National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is responsible for maintaining and publishing the authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, federal regulations; the NARA transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration; the Archivist not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U. S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, therefore when an act has become an amendment; the Office of the Federal Register publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, United States Statutes at Large, among others.
It administers the Electoral College. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission —the agency's grant-making arm—awards funds to state and local governments and private archives and universities, other nonprofit organizations to preserve and publish historical records. Since 1964, the NHPRC has awarded some 4,500 grants; the Office of Government Information Services is a Freedom of Information Act resource for the public and the government. Congress has charged NARA with reviewing FOIA policies and compliance of Federal agencies and to recommend changes to FOIA. NARA's mission includes resolving FOIA disputes between Federal agencies and requesters; each branch and agency of the U. S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as chief administrator; the National Archives was incorporated with GSA in 1949.
The first Archivist, R. D. W. Connor, began serving in 1934; as a result of a first Hoover Commission recommendation, in 1949 the National Archives was placed within the newly formed General Services Administration. The Archivist served as a subordinate official to the GSA Administrator until the National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency on April 1, 1985. In March 2006, it was revealed by the Archivist of the United States in a public hearing that a memorandum of understanding between NARA and various government agencies existed to "reclassify", i.e. withdraw from public access, certain documents in the name of national security, to do so in a manner such that researchers would not be to discover the process. An audit indicated that more than one third withdrawn since 1999 did not contain sensitive information; the program was scheduled to end in 2007. In 2010, Executive Order 13526 created the National Declassification Center to coordinate declassification practices across agencies, provide secure document services to other agencies, review records in NARA custody for declassification.
NARA's holdings are classed into "record groups" reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. Records include paper documents, still pictures, motion pictures, electronic media. Archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of NARA are stored in the National Archives Catalog; the archival descriptions include information on traditional paper holdings, electronic records, artifacts. As of December 2012, the catalog consisted of about 10 billion logical data records describing 527,000 artifacts and encompassing 81% of NARA's records. There are 922,000 digital copies of digitized materials. Most records at NARA are in the public domain, as works of the federal government are excluded from copyright protection. However, records from other sources may still be protected by donor agreements. Executive Order 13526 directs originating agencies to declassify documents if possible before shipment to NARA for long-term storage, but NARA stores some classified documents until they can be declassified.
Its Information Security Oversight Office monitors and sets policy for the U. S. government's security classification system. Many of NARA's most requested records are used for genealogy research; this includes census records from 1790 to 1940, ships' passenger lists, naturalization records. Archival Recovery Teams investigate the theft of records; the most well known facility of the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives Building, located north of the National Mall on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D. C.. A sister facility, known as the National Archives at College Park was opened 1994 near the University of Maryland, College Park; the Washington National Records Center located in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, is a large warehouse facility where federal records that are still under the control of the creating agency are stored. Federal government agencies pay a yearly fee for storage at the facility. In accordance with federal records schedules, documents at WNRC are transferred to the legal custody of the National Archives after a certain time.
Temporary records at WNRC are
National Cartoonists Society
The National Cartoonists Society is an organization of professional cartoonists in the United States. It presents the National Cartoonists Society Awards; the Society was born in 1946. They decided to meet on a regular basis. NCS members work in many branches of the profession, including advertising, newspaper comic strips and syndicated single-panel cartoons, comic books, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons, graphic novels, greeting cards and book illustration. Only has the National Cartoonists Society embraced web comics. Membership is limited to established professional cartoonists, with a few exceptions of outstanding persons in affiliated fields; the NCS is not a labor union. The organization's stated primary purposes are "to advance the ideals and standards of professional cartooning in its many forms", "to promote and foster a social and intellectual interchange among professional cartoonists of all types" and "to stimulate and encourage interest in and acceptance of the art of cartooning by aspiring cartoonists and the general public."
The National Cartoonists Society had its origins during World War II when cartoonists Gus Edson, Otto Soglow, Clarence D. Russell, Bob Dunn and others did chalk talks at hospitals for the USO in 1943. Edson recalled, “We played two spots. Fort Hamilton and Governor’s Island, and we quit the USO.” They were lured away by former Rockette Toni Mendez. When she learned of these chalk talks, she recruited the cartoonists to do shows for the Hospital Committee of the American Theatre Wing. Beginning with a performance emceed by humor columnist Bugs Baer at Halloran Hospital on Staten Island, these shows were produced and directed by Mendez; the group expanded to junkets on military transport planes, flying to military bases along the southeastern seaboard. On one of those flights, Russell proposed a club to Rube Goldberg and others so the group could still get together after WWII ended. Mendez recalled: He said, "Everybody has a club or an association or some kind—lumber jacks, rug weavers garbage collectors—so I don’t see why we can’t have one, too."
