House of Wettin
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories in the present-day German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. The dynasty is one of the oldest in Europe, its origins can be traced back to the town of Wettin, Saxony-Anhalt; the Wettins rose to power within the Holy Roman Empire. Members of the family became the rulers of several medieval states, starting with the Saxon Eastern March in 1030. Other states they gained were Meissen in 1089, Thuringia in 1263, Saxony in 1423; these areas cover large parts of Central Germany as a cultural area of Germany. The family divided into two ruling branches in 1485 by the Treaty of Leipzig: the Ernestine and Albertine branches; the older Ernestine branch played a key role during the Protestant Reformation. Many ruling monarchs outside Germany were tied to its cadet branch, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; the Albertine branch, while less prominent, ruled most of Saxony and played a part in Polish history.
Agnates of the House of Wettin have, at various times, ascended the thrones of Great Britain, Bulgaria, Poland and Belgium. Only the British and Belgian lines retain their thrones today; the oldest member of the House of Wettin, known for certain is Theodoric I of Wettin known as Dietrich and Thierry I of Liesgau. He was most based in the Liesgau. Around 1000, the family acquired Wettin Castle, built by the local Slavic tribes, after which they named themselves. Wettin Castle is located in Wettin in the Hassegau on the Saale River. Around 1030, the Wettin family received the Eastern March as a fief; the prominence of the Wettins in the Slavic Saxon Eastern March caused Emperor Henry IV to invest them with the March of Meissen as a fief in 1089. The family advanced over the course of the Middle Ages: in 1263, they inherited the landgraviate of Thuringia and in 1423, they were invested with the Duchy of Saxony, centred at Wittenberg, thus becoming one of the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
The family split into two ruling branches in 1485 when the sons of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony divided the territories hitherto ruled jointly. The elder son Ernest, who had succeeded his father as Prince-elector, received the territories assigned to the Elector and Thuringia, while his younger brother Albert obtained the March of Meissen, which he ruled from Dresden; as Albert ruled under the title of "Duke of Saxony", his possessions were known as Ducal Saxony. The older Ernestine branch remained predominant until 1547 and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. Frederick III appointed Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon to the University of Wittenberg, which he had established in 1502; the Ernestine predominance ended in the Schmalkaldic War, which pitted the Protestant Schmalkaldic League against the Emperor Charles V. Although itself Lutheran, the Albertine branch rallied to the Emperor's cause. Charles V had promised Moritz the rights to the electorship.
After the Battle of Mühlberg, Johann Friedrich der Großmütige, had to cede territory and the electorship to his cousin Moritz. Although imprisoned, Johann Friedrich was able to plan a new university, it was established by his three sons on 19 March 1548 as the Höhere Landesschule at Jena. On 15 August 1557, Emperor Ferdinand I awarded it the status of university; the Ernestine line was thereafter restricted to Thuringia and its dynastic unity swiftly crumbled, dividing into a number of smaller states, the Ernestine duchies. With Ernst der Fromme, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, the house gave rise to an important early-modern ruler, ahead of his time in supporting the education of his people and in improving administration. In the 18th century, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, established what was to become known as Weimar Classicism at his court in Weimar, notably by bringing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe there, it was only in the 19th century that one of the many Ernestine branches, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, regained importance through marriages as the "stud of Europe", by ascending the thrones of Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
The Albertine Wettins maintained most of the territorial integrity of Saxony, preserving it as a significant power in the region, used small appanage fiefs for their cadet branches, few of which survived for significant lengths of time. The Ernestine Wettins, on the other hand subdivided their territory, creating an intricate patchwork of small duchies and counties in Thuringia; the junior Albertine branch ruled as Electors and Kings of Saxony, played a role in Polish history: two Wettins were Kings of Poland and a third ruled the Duchy of Warsaw as a satellite of Napoleon. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Albertine branch lost about 40% of its lands to Prussia, restricting it to a territory coextensive with the modern Saxony. Frederick Augustus III lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918; the role of present head of the Albertine "House of Saxony" is claimed by his great-grandson Prince Rüdiger of Saxony, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Meissen. The headship of Prince Rüdiger is however contested by his second cousin, son of Robert
