Juan Carlos Onganía
Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo was de facto President of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. He rose to power as military dictator after toppling the president Arturo Illia in a coup d'état self-named Revolución Argentina. While preceding military coups in Argentina were aimed at establishing temporary, transitional juntas, the Revolución Argentina headed by Onganía aimed at establishing a new political and social order, opposed both to liberal democracy and to communism, which gave to the Armed Forces of Argentina a leading role in the political and economic operation of the country; the political scientist Guillermo O'Donnell named this type of regime "authoritarian-bureaucratic state", in reference both to the Revolución Argentina, the Brazilian military regime, Augusto Pinochet's regime and Juan María Bordaberry's regime in Uruguay. While Chief of the Army in 1963, Onganía helped crush the 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt by mobilizing troops that seized rebelling Navy bases. However, he demonstrated a disregard for civil authority when he refused to call off his troops after a ceasefire agreement had been approved by President José María Guido and his cabinet, was only convinced to follow orders after a tense meeting.
As military dictator, Onganía suspended political parties and supported a policy of Participacionismo, by which representatives of various interest groups such as industry and agriculture, would form committees to advise the government. However these committees were appointed by the dictator himself. Onganía suspended the right to strike and supported a corporatist economic and social policy, enforced in Cordoba by the appointed governor, Carlos Caballero. Onganía's Minister of Economy, Adálbert Krieger Vasena, decreed a wage freeze and a 40% devaluation, which adversely impacted the state of the Argentine economy, favoring foreign capital. Krieger Vasena suspended collective labour conventions, reformed the Fossil Fuels Law which had established a partial monopoly of the Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales state enterprise and signed a law facilitating the expulsion of tenants in cases of non-payment of rent. Onganía's rule signified an end to university autonomy, achieved by the University Reform of 1918.
A month into his administration, he was responsible for the violation of university autonomy in the so-called La Noche de los Bastones Largos in which he ordered police to invade the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires. Students and professors were arrested. Many were forced to leave the country, beginning a "brain drain" that adversely affects Argentine academia to this day. Onganía ordered repression on all forms of "immoralism", proscribing miniskirts, long hair for boys, all avant-garde artistic movements; this moral campaign favorized the radicalization of the middle classes, who were over-represented in universities. In 1969, Ongania dedicated the country to the Immaculate Heart of Mary; this position was opposed by the other factions in the military, which felt that its influence in government would be diminished. At the end of May 1968, General Julio Alsogaray dissented from Onganía, rumors spread about a possible coup d'état, Alsogaray leading the conservative opposition to Onganía.
At the end of the month, Onganía dismissed the leaders of the Armed Forces: Alejandro Lanusse replaced Julio Alsogaray, Pedro Gnavi replaced Benigno Varela, Jorge Martínez Zuviría replaced Adolfo Alvarez. Ongania's ruthless government was weakened by a popular uprising of workers and students that took place in the whole of the country, in particular in the interior, in cities such as Córdoba in 1969 or Rosario; the dominant military faction, led by General Lanusse, demanded. When he refused, he was toppled by a military junta. Jorge Rafael Videla Argentine military officer who would succeed Ongania. 31 yrs after
Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes was an Argentine lawyer and statesman who served as the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 8 July 1989. Alfonsín was the first democratically elected president after more than seven years of military dictatorship and is considered the "father of modern democracy in Argentina". Born in Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, he began his studies of law at the National University of La Plata and was a graduate of the University of Buenos Aires, he was affiliated with the Radical Civic Union, joining the faction of Ricardo Balbín after the party split. He was elected a deputy in the legislature of the Buenos Aires province in 1958, during the presidency of Arturo Frondizi, a national deputy during the presidency of Arturo Umberto Illia, he opposed both sides of the Dirty War, several times filed a writ of Habeas corpus, requesting the freedom of victims of forced disappearances, during the National Reorganization Process. He denounced the crimes of the military dictatorship of other countries, opposed the actions of both sides in the Falklands War as well.
He became the leader of the UCR after Balbín's death, was the Radical candidate for the presidency in the 1983 elections, which he won. When he became president, he sent a bill to the Congress to revoke the self-amnesty law established by the military, he established the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons to investigate the crimes committed by the military, which led to the Trial of the Juntas and resulted in the sentencing of the heads of the former regime. Discontent within the military led to the mutinies of the Carapintadas, leading Alfonsín to appease them with the full stop law and the law of Due Obedience, he had conflicts with the unions, which were controlled by the opposing Justicialist Party. He resolved the Beagle conflict, increased trade with Brazil, proposed the creation of the Contadora support group to mediate between the United States and the Nicaraguan Contras, he passed the first divorce law of Argentina. He initiated the Austral plan to improve the national economy, but that plan, as well as the Spring plan, failed.