All during the flight, Rube kept saying, "No—leave us alone. C. D. turned to me and he said, "And no girls. Only boys." And he went down the aisle of the plane, repeating that this club would be just for boys. The Society was organized on a Friday evening, March 1, 1946, when 26 cartoonists gathered at 7pm in the Barberry Room on East 52nd Street in Manhattan. After drinks and dinner, they voted to determine a name for their new organization, it was known as The Cartoonists Society. Goldberg was elected president with Russell Patterson as vice president, C. D. Russell as secretary and Milton Caniff, treasurer. Soglow was added as second vice president. Mendez functioned as the Society's trouble-shooter and became an agent representing more than 50 cartoonists; the 26 founding members came from the group of 32 members who had paid dues by March 13, including strip cartoonists Wally Bishop, Martin Branner, Ernie Bushmiller, Milton Caniff, Gus Edson, Ham Fisher, Harry Haenigsen, Fred Harman, Bill Holman, Jay Irving, Stan MacGovern, Al Posen, Clarence Russell, Otto Soglow, Jack Sparling, Raeburn Van Buren, Dow Walling and Frank Willard.
Among the early 32 members were syndicated panel cartoonists Dave Breger, George Clark, Bob Dunn and Jimmy Hatlo. Yardley. More members joined by mid-May 1946, including Harold Gray and the Society’s first animator, Paul Terry, followed in the summer by letterer Frank Engli, Bela Zaboly, Al Capp and Ray Bailey. By March 1947, the NCS had 112 members, including Bud Fisher, Don Flowers, Bob Kane, Fred Lasswell, George Lichty, Zack Mosley, Alex Raymond, Cliff Sterrett and Chic Young, plus editorial cartoonists Reg Manning and Fred O. Seibel and sports cartoonist Willard Mullin. Marge Devine Duffy, a secretary in King Features public relations department, had been helping Russell handle correspondence to the NCS, in 1948, she was installed as the official NCS secretary and given the title Scribe of the Society, her name was on all the Society’s publications, her address was the permanent mailing address of the NCS for more than 30 years. As the organizing secretary, she handled agendas and publicity.
“She ran the damn thing,” Caniff recalled. “A real autocrat, everyone was delighted to have her be an autocrat because that’s what we needed.”In the fall of 1949, the NCS cooperated with Treasury Department to sell savings bonds, engaging in a nationwide tour to 17 major cities with a team of 10 to 12 cartoonists and a traveling display, 20,000 Years of Comics, a 95-foot pictorial history of the comic strip. Despite the contributions of Duffy and Mendez, there were no female
Gladys Parker was an American cartoonist for comic strips and a fashion designer in Hollywood. She is best known as the creator of the comic strip Mopsy. Parker was one of the few female cartoonists working between the 1950s. Growing up in Tonawanda, New York, Parker took dance lessons at the age of seven after winning a "most beautiful child" contest, she taught herself to draw while recuperating from a leg injury using herself as her model, began selling cartoons to magazines. She ran a dressmaking shop from home while still in high school. After graduating from Tonawanda High School, she worked in the office of a lumber yard, she was Wilbert C. Parker of Tonawanda, her maternal grandparents were Anna Gerster of Tonawanda. At the age of 18, Parker arrived in Manhattan to study fashion illustration, she started her newspaper career with the New York Graphic, doing a comic strip called May and Junie. She moved on to United Features for Newspaper Enterprise Association for seven years, she was given the opportunity to draw for the comic strip Flapper Fanny, took over the publication entirely.
