Man About the House
Man About the House is a British sitcom starring Richard O'Sullivan, Paula Wilcox and Sally Thomsett, with Yootha Joyce and Brian Murphy, broadcast for six series on ITV from 15 August 1973 to 7 April 1976. It was written by Brian Cooke and Johnnie Mortimer; the series was considered daring at the time due to its subject matter of a man sharing a flat with two single women. It was recorded at its Teddington studio in Greater London, it is repeated on ITV3. Two spin-off series were made: George and Mildred and Robin's Nest. In 2004, it came 69th in a poll to find Britain's Best Sitcom; the series was remade in the United States as Three's Company in 1977. A film version was released in 1974. Richard O'Sullivan as Robin Tripp Paula Wilcox as Chrissy Plummer Sally Thomsett as Jo Yootha Joyce as Mildred Roper Brian Murphy as George Roper Doug Fisher as Larry Simmonds Roy Kinnear as Jerry Daphne Oxenford as Mrs Plummer Chrissy and Jo live in a London flat together, they both work for the same firm. The women find a stranger, student chef Robin Tripp, asleep in their bath the morning after the farewell party for their departed flatmate Eleanor.
When he meets the two girls, Robin has been in London two days, having moved from Southampton to attend college. The girls are unimpressed with Gabrielle as a potential replacement for Eleanor, they are taken with Robin for his culinary skills. Learning that Robin has been staying at the YMCA they convince him to move in, on the understanding that it will be on a platonic basis. Chrissy tells the landlord George Roper that Robin is gay to pre-empt objections to the mixed-sex living arrangement. George, in truth a sub-letting landlord placed by the council, is a miserly and unkempt man under the thumb of his domineering and sexually-frustrated wife Mildred. In the second episode, Robin's true sexuality becomes known to Mildred, she takes out her frustrations with George's lack of class and sexual inadequacy by making suggestive remarks to Robin and siding with the tenants against George. Mildred flirts with Robin at every opportunity. Robin acts in a flirtatious manner toward Chrissy and Jo; the girls have no romantic interest and spurn his mild advances, adapt to his presence in the flat.
Chrissy shows attraction to Robin but they never pursue any romantic interaction. Robin's friend Larry, a lovable rogue, appears on a recurring basis through the series. In the third series, he moves into the loft apartment above the trio's apartment and is a frequent source of trouble. Another occasional cast member is dodgy builder Jerry. Jerry is the only supporting character to reappear in Mildred. Robin's brother Norman Tripp appears in the final three episodes of the sixth and final series, starts a romance with Chrissy. Norman Eshley had a previous guest role in the series two years earlier playing a different character, was a member of the main cast of George and Mildred in which he played the Ropers' snobbish neighbour Jeffrey Fourmile. First airing on 15 August 1973, Man About the House ran until 7 April 1976, after 39 episodes in six series. In addition, on Christmas Day, 25 December 1973, a short special aired as part of All-star Comedy Carnival. Written by Johnny Hawksworth and entitled "Up To Date", it was not specially commissioned for the show, rather provided via the Production music company De Wolfe Music and most made available in 1996 by independent record company Studio2Stereo on their CD "The sound gallery – Volume two"..
In 1974, a film version was made. It was the last in a series of big screen adaptations of popular TV shows made by Hammer Films though a George & Mildred film would be made in 1980 by another studio. After the series ended in 1976, two successful spin-off series followed: George and Mildred where the Ropers move to the suburbs. Robin's Nest where Robin gets opens a bistro; the format of Man About the House was sold internationally, it was remade in the United States as Three's Company in 1976. The American Three's Company spawned the same spin-offs as Man About the House had: Three's a Crowd and The Ropers, based upon Robin's Nest and George and Mildred, respectively. All six series have been released on DVD in the UK by Network DVD, as have George and Mildred and Robin's Nest. Region 2 Releases: Series 1 - 2005 Series 2 - 30 January 2006 Series 3 - 20 March 2006 Series 4 - 7 August 2006 Series 5 - 22 January 2007 Series 6 - 14 May 2007 The Complete Series - 24 September 2007 The Complete Series - 26 May 2008Series 1 and 2 have had a US release as part of a 2-disc set by FremantleMedia.
