Hilary of Poitiers
Hilary of Poitiers was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of the Church. He was sometimes referred to as the "Hammer of the Arians" and the "Athanasius of the West." His name comes from the Latin word for cheerful. His optional memorial in the General Roman Calendar is 13 January. In the past, when this date was occupied by the Octave Day of the Epiphany, his feast day was moved to 14 January. Hilary was born at Poitiers either at the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century A. D, his parents were pagans of distinction. He received a good pagan education, he studied on, the Old and New Testament writings, with the result that he abandoned his Neo-Platonism for Christianity, with his wife and his daughter, was baptized and received into the Church. The Christians of Poitiers so respected Hilary that about 350 or 353, they unanimously elected him their bishop. At that time Arianism threatened to overrun the Western Church. One of his first steps was to secure the excommunication, by those of the Gallican hierarchy who still remained orthodox Christians, of Saturninus, the Arian Bishop of Arles, of Ursacius of Singidunum and Valens of Mursa, two of his prominent supporters.
About the same time, Hilary wrote to Emperor Constantius II a remonstrance against the persecutions by which the Arians had sought to crush their opponents. Other Historians refer to this first book to Constantius as "Book Against Valens," of which only fragments are extant, his efforts did not succeed at first, for at the synod of Biterrae, summoned by the emperor in 356 with the professed purpose of settling the longstanding dispute, an imperial rescript banished the new bishop, along with Rhodanus of Toulouse, to Phrygia. Hilary spent nearly four years in exile; the traditional explanation is that Hilary was exiled for refusing to subscribe to the condemnation of Athanasius and the Nicene faith. More several scholars have suggested that political opposition to Constantius and support of the usurper Silvanus may have led to Hilary's exile. While in Phrygia, however, he continued to govern his diocese, as well as writing two of the most important of his contributions to dogmatic and polemical theology: the De synodis or De fide Orientalium, an epistle addressed in 358 to the Semi-Arian bishops in Gaul and Britain, analyzing the views of the Eastern bishops on the Nicene controversy.
In reviewing the professions of faith of the Oriental bishops in the Councils of Ancyra and Sirmium, he sought to show that sometimes the difference between certain doctrines and orthodox beliefs was rather in the words than in the ideas, which led to his counseling the bishops of the West to be more reserved in their condemnation. The De trinitate libri XII, composed in 359 and 360, was the first successful expression in Latin of that Council's theological subtleties elaborated in Greek. Although some members of Hilary's own party thought the first had shown too great a forbearance towards the Arians, Hilary replied to their criticisms in the Apologetica ad reprehensores libri de synodis responsa. Hilary was a firm guardian of the Trinity as taught by the Western church, therefore saw the foreseen Antichrist in those who repudiated the divinity of the Son and thought Him to be but a created Being. "Hence they who deny that Christ is the Son of God must have Antichrist for their Christ," was the way he stated it.
In his classic introduction to the works of Hilary, Watson summarizes Hilary’s points: “They were the forerunners of Antichrist.... They bear themselves not as priests of Antichrist; this is not random abuse, but sober recognition of the fact, stated by St. John, that there are many Antichrists. For these men assume the cloak of piety, pretend to preach the Gospel, with the one object of inducing others to deny Christ, it was the misery and folly of the day that men endeavoured to promote the cause of God by human means and the favour of the world. Hilary asks bishops, who believe in their office, whether the Apostles had secular support when by their preaching they converted the greater part of mankind.... “The Church seeks for secular support, in so doing insults Christ by the implication that His support is insufficient. She in her turn holds out the threat of prison, it was her endurance of these. She craves for favours at the hand of her communicants. Bishops in exile spread the Faith, she boasts.