After drawing the flapper strip Gay and Her Gang in 1928-29, she took over Ethel Hays' Flapper Fanny Says panel, which she did for NEA from 1930 to 1936. She did a comic strip series for Lux Soap during the 1930s. Developing Mopsy in 1939, Parker modeled the character on herself. In 1946, she recalled, "I got the idea for Mopsy when the cartoonist Rube Goldberg said my hair looked like a mop; that was several years ago, she has been my main interest since."The Mopsy Sunday strip, added in 1945, gave Parker an opportunity to draw her fashion creations in a sidebar feature of paper dolls, titled "Mopsy Modes." During World War II, Parker created the strip Betty G. I. for the Women's Army Corps, she stepped in to draw Russell Keaton's Flyin' Jenny from 1942 until 1944 when his assistant Marc Swayze took over. Mopsy held such wartime jobs as a nurse and a munitions-plant worker, the feature grew in popularity. After World War II ended, Mopsy was fired from her defense job in 1947 and went back to civilian life.
By the end of the 1940s, Mopsy was published in 300 newspapers. In 1947, Mopsy began in St. John Publications' Pageant of Comics #1. Two years St. John gave her a title of her own, Mopsy ran for 19 issues. Charlton Comics reprinted several of those comic books in 1951. In 1955, Berkley Books published a Mopsy paperback collection. St. John ran Mopsy as filler pages in its romance comics. Under the name Gladys Parker Designs, her clothing line was sold in stores as early as 1934, capitalizing on her fame as the artist of Flapper Fanny Says. Parker designed for films, such as her 1940 white sharkskin suit worn by actress Louise Platt. Living in Hollywood with her two black cats, Parker wrote a daily column, "Dear Gals and Guys", during the 1960s. On May 9, 1930, Parker was married to illustrator Benjamin "Stookie" Allen, who drew for pulp magazines and comic books; the divorced in 1951. Parker was a member of the Society of the National Cartoonists Society; when she retired in 1965, Mopsy retired with her.
She was 58 when she died of lung cancer in 1966. Edwina Dumm Marty Links Dale Messick Rina Piccolo Hilda Terry Toonopedia: Mopsy
Willard Mullin was an American sports cartoonist. He is most famous for his creation of the "Brooklyn Bum", the personification of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team, based on circus clown Emmett Kelly's "Weary Willie" hobo persona, he was published: he cartooned daily for Scripps-Howard's New York World-Telegram and Sun for decades and was published in Scripps-Howard's twenty papers, as well as in the Sporting News. An oversize retrospective collection of Willard Mullin cartoons, titled Willard Mullin's Golden Age of Baseball: Drawings 1934–1972, was published by Fantagraphics Books in 2013; the book contains biographical and historical information. In 2015, Fantagraphics Books published Willard Mullin's Casey at the Other Diamond Tales; this book features Mullin's thirteen drawings to match the thirteen verses of Ernest Thayer's famous baseball poem, the poem as written in Mullin's once-celebrated cartoon lettering style, a few selections from Mullin's other baseball cartoons. Until the Fantagraphics publication, the Mullin "Casey" had only been seen by those who attended an early 1950s convention of the National Association the overseers of Minor League Baseball and were given copies of the Mullin "Casey."
He received the Reuben Award in 1954 for his work, as well as the National Cartoonists Society Sports Cartoon Award for each year from 1957 through 1962, again in 1964 and 1965. Willard Mullin illustrations Famous Artists Course: Willard Mullin on Animals NCS Awards
A baseball park known as a ballpark or diamond, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible; the term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field. A home run where the player makes it around the bases, back to home plate, without the ball leaving the playing field is called an "inside-the-park" home run. Sometimes a home run ball passing over an outfield fence is said to have been hit "out of the ballpark", but that phrase more refers to a home run ball that cleared the stands, landing outside the building; the playing field is most called the "ballfield", though the term is used interchangeably with "ballpark" when referring to a small local or youth league facility. A baseball field can be referred to as a diamond; the infield is a rigidly structured diamond of dirt containing the three bases, home plate, the pitchers mound.
The space between the bases and home is a grass surface, save for the dirt mound in the center. Some ballparks, like Toronto's Rogers Centre, have grass or artificial turf between the bases, dirt only around the bases and pitcher's mound. Others, such as Koshien Stadium in Hyōgo Prefecture, have an dirt infield. Two white lines run out from the home plate area, aligned with third bases; these are the foul lines or base lines differentiated by referring to them as the first base line, or the third base line. If a ball hit by the batter lands outside of the space between these two lines, or rolls out of this space before reaching first or third base, the ball is "foul". If it lands between or on the lines, it is "fair". At the end of the lines are two foul poles, which help the umpires judge whether a ball is fair or foul; these "foul poles" are in fair territory, so a ball that hits them on the fly is a home run. On either side of home plate are the two batter's boxes This is. Behind home is the catcher's box, where the catcher and the home plate umpire stand.