The resulting hyperinflation and riots led to his party's defeat in the 1989 presidential elections, won by Peronist Carlos Menem. He continued as the leader of the UCR, opposed the presidency of Carlos Menem, he initiated the Pact of Olivos with Menem in order to negotiate the terms for the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. Fernando de la Rúa led a faction of the UCR that opposed the pact, became president in 1999. De la Rúa resigned during the December 2001 riots, Alfonsín's faction provided the support needed for the Peronist Eduardo Duhalde to be appointed president by the Congress. Alfonsín died of lung cancer on 31 March 2009, at the age of 82, was given a large state funeral. Raúl Alfonsín was born on 12 March 1927, in the city of Chascomús, 123 km south of Buenos Aires, his parents were Ana María Foulkes. His father was of Spanish and German descent, his mother was the daughter of Welsh immigrant Ricardo Foulkes and Falkland Islander María Elena Ford. Following his elementary schooling, Raúl Alfonsín enrolled at the General San Martín Military Lyceum, graduating after five years as a second lieutenant.
He did not pursue a military career, began studying law instead. He began his studies at the National University of La Plata, completed them at the University of Buenos Aires, graduating at the age of 23, he married María Lorenza Barreneche, whom he met in the 1940s at a masquerade ball, in 1949. They moved to Mendoza, La Plata, returned to Chascomús, they had six sons, of whom only Ricardo Alfonsín would follow a political career. Alfonsín bought a local newspaper, he joined the Radical Civic Union in 1946, as a member of the Intransigent Renewal Movement, a faction of the party that opposed the incorporation of the UCR into the Democratic Union coalition. He was appointed president of the party committee in Chascomús in 1951, was elected to the city council in 1954, he was detained for a brief time, during the reaction of the government of Juan Perón to the bombing of Plaza de Mayo. The Revolución Libertadora ousted Perón from the national government; the UCR broke up into two parties: the Intransigent Radical Civic Union, led by Arturo Frondizi, the People's Radical Civic Union, led by Ricardo Balbín and Crisólogo Larralde.
Alfonsín did not like the split, but opted to follow the UCRP. Alfonsín was elected deputy for the legislature of the Buenos Aires province in 1958, on the UCRP ticket, was reelected in 1962, he moved to capital of the province, during his tenure. President Frondizi was ousted by a military coup on 29 March 1962, which closed the provincial legislature. Alfonsín returned to Chascomús; the UCRP prevailed over the UCRI the following year, leading to the presidency of Arturo Umberto Illia. Alfonsín was elected a national deputy, vice president of the UCRP bloc in the congress. In 1963 he was appointed president of the party committee for the province of Buenos Aires. Illia was deposed by a new military coup in the Argentine Revolution. Alfonsín was detained while trying to hold a political rally in La Plata, a second time when he tried to re-open the UCRP committee, he was forced to resign as deputy in November 1966. He was detained a third time in 1968 after a political rally in La Plata, he wrote opinion articles in newspapers, under the pseudonyms Alfonso Carrido Lura and Serafín Feijó.
The Dirty War began during this time, as many guerrilla groups rejected both the right-wing mi
Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina
The Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, whose full name in Spanish is Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina "Santa María de los Buenos Aires" known as Universidad Católica Argentina, is a university in Argentina with campuses in the cities of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Paraná, Mendoza and Pergamino. The main campus is located in one of the most modern neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, it is considered, according to a 2011 study by the Spanish Ministry of Education, as one of the best private universities in Latin America. It is the sixth in all Latin America, its predecessor, the Catholic University of Buenos Aires, was founded by the Argentine episcopate in 1910, but its degrees, in law, were not recognized by the Argentine government, the institution was closed in 1922. In 1955, Decree 6403 concerning the freedom of education enabled the creation of private universities with the authority to deliver academic qualifications. In 1956, the bishops decided to create the Catholic University of Argentina, formally founded on March 7, 1958.
Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was UCA's Grand Chancellor, by virtue of his office as Primate of Argentina and Metropolitan Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, until his election in 2013 as Pope Francis to succeed Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI. When Mario Aurelio Poli was named Archbishop of Buenos Aires by Pope Francis in 2013, he became Grand Chancellor of the University. In May 2013 Pope Francis named Victor Manuel Fernández, the University's President, as titular archbishop of Tiburnia; the part-time MBA program taught by the university has been accredited by the London-based Association of MBAs since 1998. Like Buenos Aires itself, the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina was founded twice; the foundation of a catholic university was first discussed in the Eucharistic Congress of 1884. At the time, the Argentine Law 1420 of Common Education had dictated public compulsory and secular education in order to guarantee the separation of Church and State and prevent discrimination on the basis of religious adherence.