Joseph Meyer (publisher)
Joseph Meyer was a German industrialist and publisher, most noted for his encyclopedia, Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. Meyer was born at Gotha and was educated as a merchant in Frankfurt am Main, he went to London in 1816, but returned to Germany in 1820 after business adventures and stock speculations fell through. Here he invested in enterprises like textile-trade. Soon after the first steam-hauled railway had started in December 1835, Meyer started to make business plans how to start the first railways, he bought some concessions for iron mining. In 1845, he founded the Deutsche Eisenbahnschienen-Compagnie auf Actien. Meyer operated successfully as a publisher, employing a system of serial subscription to publications, new at that time. To this end he founded a company, Bibliographisches Institut, in Gotha in 1826, it published several editions of the Bible, works of classical literature, the world in pictures on steel engravings, an encyclopaedia. His company grew and in 1828 he moved it from Gotha to Hildburghausen, where he died thirty years later
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
House of Henneberg
Henneberg was a medieval German comital family which from the 11th century onwards held large territories in the Duchy of Franconia. Their county was raised to a princely county in 1310. Upon the extinction of the line in the late 16th century, most of the territory was inherited by the Saxon House of Wettin and subsequently incorporated into the Thuringian estates of its Ernestine branch; the distant origins of this family are speculative yet seem to originate in the Middle Rhine Valley, east of modern-day France. Charibert, a nobleman in Neustria is the earliest recorded ancestor of the family, dating before 636. Five generations pass between the next descendant of note, Robert III of Worms. Both the Capetian dynasty and the Elder House of Babenberg are direct male lineal descendants of Count Robert I and therefore referred to as Robertians; the denotion Babenberger, named after the castle of Bamberg, was established in the 12th century by the chronicler Otto of Freising, himself a member of the Babenberg family.
The House of Babenberg, which ruled what became the Duchy of Austria, claimed to come of the Popponid dynasty. However, the descent of the first margrave Leopold I of Austria remains uncertain. In the 11th century, the dynasty's estates around the ancestral seat Henneberg Castle near Meiningen belonged to the German stem duchy of Franconia, they were located southwest of the Rennsteig ridge in the Thuringian Forest forming the border with the possessions held by the Landgraves of Thuringia in the north. In 1096 one Count Godebold II of Henneberg served as a burgrave of the Würzburg bishops, his father Poppo had been killed in Battle in 1078. In 1137 he established Vessra Abbey near Hildburghausen as the family's house monastery; the counts lost their position as the bishops were raised to "Dukes of Franconia" in the 12th century. In the course of the War of the Thuringian Succession upon the death of Landgrave Henry Raspe, Count Herman I of Henneberg in 1247 received the Thuringian lordship of Schmalkalden from the Wettin margrave Henry III of Meissen.
After the extinction of the Bavarian House of Andechs upon the death of Duke Otto II of Merania in 1248, the Counts of Henneberg inherited their Franconian lordship of Coburg. In 1274 the Henneberg estates were divided into the Schleusingen, Aschach-Römhild and Hartenberg branches. Count Berthold VII of Henneberg-Schleusingen was elevated to princely status in 1310, his estates comprised the towns of Schmalkalden and Coburg. In 1343 the Counts of Hennberg purchased the Thuringian town of Ilmenau; the Coburg lands passed to the Saxon House of Wettin upon the marriage of Countess Catherine of Henneberg to Margrave Frederick III of Meissen in 1347. After the Imperial Reform of 1500, the County of Henneberg formed the northernmost part of the Franconian Circle, bordering on the Upper Saxon Ernestine duchies and the lands of the Upper Rhenish prince-abbacy of Fulda in the northwest. A thorn in the side remained the enclave of Meiningen, a fief held by the Bishops of Würzburg, not acquired by the counts until 1542.
Whereas the male line of the House of Babenberg became extinct in 1246, the Counts of Henneberg lived on until 1583. In 1554 William IV of Henneberg-Schleusingen had signed a treaty of inheritance with Duke John Frederick II of Saxony. However, when the last Count George Ernest of Henneberg died, both the Ernestine and the Albertine branch of the Wettin dynasty claimed his estates, that were divided in 1660 among the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Gotha and the Albertine duke Maurice of Saxe-Zeitz; the Lordship of Schmalkalden fell to Landgrave William IV of Hesse-Kassel, according to an inheritance treaty of 1360. After the Congress of Vienna, the former Albertine parts around Schleusingen and Suhl fell to the Prussian province of Saxony. King Frederick William III of Prussia assumed the title of a Princely Count of Henneberg, which his successors in the House of Hohenzollern have borne since. Bertold von Henneberg-Römhild, Prince-elector and archbishop of Mainz, son of George, count of Henneberg-Römhild.