Series 1 and 2 were released in Australia in 2004, but suffered a delay in releasing further series due to contract re-negotiations. Series 3 was released on 16 July 2008, Series 4 on 5 November 2008. Series 5 and 6 are yet to be released. Series 1 was re-released on 2 April 2009, now with the same cover art as the UK edition. Fremantle Media re-released ser
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Crossroads (UK TV series)
Crossroads is a British television soap opera that ran on ITV over two periods – the original 1964 to 1988 run, followed by a short revival from 2001 to 2003. Set in a fictional motel in the Midlands, Crossroads became a byword for cheap production values in the 1970s and early 1980s. Despite this, the series attracted huge audiences during this time, with ratings as high as 15 million viewers, it was created by Hazel Adair and Peter Ling and produced by ATV and by ATV's successor, Central Independent Television until 1988. The series was revived by Carlton Television in 2001; the original premise of Crossroads is based around two feuding sisters, Kitty Jarvis and Meg Richardson. Meg is a wealthy woman who, with the help of her late husband Charles' insurance money and compensation money from the council for them building a motorway through their land, turned her large Georgian house into a motel. "The Crossroads Motel" was located on the outskirts of the small village of King's Oak, on the outskirts of Birmingham.
With Charles, Meg had two children. The elder was a girl named Jill followed by Alexander in 1950. Kitty, on the other hand, is married to the unemployed Dick and is not wealthy. Dick and Kitty purchased a newsagents and tobacconists shop in the nearby town of Heathbury a few years after the show started. Kitty and Dick had a son called Brian, born in 1945; the idea of the sisters feuding was soon dropped. The show had several characters in its early years, they included Meg and Kitty's brother, Andy Fraser, who marries motel secretary Ruth Bailey in 1965, hotel chef Carlos Raphael and his wife Josefina, a waitress along with Marilyn Gates and kitchen assistant Amy Turtle briefly arrested as a suspected Soviet spy, joined the series in 1965 as did postmistress Miss Edith Tatum. Featured was motel handyman and groundsman Philip Winter. Long running character Diane Lawton arrived in 1966. Other additions included former actress, Tish Hope; the most memorable character proved to be the "village idiot" Benny Hawkins, whose trademark was a woolly hat worn all year round.
His fans included British troops serving in the Falklands War in 1982, who nicknamed the Falkland Islanders "Bennies" after the character. Instructed to stop using the name, the troops came up with "Stills" for locals - because they were "still Bennies". Over the years the series dealt with storylines. A single parent working at the motel was hugely controversial in the mid-1960s; this permanent character development was made to accommodate actor Roger Tonge, developing increasing ill health. In the months running up to the character's accident, Tonge had become immobile and was limited in scenes to sitting, lying in bed or standing rigidly still. Rather than lose the character, the accident storyline allowed the actor to use his wheelchair on screen; the series saw black characters appearing - a follow-on from the 1960s BBC soap Compact created by Hazel Adair and Peter Ling. Melanie Harper arrived at the motel in 1970 as Meg's foster daughter. Cleo was given the role by producer Reg Watson after press coverage of racial tensions in the Birmingham area at that time.
In 1978, garage mechanic Joe MacDonald arrived. The year before, an interracial summer romance took place between Cockney garage mechanic Dennis Harper and motel receptionist Meena Chaudri. 1981 saw a controversial storyline about a false accusation of rape. The subject of Down syndrome was raised in 1983 with an insight into the life of Nina Weill, a little girl who, as Nina Paget, was befriended by three of the regular Crossroads characters; the character of Meg Mortimer was axed in 1981 and was thought to have died in a fire that gutted the motel, but turned up alive aboard the QE2, about to sail to a new life overseas. Newspapers reported that two endings were planned for Meg: she would either die in the fire, or disappear for a while and turn up on the QE2. Viewers were surprised to see. Meg returns in 1983 for a reunion with Jill and Adam on their honeymoon in Venice. In 1985, new producer Phillip Bowman was planning to bring the character of Meg Mortimer back into the show as a "permanent occasional."
Plans were well advanced and scripts were written when Noele Gordon died in April of that year, aged 65. Edward Clayton was brought back as Jill's ex-husband Stan Harvey to read the lines written for Gordon. With the revival in 2001, changes were made to stories. Jill Chance had married John Maddingham and been widowed, but was calling herself Jill Harvey again, the name by which she had been known prior to her marriage to Adam Chance in 1983. References were made to the Russell family taking over a "failing motel", despite Crossroads having beco
The Onedin Line
The Onedin Line is a BBC television drama series, which ran from 1971 to 1980. The series was created by Cyril Abraham; the series is set in Liverpool from 1860 to 1886 and covers the rise of a fictional shipping company, the Onedin Line, named after its owner James Onedin. Around this, it depicts the lives of his family, most notably his brother and partner Robert, a ship chandler, his sister Elizabeth, giving insight into the lifestyle and customs at the time, not only at sea, but ashore; the series illustrates some of the changes in business and shipping, such as from wooden to steel ships and from sailing ships to steamships. It shows the role that ships played in such matters as international politics and the slave trade. Classic BBC drama series set in 19th century Liverpool, narrating the changing fortunes of the ambitious Captain James Onedin and his family. A 55-minute pilot episode for the series aired as part of BBC One's Drama Playhouse strand on 7 December 1970, produced by Anthony Coburn.