The time of Antichrist, disguised as an angel of light, has come. The true Christ is hidden from every mind and heart. Antichrist is now obscuring the truth that he may assert falsehood hereafter."Hilary attended several synods during his time in exile, including the council at Seleucia which saw the triumph of the homoion party and the forbidding of all discussion of the divine substance. In 360, Hilary tried unsuccessfully to secure a personal audience with Constantius, as well as to address the council which met at Constantinople in 360; when this council ratified the decisions of Ariminum and Seleucia, Hilary responded with the bitter In Constantium, which attacked the Emperor Constantius as Antichrist and persecutor of orthodox Christians. Hilary's urgent and repeated requests for public debates with his opponent
University of Dublin
The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland. It is the degree awarding body for Trinity College Dublin, it was founded in 1592 when Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College as "the mother of a university", thereby making it Ireland's oldest operating university. It was modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and of Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the University of Dublin is one of the seven ancient universities of Ireland. It is a member of the Irish Universities Association, Universities Ireland, the Coimbra Group; the University of Dublin was modelled on the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge as a collegiate university, Trinity College being named by the Queen as the mater universitatis. The founding Charter conferred a general power on the College to make provision for university functions to be carried out.
So, for example, the Charter while naming the first Provost of the College, the first fellows and the first scholars, in addition named William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley to be the first Chancellor of the University. No other college has been established, Trinity remains the sole constituent college of the university; the project of establishing another college within the University was considered on at least two occasions, but the required finance or endowment was never available. The most recent authoritative statement of the position is in the Universities Act, 1997. In the section relating to interpretation it specifies that:- "3.— In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— "Trinity College” means the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin established by charter dated the 3rd day of March, 1592, shall be held to include the University of Dublin save where the context otherwise requires in accordance with the charters and letters patent relating to Trinity College.
Subsequently, in a remarkable High Court case of 1898, the Provost and Scholars of Trinity were the claimants and the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin were among the defendants, the court held that Trinity College and the University of Dublin "are one body". The judge noted pointedly that "he advisers of Queen Victoria knew how to incorporate a University when they meant to do so" and that the letters patent dealt with "not the incorporation of the University of Dublin but of its Senate merely". Notwithstanding, the statutes of the university and the college grant the university separate corporate legal rights to own property, borrow money, employ staff, enable it to sue and be sued as occurred in the case referred to above. To date the other rights have not been exercised. Current Officers of the University are either unpaid and purely honorary, or have duties relating to the college for which they are paid, but by the College; some of the legal definitions and differences between college and university were discussed in the reform of the University and College in The Charters and Letters Patent Amendment Bill, which became law, but many of the College contributions to this were unclear or not comprehensive because it concerned an internal dispute within College as to outside interference and as misconduct by College Authorities in overseeing voting which led to a visitors enquiry which in turn found problems with the voting procedures and ordered a repeat ballot.
Further contributions on the relationship between College and University can be found in submissions to the Oireachtas on reform of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Irish Oireachtas, since the University elects members to that body), in particular the verbal submission of the Provost. Traditionally, sport clubs use the name "University", rather than "College"; the university is governed by the university senate, chaired by the chancellor or their pro-chancellor. While the Senate was formally constituted by the Letters Patent of 1857 as a body corporate under the name and title of "The Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin", it had existed since soon after the foundation of Trinity College being brought into being by the enabling powers contained in the founding Charter; the Letters Patent had the effect of converting a preexisting non-incorporated body relying on custom and precedent to establish its authority into a corporate body and explicitly established in law. The Letters Patent empowered the university senate by stating:- "It shall be and shall continue to be a body corporate with a common seal, shall have power under the said seal to do all such acts as may be lawful for it to do in conformity with the laws and statutes of the State and with the Charters and Statutes of the College."
The Letters Patent defined the composition of the Senate:- " It shall consist of the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellors, such Doctors and Masters of the University as s
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department and of the Poitou. Poitiers is a major university centre; the centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominantly historical architecture religious architecture and from the Romanesque period. Two major battles took place near the city: in 732, the Battle of Poitiers, in which the Franks commanded by Charles Martel halted the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, in 1356, the Battle of Poitiers, a key victory for the English forces during the Hundred Years' War; this battle's consequences provoked the Jacquerie. The city of Poitiers is strategically situated on the Seuil du Poitou, a shallow gap between the Armorican and the Central Massif; the Seuil du Poitou connects the Aquitaine Basin to the South to the Paris Basin to the North. This area is an important geographic crossroads in Western Europe. Poitiers's primary site sits on a vast promontory between the valleys of the Clain.
