy late, Hudson announces an open contest for the Vice Presidential nomination, in which Secretary of State Orrin Knox, who supports Hudson's policies, opposes Jason.

The media, who had supported Jason when it looked like it would be a Knox-Jason race for the Presidential nomination, continues its effort for a Jason victory by any means they can. At the convention in San Francisco, extreme elements of the Left and Right combine to support Jason, there are several violent incidents, including one in which Knox's daughter-in-law is brutally attacked; when it becomes clear that the convention is split down the middle in fights over the platform, Jason challenges Hudson for the Majority Party's nomination. The media, spins merrily away, filtering what the country is allowed to see and hear from San Francisco. Ceil Jason, the Governor's wife, leaves him when her husband's lack of principle and willingness to tolerate the violence sinks in to her. Hudson wins narrowly, Jason expects the Vice Presidential nomination since he commands the support of half the convention. Hudson seems amenable, places Jason on the dais as he makes his acceptance speech. Hudson humiliates Jason by making it clear that he considers Jason a panderer, states he will accept Knox, only Knox, as his running mate.

The convention duly nominates Knox, but half its delegates walk out, to the pleasure of the media commentators, who predict a third-party convention from among the disaffected delegates. "Capable of Honor by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015