Series 1 played from 15 October 1971 to 28 January 1972. The series opens in 1860 Liverpool, as 28-year-old Onedin establishes a new shipping company, marrying the owner of a ship to do so. Main characters and story are introduced. Narrative unfolds around contemporary events, such as a Phylloxera outbreak affecting Portuguese wine, establishing a theme of incorporating real events around the fictitious family drama. Series 2 played from 17 September to 31 December 1972 Series 3 played from 21 October 1973 to 27 January 1974 Series 4 played from 25 April to 27 June 1976 Series 5 played from 26 June to 28 August 1977 Series 6 played from 18 July to 17 September 1978 Series 7 played from 22 July to 23 September 1979 Series 8 played from 31 August to 26 October 1980 James Onedin, the younger son of Samuel Onedin, a miserly ship chandler, who left his money to his elder son Robert, he was a penniless sea captain with aspirations to greater things. In order to become a ship-owner, he married Anne Webster, some years his senior.
She was the spinster daughter of Captain Joshua Webster, owner of the topsail schooner Charlotte Rhodes. At first, it was purely a business transaction on Onedin's part. On her death, at the end of the second series, James had come to love her. James considered two possible replacement brides: wealthy widow Caroline Maudslay and the young heiress Leonora Biddulph, before settling for his daughter's governess, Letty Gaunt. Tragedy struck in the first year of the marriage when she in James's view, became pregnant; the memories of Anne always remained in his thoughts. In due course, Letty died, of diphtheria, and, by the last series, James was married to a third wife, the exotic Margarita Juarez and was, by a grandfather, he was imprisoned. He was freed when Elizabeth and Samuel sought evidence to clear his name. On his release, he took to the sea again with Captain Baines on business to South America that would stabilise his life for the next twenty years, only to find Margarita as a stowaway. On the voyage home, she revealed that she was pregnant and unable, as was Baines as a cargo captain, to deliver the baby, so the cook was left to do the job.
A baby son was delivered, with both mother and son well. James named the boy William after Captain Baines. Anne Webster/Onedin, entered into the marriage in full recognition that it was a business transaction, she was the conscience of James and, when she could not take his ruthless business nature any more, left him and lived hand to mouth in the Liverpool slums affecting her health. On her reconciliation with James, she ignored the doctor's warning not to get pregnant, knowing how much James wanted a son and heir, died giving birth to a daughter, Charlotte. William Baines, first mate to James Onedin. Taught by Anne Onedin to read and write, he served on all of Onedin's ships. Appalled at Onedin's business dealings and treatment of ship's crew though he was prepared to use his own fists to maintain discipline, he left to work for a rival shipping line for a short time but returned to Onedin. Another falling out led Baines to buy his own ship, but a fire broke out destroying the ship and killing Tom, a boy he and James took on first as a cabin boy and as an indentured lad.
Blaming James, he was tricked in the plot to frame James for theft. He helped to clear James' name. On their last voyage together, James' wife Margarita had a baby son, named in Baines' honour. Elizabeth Onedin/Frazer/Fogarty, James's volatile sister, became pregnant by seafarer Daniel Fogarty. To avoid disgrace, she married wealthy Albert Frazer, developer of steamship technology and heir to the Frazer shipyards, a connection James soon turned to his own advantage. Elizabeth gave birth to William Frazer; the marriage was unhappy and Albert took trips away on business settling in South America where he died. Albert's father died leaving his shipyards and shipping line to Elizabeth for William to inherit on coming of age so the Frazer's name would live on. Daniel Fogarty returned from Australia, where he had amassed a fortune, married Elizabeth, whom he still loved, to help and advise his son, who retained the name Frazer. Elizabeth and Daniel became estranged as their business interests differed and he rose in political circles to bec
Hove is a town in East Sussex, England west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove. It forms a single conurbation with Brighton and some smaller towns and villages running along the coast; as part of local government reform and Hove were merged, to form the borough of Brighton and Hove in 1997. In 2001, the new borough attained city status. Hove is bordered by Brighton to the east and Portslade-by-Sea in the west, the distance between the boundaries being some 2.25 mi. During mid 19th-century building work near Palmeira Square, workmen levelled a substantial burial mound. A prominent feature of the landscape since 1200 BC, the 20 feet -high tumulus yielded, among other treasures, the Hove amber cup. Made of translucent red Baltic Amber and the same size as a regular china tea cup, the artefact can be seen in the Hove Museum and Art Gallery. There are entries for Brighton and Portslade and small downland settlements like Hangleton, but nothing for the location of Hove itself.