The old town occupies the slopes and the summit of a plateau which rises 130 feet above the streams which surround it on three sides. Thus Poitiers benefits from a strong tactical situation; this was an important factor before and throughout the Middle Ages. Inhabitants of Poitiers are referred to as Poitevins or Poitevines, although this denomination can be used for anyone from the Poitou province. One out of three people in Poitiers is under the age of 30 and one out of four residents in Poitiers is a student; the climate in the Poitiers area is mild with mild temperature amplitudes, adequate rainfall throughout the year although with a drying tendency during summer. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this type of climate is "Cfb". Poitiers was founded by the Celtic tribe of the Pictones and was known as the oppidum Lemonum before Roman influence; the name is said to have come from the Celtic word for Lemo. After Roman influence took over, the town became known as Pictavium, or "Pictavis", after the original Pictones inhabitants themselves.
There is a rich history of archeological finds from the Roman era in Poitiers. In fact until 1857 Poitiers hosted the ruins of a vast Roman amphitheatre, larger than that of Nîmes. Remains of Roman baths, built in the 1st century and demolished in the 3rd century, were uncovered in 1877. In 1879 a burial-place and tombs of a number of Christian martyrs were discovered on the heights to the south-east of the town; the names of some of the Christians had been preserved in inscriptions. Not far from these tombs is a huge dolmen, 6.7 metres long, 4.9 metres broad and 2.1 metres high, around which used to be held the great fair of Saint Luke. The Romans built at least three aqueducts; this extensive ensemble of Roman constructions suggests Poitiers was a town of first importance even the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania during the 2nd century. As Christianity was made official and introduced across the Roman Empire during the 3rd and 4th centuries, the first bishop of Poitiers from 350 to 367, Hilary of Poitiers or Saint Hilarius, proceeded to evangelize the town.
Exiled by Constantius II, he risked death to return to Poitiers as Bishop. The first foundations of the Baptistère Saint-Jean can be traced to that era of open Christian evangelization, he was named "Doctor of The Church" by Pope Pius IX. In the 4th century, a thick wall 6m wide and 10m high was built around the town, it was 2.5 km long and stood lower on the defended east side and at the top of the promontory. Around this time, the town began to be known as Poitiers. Fifty years Poitiers fell into the hands of the Arian Visigoths, became one of the principal residences of their kings. Visigoth King Alaric II was defeated by Clovis I at Vouillé, not far from Poitiers, in 507, the town thus came under Frankish dominion. During most of the Early Middle Ages, the town of Poitiers took advantage of its defensive tactical site and of its location, far from the centre of Frankish power; as the seat of an évêché since the 4th century, the town was a centre of some importance and the capital of the Poitou county.
At the height of their power, the Counts of Poitiers governed a large domain, including both Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Poitou. The town was referred to as Poictiers, a name commemorated in warships of the Royal Navy, after the battle of Poitiers; the first decisive victory of a Western European Christian army over a Muslim power, the Battle of Tours, was fought by Charles Martel's men in the vicinity of Poitiers on 10 October 732. For many historians, it was one of the world's pivotal moments. Eleanor of Aquitaine resided in the town, which she embellished and fortified, in 1199 entrusted with communal rights. In 1152 she married the future King Henry II of England in Poitiers Cathedral. During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Poitiers, an English victory, was fought near the town of Poitiers on 19 September 1356. In the war In 1418, under duress, the royal parliament moved from Paris to Poitiers, where it remained in exile until the Plantagenets withdrew from the capital in 1436. During this interval, in 1429 Poitiers was the site of Joan of Arc's formal inquest.