Next to first and third base are two coaches' boxes, where the first and third base coaches guide the baserunners with gestures or shouts. As the baserunner faces away from the outfield when running from second base to third, they cannot see where the ball is, must look to the third base coach on whether to run, stop, or slide. Farther from the infield on either side are the dugouts, where the teams and coaches sit when they're not on the field, they are named such because, at the professional levels, this seating is below the level of the playing field so as to not block the view from prime spectator seating locations. In amateur parks, the dugouts may be above-ground wooden or CMU structures with seating inside, or benches behind a chain link fence. Beyond the infield and between the foul lines is a large grass outfield twice the depth of the infield; the playing field is bordered by fences of varying height. The infield fences are in foul territory, a ball hit over them isn't a home run. Sometimes, the outfield fence is made higher in certain areas to compensate for a close proximity to the batter.
In professional parks, the field is surrounded by an area 10 feet wide made of dirt or rubberized track surface called a "warning track". Used in Yankee Stadium in 1923 as an actual footrace track, it is now present in all major league ballparks; this change in terrain warns a fielder, watching a ball in the air, that the wall is near, avoiding possible injury. Beyond the outfield fence in professional parks is an area called the batter's eye. To ensure the batter can see the white ball, the batter's eye contains no seating, is a darker color; the batter's eye area can be anything from a dark wall to a grassy slope. Today, in Major League Baseball, a grandstand, surrounds the infield. How far this seating extends down the baselines or around the foul poles varies from park to park. In minor league parks, the grandstands are notably smaller, proportional to expected sizes of crowds compared with the major leagues; the seating beyond the outfield fence differs from the grandstand, though some multi-purpose or jewel box parks have the grandstand surround the entire field.
This area could contain inexpensive bleacher seats, smaller grandstands, or inclined seating. In local ballparks, there are simply a set or two of aluminum bleachers on the first-base and third-base sides. Distinctive from "goal games" such as football and basketball, which have fixed-size playing areas, the infield is the only rigidly laid-out part of the field. Like its English relative, there is significant flexibility in the shape and size of the rest of the playing area. To prevent "cheap" home runs, baseball leagues may specify a minimum distance from home plate to the outfield fences; the higher the skill level, the deeper the minimum dimensions must be, to prevent an excess of home runs. In the major leagues, a rule was passed in 1958 that compelled any new fields built after that point to have a minimum distance of 325 feet from home plate to the fences in left and right field, 400 feet to center.. This rule was passed to avoid situations like the Los Angeles Coliseum, 251 ft. down the left
Friends of Lulu
Friends of Lulu was a non-profit, national charitable organization in the United States, which operated from 1994–2011 to promote readership of comic books by women and the participation of women in the comic book industry. Membership was open to all persons. Friends of Lulu additionally sponsored the Lulu Awards and administered the Women Cartoonists Hall of Fame; the organization took its name from Little Lulu, the comic strip character created by Marjorie Henderson Buell in 1935. In the comics, Lulu tries to break into the boys' clubhouse, where girls aren't allowed. In the early 1990s, comic book professionals Trina Robbins, Heidi MacDonald, Deni Loubert, Anina Bennett, Jackie Estrada banded together to share frustrations and aspirations for females in the male-dominated comics industry, held the first "Friends of Lulu" meetings at a comics convention. Co-founder Trina Robbins recalls that a Cherry Poptart lookalike contest sponsored by Comic-Con International was the "last straw" that inspired the creation of the organization.
In 1994 Friends of Lulu started an amateur press association to further the organization. In 1997 the first annual Lulu conference and Lulu awards were held in California. In 2000, Friends of Lulu was awarded a grant from the Xeric Foundation to self-publish Friends of Lulu: Storytime. In 2002, Katie Merrit, owner of Green Brain Comics, was nominated and voted by membership as President of the Board, she served the organization and and was a perfect ambassador for the organization's mission. In 2004, Shannon Crane was nominated and voted by membership to President of the Board after serving two years on the board as Membership Secretary, she stepped down after a year of Presidency to focus on new motherhood. It's understood that she had been building bridges with key industry professionals to dispel the misunderstanding that the organization was anti-man, she believed that with diplomacy between key industry influencers and Friends of Lulu, the mission statement could be further realized. 2004 is the year that FoL's second anthology, Broad Appeal, headed by a group of dedicated creators, including Marion Vitus.