The idea lost its momentum, but in 1908 the first Congress of Catholic Youths underlined the importance of a well-rounded, integral education and promoted the foundation of a catholic university "in which students are trained to excel in liberal professions and are taught the core of catholic doctine". The Argentine Episcopate decided in favour of this initiative by founding the Catholic University of Buenos Aires in 1910; the bishops proceeded with the conception of this first university regardless of the poor legislation on private institutions of higher education that the country had at the time. The Faculty of Law was its first and only one, the curriculum was based on those of public universities plus compulsory courses on philosophy and history; the aforementioned lack of legislation conspired against the procurement of official accreditation and the Catholic University of Buenos Aires was forced to close its doors in 1922, little over a decade after being founded. The Argentine Episcopate decided to found the university once again in its plenum in 1956 and two years the Catholic University of Argentina was created.
"It was decided to proceed with the foundation of the UCA, adopting the necessary measures to determine its character and structure Therefore, our educational mission incorporates those academic fields that, being the heritage of mankind, intersect in the formation of man." Once the statutes of the institution were promulgated and approved, the university started receiving students to the original faculties: Faculty of Philosophy Faculty of Law and Political Science Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences UCA is considered to be one of the best institutions of higher education in Argentina. QS World University Rankings has ranked UCA 2nd overall and 1st among private institutions in Argentina in 2013; the university is ranked 2nd in terms of employer preference. UCA is labeld as a "Top Business School" with 4 out of 5 Palmes by EdUniversal; the French consulting company ranked UCA's Business School 3rd in the nation. UCA's main campus is located in the financial center of downtown Buenos Aires.
It is just 500 meters away from Casa Rosada and 3 lines of the Buenos Aires Underground intersect less than 600 meters away. Faculty of Arts and Musical Sciences Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Economics Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Medical Sciences Faculty of Social and Communication Sciences Institute of Political Science and International Relations Institute of Social Communication and Advertising Faculty of Law Faculty of Canon Law Faculty of Philosophy and Literature Faculty of Psychology and Educational Psychology Faculty of Theology Institute of Bioethics Institute of Culture and University Extension Institute of Spirituality and Pastoral Action Institute for Marriage and Family Institute for the Integration of Knowledge Faculty "Teresa of Avila" Faculty of Law and Social Sciences Faculty of Economics School of Chemical and Engineering "Fray R. Bacon" Pergamino Regional Center Faculty of Humanities and Education Faculty of Economics "San Francisco" In December 2000, the Office of International Relations was established, renamed to International Relations and Academic Cooperation in 2006, with the aim of promoting the internationalization of all components of the university.
From that time the institution increased its links with institutions abroad, including: Canada: Queen's University, McGill University, Université
Necochea is a port and beach city in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The city is located on the Atlantic coast, along the mouth of the Quequén Grande River, 528 km from Buenos Aires and 120 km southwest of Mar del Plata; the city proper has 90,000 inhabitants per the 2010 census and is the seat of government for Necochea Partido. The neighboring Port of Quequén, located on the eastern bank of the Quequén Grande River, is one of the most important ports in Argentina, the gateway for the agricultural production of the southeast of the Province of Buenos Aires; the area around Necochea was first charted by Jesuit clergymen José Cardiel and Thomas Falkner, who reached the mouth of the Quequén Grande River in 1748. Necochea itself was established as a defensive outpost against Malón raids on October 12, 1881, by National Guard commander Ángel Murga; the new settlement was named in honor of General Mariano Necochea, a military commander during Argentine War of Independence. Founded on a seaside estate owned by Eustoquio Díaz Vélez, jr. the latter's father, General Eustoquio Díaz Vélez, had played an important role during the struggle.
A Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway station was opened in 1894, the Díaz Vélez family established the Villa Díaz Vélez resort in 1902. The neighboring communities were incorporated into the town of Necochea in 1911. A suspension bridge made Necochea accessible to motorists. A tram service operated in the town between 1913 and 1940; the inaugural of Port Quequén in 1922 made the area a leading railhead for the agriculture of Argentina. Necochea became an important domestic tourism destination in Argentina during the 20th century, the number of registered hotel rooms surpassed 50,000 by 2011, its municipal beaches grew to 72 kilometres. The 640 hectare Miguel Lillo Park, established in 1979, is the only public maritime forest nature reserve in Argentina; the park is known for its swan lake, tourist railway, the Regional Historical Museum housed since 1981 in the Spanish Colonial Revival house belonging to the Díaz Vélez estancia. Other local landmarks and attractions include seashore grottoes; some of the most popular recurring events in Necochea are the National Festival of Children's Shows, held since 1962 at Miguel Lillo Park on each Epiphany Day.