The University of Poitiers was founded in 1431. During and after the Reformation, John Calvin had numerous converts in Poitiers and the town had its share of the violent proceedings which underlined the Wars of Religion throughout France. In 1569 Poitiers was defended by Gui de Daillon, comte du Lude, against G
Candlemas known as the Feast of the Presentation of Our Lord Jesus and the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Christian Holy Day commemorating the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It is based upon the account of the presentation of Jesus in Luke 2:22–40. In accordance with Leviticus 12: a woman was to be presented for purification by sacrifice 33 days after a boy's circumcision, it falls on February 2, traditionally the 40th day of the Christmas–Epiphany season. While it is customary for Christians in some countries to remove their Christmas decorations on Twelfth Night, those in other Christian countries remove them on Candlemas. On Candlemas, many Christians bring their candles to their local church, where they are blessed and used for the rest of the year; the Feast of the Presentation is one of the oldest feasts of the Christian church, celebrated since the 4th century AD in Jerusalem. There are sermons on the Feast by the bishops Methodius of Patara, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory the Theologian, Amphilochius of Iconium, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom.
It is mentioned in the pilgrimage of Egeria, where she confirmed that the celebrations took place in honor of the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. XXVI, but the Feast of the Purification is celebrated here with the greatest honour. On this day there is a procession to the Anastasis. All the priests preach, the bishop, always treating of that passage of the Gospel106 where, on the fortieth day and Mary brought the Lord into the Temple, Simeon and Anna the prophetess, the daughter of Famuhel, saw Him, of the words which they said when they saw the Lord, of the offerings which the parents presented, and when all things have been celebrated in order as is customary, the sacrament is administered, so the people are dismissed. Christmas was, in the West, celebrated on December 25 from at least the year AD 354 when it was fixed by Pope Liberius. Forty days after December 25 is February 2. In the Eastern parts of the Roman Empire, Roman consul Justin established the celebration of the Hypapante on February 2, AD 521.
Pope Gelasius I contributed to the spread of the celebration, but did not invent it. Moreover, the link made by Caesar Baronius between the presentation of Jesus and Lupercalia is inaccurate since Lupercalia was not celebrated in Jerusalem and it was only there that one finds some celebrations of the presentation of Jesus around this date, but it appears that it became important around the time of the Plague of Justinian in 541, before spreading West. The ancient Romans celebrated the Lupercalia in mid-February, in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility and shepherds; the celebration of Feralia occurred at the same time. The Lupercalia have been linked to the presentation of Jesus at the temple by Cardinal Caesar Baronius in the 16th century because of the theme of purification that the two festivals share. In fact, Pope Gelasius I had much earlier written a letter to a senator Andromachus, who wanted to reestablish the Lupercalia for the purpose of purification; however the Gelasian Sacramentary shows a strong Gallican influence and was compiled between AD 628 and AD 731, so it is possible that the addition of the celebration was not due to Pope Gelasius at all.
Moreover, when Gelasius addressed Andromachus, he did not try to use his authority, but contented himself to arguing for example that the Lupercalia would no longer have the effect it once had and was incompatible with Christian ideals. This could be interpreted as evidence. Centuries around the year 1392 or 1400, an image of the Virgin Mary that represented this invocation, was found on the seashore by two Guanche shepherds from the island of Tenerife. After the appearance of the Virgin and its iconographic identification with this biblical event, the festival began to be celebrated with a Marian character in the year 1497, when the conqueror Alonso Fernández de Lugo celebrated the first Candlemas festival dedicated to the Virgin Mary, coinciding with the Feast of Purification on February 2. Before the conquest of Tenerife, the Guanche aborigines celebrated a festivity around the image of the Virgin during the Beñesmen festival in the month of August; this was the harvest party. The feast of the Virgin of Candelaria in the Canary Islands is celebrated in addition to February 2 on August 15, the day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic calendar.