The first known settlement in Hove was around the 12th century when St Andrew's Church was established. Hove remained insignificant for centuries, consisting of just a single street running north-south some 250m from the church, which by the 16th century was recorded as being in ruins. Hangleton Manor is a well-preserved 16th-century flint manor building, it is believed to have been built c. 1540 for Richard Belingham, twice High Sheriff of Sussex, whose initials are carved into a fireplace, whose coat of arms adorns a period plaster ceiling. The Manor is serving as a pub-restaurant and whilst it was once on open downland, it is now surrounded by the 20th-century Hangleton housing estate. In 1723 a traveller, the antiquary John Warburton, wrote,'I passed through a ruinous village called Hove which the sea is daily eating up and is in a fair way of being quite deserted. However, The Ship Inn had been built at the seaward end of the street in around 1702. In 1724, Daniel Defoe wrote in reference to the south coast,'I do not find they have any foreign commerce, except it be what we call smuggling and roguing.
The census of 1801 recorded only 101 residents. By 1821, the year the Prince Regent was crowned George IV, Hove was still a small village but the population had risen to 312; the dwellings were still clustered on either side of Hove Street, surrounded by an otherwise empty landscape of open farmland. This isolated location was ideal for smuggling and there was considerable illicit activity. Hove smugglers became notorious, with contraband being stored in the now repaired St. Andrew's Church. Tradition has it that The Ship Inn was a favourite rendezvous for the smugglers, in 1794 soldiers were billeted there. In 1818 there was a pitched battle on Hove beach between revenue men and smugglers, from which the latter emerged as the victors; as part of the concerted drive by Parliament to combat smuggling, a coastguard station was opened at the southern end of Hove Street in 1831, next to The Ship Inn. At the bottom of Hove Street was the bull-ring. At a bull-bait in 1810 the bull escaped, scattering spectators before being recaptured and dragged back to the ring.
This was the last bull-bait to take place in Hove. The fertile coastal plain west of the Brighton boundary had significant deposits of brickearth and by c.1770 a brickfield had been established on the site of what would become Brunswick Square. Other brickfields were established further west, remaining until displaced by housing development. In the years following the Coronation of 1821 the Brunswick estate of large Regency houses boasting a theatre, riding schools and their own police was developed on the seafront near the boundary with Brighton. Although within Hove parish the residents of these elegant houses studiously avoided the name of the impoverished village a mile to the west as an address. Straggling development along the coast loosely connected the estate to fashionable Brighton, so that name was used instead. Dating from 1822, the Brighton to Shoreham turnpike crossed the north of Hove parish along the route of the present Old Shoreham Road; the Brighton General Gas Light Company was formed in 1825.
Although production of coal gas was notorious for the smell it produced, the company acquired land in the fields between Hove Street and St. Andrew's Church, in 1832 built a gasworks on a two-acre site; the process required substantial tonnage of coal, delivered by horse-drawn cart on the unmade tracks in the vicinity, removal of by-products including coke, coal tar and ammonia. An industrial site such as this, with a tall chimney and two gasometers next to the churchyard was a considerable intrusion on the populace of Hove, but not for still-distant and growing Brighton, the main centre of consumption. Being situated in Hove it avoided the duty of £1 per 8 tons levied on coal by the Brighton Town Act of 1773. A gasworks built east of Brighton in 1819, therefore exempt, was supplied by sailing brigs grounding at high tide, the crew tipping the coal down chutes into horse-drawn carts re-floating on the next tide; this method, inherently dirty and disruptive, would have been used at Hove until the arrival of the railway in 1840.
By 1861 the site had doubled in size and there were now five gasometers, ranging in size from small to large. Due to spiralling demand a large new works was opened in Shoreham Harbour at Portslade-by-Sea in 1871, by 1885 all gas manufacture in
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t