The festival, held at the end of January, includes stands representing the immigrant cultures common to much of Argentina, as well as Chileans in the recent years. Under the Köppen climate classification Necochea has a warm oceanic climate with warm to hot summers and mild winters, with rainfall being spread over the year; the somewhat cool summer nights and the rainfall spread prevents it from being part of the various subtropical ranges. January means are around 21 °C and the winter months are around 8 °C, the latter being a more typical oceanic value. Quequén Juan N. Fernández Nicanor Olivera Claraz Ramón Santamarina Balneario Los Angeles Costa Bonita Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Municipality of Necochea - Official website Diario Necochea, daily news from Necochea
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria. Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school; each subject is of one semester duration. If someone passes all 6 subjects in their respective semester, the CBC will take only one year. Potential students of economics, take a 2-year common cycle, the "CBG", comprising 12 subjects; the UBA has no central campus. A centralized Ciudad Universitaria was started in the 1960s, but contains only two schools, with the others at different locations in Buenos Aires.
Access to the university is free of charge including foreigners. However, the postgraduate programs charge tuition fees that can be covered with research scholarships for those students with outstanding academic performance; the university has produced four Nobel Prize laureates, one of the most prolific institutions in the Spanish-speaking world. According to the QS World University Rankings the University of Buenos Aires ranked number 75 in the world, making it the highest ranked university in Ibero-America; the schools that comprise the university are: Ciclo Básico Común Facultad de Psicología Facultad de Ingeniería Facultad de Odontología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Derecho Facultad de Medicina Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Facultad de Veterinaria Facultad de Agronomía Facultad de Ciencias Económicas Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo Of these, only the last two have their buildings located in Ciudad Universitaria, a campus-like location in Núñez, in northern Buenos Aires along the banks of the Río de la Plata.
The others are scattered around the city in buildings of various sizes, with some having more than one building. There are projects to move more schools to Ciudad Universitaria, the first one in order of importance is the School of Psychology, whose building is designed to be placed on this Campus. There are no existing Argentinian or Latin-American university ranking systems, but several international rankings have ranked the University of Buenos Aires; the reputed Academic Ranking of World Universities known as the Shanghai Ranking ranked UBA not only above all other Argentinian universities but all other Latin-American ones. The QS World University Rankings ranks UBA in the 75th place, above all other Spanish or Portuguese speaking universities in its worldwide ranking but relegates it to the 11th place in its Latin-American ranking. Luis Agote, physician Diana Agrest, Argentine born American architect and theorist Viviana Alder, marine microbiologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Teodosio Cesar Brea and founder of Allende & Brea Alejandro Bulgheroni, oil billionaire Juan Cabral, film director Luis Caffarelli, mathematician Alberto Calderón, mathematician Primarosa Chieri, geneticist Julio Cortázar, writer Augusto Claudio Cuello and Charles E. Frosst/Merck Chair in Pharmacology and Therapeutics at McGill University Che Guevara, revolutionary leader and physician Esther Hermitte, anthropologist Salvador Maciá, physician and politician Jose Pedro Montero De Candia, 27th President of Paraguay Luis Moreno-Ocampo, lawyer and Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Patricio Pouchulu and educator Alberto Prebisch, architect Raul Prebisch, economist Teresa Ratto, physician Juan Rosai, Italian-born American surgical pathologist José Luis Murature, foreign minister of Argentina Irene Schloss, plankton biologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Clorindo Testa and painter Richard Tomlinson, former British spy Claudio Vekstein, architect specialized in public architecture Rafael Viñoly, Uruguayan architect Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca, former Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaThe following former students and professors of the university have received the Nobel Prize: Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Peace, 1936.