For some historians, the celebrations celebrated in honor of the Virgin during the month of August are a syncretized reminiscence of the ancient feasts of the Beñesmen. Candlemas feast transfers to February 3 if February 2 is a pre-Lenten Sunday, but the blessing of candles still takes place on February 2. Candlemas never falls in Lent, because the earliest possible Ash Wednesday is February 4. In Swedish and Finnish Lutheran Churches, Candlemas is always celebrated on a Sunda
Courts of England and Wales
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales. The United Kingdom does not have a single unified legal system—England and Wales has one system, Scotland another, Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to this rule. Additionally, the Military Court Service has jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom in relation to offences against military law; the Court of Appeal, the High Court, the Crown Court, the County Court, the magistrates' courts are administered by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest appeal court in all cases in England and Wales. Before the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 this role was held by the House of Lords; the Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal for devolution matters, a role held by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Supreme Court has a separate administration from the other courts of England and Wales, its administration is under a Chief Executive, appointed by the President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Senior Courts of England and Wales were created by the Judicature Acts as the "Supreme Court of Judicature", it was renamed the "Supreme Court of England and Wales" in 1981, again to the "Senior Courts of England and Wales" by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. It consists of the following courts: Court of Appeal High Court of Justice Crown CourtThe Senior Courts of England and Wales, along with the Tribunals and other courts, are administered and supported by HM Courts and Tribunals Service; the Court of Appeal deals only with appeals from other tribunals. The Court of Appeal consists of two divisions: the Civil Division hears appeals from the High Court and County Court and certain superior tribunals, while the Criminal Division may only hear appeals from the Crown Court connected with a trial on indictment.
Its decisions are binding on all courts, including itself, apart from the Supreme Court. The High Court of Justice functions both as a civil court of first instance and a criminal and civil appellate court for cases from the subordinate courts, it consists of three divisions: the Chancery and the Family divisions. The divisions of the High Court are not separate courts, but have somewhat separate procedures and practices adapted to their purposes. Although particular kinds of cases will be assigned to each division depending on their subject matter, each division may exercise the jurisdiction of the High Court. However, beginning proceedings in the wrong division may result in a costs penalty; the formation of The Business and Property Courts of England & Wales within the High Court was announced in March 2017, launched in London in July 2017. The courts would in future administer the specialist jurisdictions, administered in the Queen's Bench Division under the names of the Admiralty Court, the Commercial Court, the Technology & Construction Court, under the Chancery Division's lists for Business and Insolvency, Intellectual Property and Trusts and Probate.
The Crown Court is a criminal court of both original and appellate jurisdiction which in addition handles a limited amount of civil business both at first instance and on appeal. It was established by the Courts Act 1971, it replaced the assizes whereby High Court judges would periodically travel around the country hearing cases, quarter sessions which were periodic county courts. The Old Bailey is the unofficial name of London's most famous criminal court, now part of the Crown Court, its official name is the "Central Criminal Court". The Crown Court hears appeals from magistrates' courts; the Crown Court is the only court in England and Wales that has the jurisdiction to try cases on indictment and when exercising such a role it is a superior court in that its judgments cannot be reviewed by the Administrative Court of the Queen’s Bench Division of the High Court. The Crown Court is an inferior court in respect of the other work it undertakes, viz. inter alia, appeals from the magistrates’ courts and other tribunals.
The most common subordinate courts in England and Wales are County Court Family Court Magistrates' courts Youth courts The County Court is a national court with a purely civil jurisdiction, sitting in 92 different towns and cities across England and Wales. As from 22 April 2014 there has been a single County Court for England and Wales where there was a series of courts; the County Court is so named after the ancient sheriff's court held in each county, but it has no connection with it nor indeed was the jurisdiction of the county courts based on counties. A County Court hearing is presided over by either a district or circuit judge and, except in a small minority of cases such as civil actions against the police, the judge sits alone as trier of fact and law without assistance from a jury; the old county courts' divorce and family jurisdiction was passed on 22 April 2014 to the single Family Court. Until unification in 2014, county courts were local courts in the sense that each one has an area over