This anthology was received with great reader popularity. In September 2007, Valerie D'Orazio volunteered to fill the empty president of the national board of directors of Friends of Lulu. In August 2010, an interim Board of Directors was reestablished, the Friends of Lulu 2010 Awards were launched; the award winners were named in October 2010. In June 2011, the IRS revoked the organization's tax-exempt status as a non-profit; the group ceased operations shortly afterwards. The Lulu Awards, presented annually at Comic-Con International in San Diego, bestowed the Lulu of the Year trophy for overall work. Friends of Lulu published a number of books, including: How to Get Girls — guide for comics shop owners on how to make their stores more female-friendly Friends of Lulu Presents: Storytime Broad Appeal — anthology of comics by women artists The Girls' Guide to Guys' Stuff — features over 50 female cartoonists, including Roberta Gregory, Abby Denson, Debbie Huey Female comics creators List of female comics creators List of feminist comic books List of Lulu Award winners Portrayal of women in American comics Friends of Lulu Homepage
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. It is called rebirth or transmigration, is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence, it is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife. A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras and Plato, it is a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism and Eckankar, as an esoteric belief in many streams of Orthodox Judaism. It is found as well in some tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia and South America. Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; the historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.
Unity Church and its founder Charles Fillmore teaches reincarnation. In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation, many contemporary works mention it; the word "reincarnation" derives from Latin meaning, "entering the flesh again". The Greek equivalent metempsychosis derives from meta and empsykhoun, a term attributed to Pythagoras. An alternate term is transmigration implying migration from one life to another. Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being continues to exist after death, this aspect may be the soul or mind or consciousness or something transcendent, reborn in an interconnected cycle of existence; the term has been used by modern philosophers such as Kurt Gödel and has entered the English language. Another Greek term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis, "being born again". Rebirth is a key concept found in major Indian religions, discussed with various terms. Punarjanman means "rebirth, transmigration".
Reincarnation is discussed in the ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism and Jainism, with many alternate terms such as punarāvṛtti, punarājāti, punarjīvātu, punarbhava, āgati-gati, nibbattin and uppajjana. These religions believe that this reincarnation is cyclic and an endless Saṃsāra, unless one gains spiritual insights that ends this cycle leading to liberation; the reincarnation concept is considered in Indian religions as a step that starts each "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence", but one, an opportunity to seek spiritual liberation through ethical living and a variety of meditative, yogic, or other spiritual practices. They consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana and kaivalya. However, the Buddhist and Jain traditions have differed, since ancient times, in their assumptions and in their details on what reincarnates, how reincarnation occurs and what leads to liberation.
Gilgul, Gilgul neshamot or Gilgulei Ha Neshamot is the concept of reincarnation in Kabbalistic Judaism, found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews. Gilgul means "cycle" and neshamot is "souls". Kabbalistic reincarnation says that humans reincarnate only to humans and to the same sex only: men to men, women to women; the origins of the notion of reincarnation are obscure. Discussion of the subject appears in the philosophical traditions of India; the Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, the Celtic Druids are reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation. The idea of reincarnation did not exist in early Indian religions; the concepts of the cycle of birth and death and liberation derive from ascetic traditions that arose in India around the second half of the first millennium BCE. Though no direct evidence of this has been found, the tribes of the Ganges valley or the Dravidian traditions of South India have been proposed as another early source of reincarnation beliefs.
But the religions of southern India, like the ancient historical Vedic religion in the North, the Dravidian folk religions do not have the concept of reincarnation. The Vedas, does not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife, it is in the early Upanishads, which are pre-Buddha and pre-Mahavira, where these ideas are beginning to develope. Detailed descriptions first appear around the mid 1st millennium BCE in diverse traditions, including Buddhism and various schools of Hindu philosophy, each of which gave unique expression to the general principle; the texts of ancient Jainism that have survived into the modern era are post-Mahavira from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, extensively mention rebirth and karma doctrines. The Jaina philosophy assumes that the soul exists and is eternal, passing through cycle