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Peace, 1980. Bernardo Houssay, Physiology, 1947. Luis Federico Leloir, Chemistry, 1970. César Milstein, Medicine, 1984; the following Presidents of Argentina have earned their degrees at the university: Carlos Pellegrini, lawyer. Luis Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Manuel Quintana, lawyer. Roque Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Victorino de la Plaza, lawyer. Hipólito Yrigoyen (1916–1922 and 1928–1930, Radical Civic U
National Library of the Argentine Republic
The Mariano Moreno National Library of the Argentine Republic is the largest library in Argentina. It is located in the barrio of Recoleta in Buenos Aires; the library is named after Mariano Moreno, one of the ideologists of the May Revolution and its first director. Named the Public Library of Buenos Aires and founded in September 1810 by decree of the first Government Junta of the May Revolution first Government Junta, it became the country’s only national library when it redefined its mission in 1884 and formally changed its name to the National Library of Argentina; the first headquarters, an old 18th century mansion that belonged to the Jesuits, was located on the corner of Moreno Street and Peru Street, within the historic Jesuit site known as the Manzana de Las Luces. Mariano Moreno, the first director, prompted the creation of the Library as part of a package of measures aimed at forging a public alert towards political and civic life. Moreover, the foundation of the Public Library was laid upon the vindication of public education and instruction as a means for building an autonomous country.
The initial collection was interwoven with the struggle for independence and was gathered from the expropriated personal collection of Bishop Orellana as well as the patriotic donations of the Cabildo, the Real Colegio San Carlos, Luis José Chorroarín, Manuel Belgrano. The library’s first chief directors were Dr. Saturnino Segurola and Fray Cayetano Rodriguez, both men of the Church, they were followed by Manuel Moreno. The lineage of directors which followed is still considered a crucial part of the Argentine intellectual and historic fabric: Marcos Sastre, Carlos Tejedor, José Mármol, Vicente Quesada, Manuel Trelles, José Antonio Wilde; when Buenos Aires became the capital of the Republic, the Public Library of Buenos Aires became the National Library and Antonio Wilde was appointed as its director. Wilde's tenure did not last long due to his old death after a sudden illness. Paul Groussac followed his directorship. Groussac created a methodical classification system based on Brunet’s bibliographic model, undertook the cataloging of the manuscript collection, published two remarkable journals: La Biblioteca, being one of the most prestigious literary journals, Los Anales de la Biblioteca.
Another milestone was the opening of the building on Mexico Street in 1901, a building, designed for the National Lottery. This is the reason early visitors unfamiliar with the story of the building were surprised when walking a staircase adorned with lottery-ornaments. During Groussac’s forty-year administration the library’s patrimony was enriched with many important donations including Angel Justiniano Carranza‘s personal collection, 18,600 volumes from the nineteenth-century legal expert Amancio Alcorta, Martín García Merou’s collection - which included valuable papers regarding the foundation of the city of Buenos Aires. Just as the former director Mármol and the future director, Groussac developed blindness, he still operated as the National Library’s director for some years before dying in 1929. In 1931 the known novelist Gustavo Martínez Zuviría was appointed as the Library’s eighteenth director. During Martinez Zuviria’s tenure the modernization of services and the growth of the library collection became his focus.
Among the many purchases and donations received, it is important to highlight his purchase of the Foulché-Delbosc collection. The next director, whose presence is one of Argentina’s key twentieth century intellectual figures, was Jorge Luis Borges, he managed the institution along with the vice director Edmundo José Clemente from 1955 through 1973. Shortly after his appointment he was informed that he needed to give up reading and writing because of his weakened vision. Clemente, his second-in-command and his close friend, was involved in the construction of the new building, located at the site of the Unzué Palace, the official residence where President Juan Perón and his late wife Evita resided. Following a politically motivated demolition of the Unzué Palace in 1958, the grounds were designated for the library's new main building; the brutalist structure was designed in 1961, though construction did not begin until 1971. The new library was inaugurated on April 10, 1992; the successive changes in government leadership and bureaucracies, along with certain indifferences towards cultural matters were factors that delayed the project envisioned by the architectural team of Clorindo Testa, Francisco Bullrich, Alicia Cazzaniga.
The library’s brutalist architectural style stimulates questioning and study by architecture students. At the same time as the creation of the new building, the need for a trained staff in library science led to the founding of the National School of Librarians whose first term started during Borges’ tenure in 1957 at the Mexico Street building; the historian Vicente Sierra was designated to take Borges’ place after the 1973 electoral elections and Sierra remained its director up until the 1976 military coup. From that time until the restoration of democracy in 1983 Clemente and Horacio Hernán Hernández were appointed the library’s directors. During the democracy, the historian Gregorio Weimberg took the leadership, but resigned within a year, he was followed by Dardo Cúneo, another prolific journalist and writer who in turn was followed by José María Castiñeira de Dios in 1989. It was during the Castiñeira de Dios tenure that the new building was inaugurated and the initial transfer of the library materials and records took place.