Count Otto von Henneberg, known as Otto von Botenlauben from 1206 born in 1177 in Henneberg, died in Reiterswiesen near Bad Kissingen before 1245, was a German minnesinger and founder of Frauenroth Abbey. Herman I, Count of Henneberg Catherine of Henneberg William II, Princely count of Henneberg-Schleusingen William III, Princely count of Henneberg-Schleusingen William IV, Princely count of Henneberg-Schleusingen Bishopric of Würzburg Vessra Abbey Aura Abbey Römhild Sondheim Münnerstadt Irmelshausen Bad Kissingen Poppo William II, German Emperor/Scraps Schmalkalden-Meiningen Wartburgkreis Hildburghausen List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Schwennicke, Detlev. Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge. BAND II, Tafel 10:Die Robertiner I und die Anfänge des Hauses Capet, 922-923 König der Westfranken, Verlag von J. A. Stargardt Historische Landkarte: Grafschaft Henneberg 1755 mit den Ämtern Schleusingen, Suhl, Kühndorf mit Bennshausen, Reprint 2003, Verlag Rockstuhl, ISBN 3-936030-15-4 Johannes Mötsch: Regesten des Archivs der Grafen von Henneberg-Römhild.
Volumes 1 und 2. Böhlau, Köln etc. 2006, ISBN 978-3-412-35905-8 Media related to Henneberg at Wikimedia Commons Henneberg Genealogy Direct male descent of Babenberger from Robertiner family, in the German Wikipedia Early Babenberger genealogy, in the German Wikipedia
Suhl is a city in Thuringia, located 50 kilometres SW of Erfurt, 110 kilometres NE of Würzburg and 130 kilometres N of Nuremberg. With its 37,000 inhabitants, it is the smallest of the six urban districts within Thuringia. Together with its northern neighbour-town Zella-Mehlis, Suhl forms the largest urban area in the Thuringian Forest with a population of 46,000; the region around Suhl is marked by up to 1,000-meter high mountains, including Thuringia's highest peak, the Großer Beerberg 5 kilometres NE of the city centre. Suhl was first mentioned in 1318 and stayed a small mining and metalworking town, until industrialization broke through in late 19th century and Suhl became a centre of Germany's arms production, specialized on rifles and guns with companies such as Sauer & Sohn. Furthermore, the engineering industry was based in Suhl with Simson, a famous car and moped producer. In 1952, Suhl became one of East Germany's 14 district capitals, which led to a government-directed period of urban growth and conversion.
Its results – a typical 1960s concrete architecture-marked city centre – are defining to the present. With the loss of its administrative and industrial functions, Suhl saw a lasting period of urban decline starting in 1990. Suhl is known for its sportsmen in shooting, winter sports, volleyball. Though first appearing in a 1318 deed, several entries in the annals of Fulda Abbey mentioned a place named Sulaha between 900 and 1155 AD; the coat of arms from 1365 shows two hammers, indicating the city's most important livelihood: metal processing. The region belonged to the territories held by the Franconian counts of Henneberg since the 11th century. Suhl was located on an important trade route from Gotha and Arnstadt passing the Thuringian Forest mountain range at Oberhof and continuing to the Henneberg's residence, Schleusingen. From 1500 onwards, the Henneberg lands belonged to the Franconian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. Suhl has been a Flecken since 1445 and the full municipal rights were granted in 1527, making Suhl one of the youngest cities in present-day Thuringia.
Iron ore mining created the basis for the development of Suhl as a centre of gunsmith trade. The Reformation was introduced in 1544. Several witch-hunts took place in the area from 1553 until the late 17th century; when the Henneberg counts became extinct in 1583, Suhl passed to the Wettin electors of Saxony, where it remained until 1815. Unlike most of present Thuringia, it didn't belong to the Ernestine line of the Wettins, but to the Albertine cadet branch of Saxe-Zeitz from 1660, so that it had been a Saxonian and Prussian exclave within Thuringia for nearly 300 years. During the 16th century, iron mining and metalworking saw a boom, finished by the Thirty Years' War, when marauding Croat mercenaries under Imperial general Johann Ludwig Hektor von Isolani burnt down the city in 1634. From about 1690, Duke Moritz Wilhelm of Saxe-Zeitz supported the reconstruction of Suhl as a mining town; the Congress of Vienna in 1815 led to the Saxonian loss of Suhl. Staying an exclave within Ernestine territories, Suhl was part of the Schleusingen district until the dissolution of Prussia in 1945.
The 19th century brought the connection to the railway in 1882 and the industrialisation of the metalworking business. About 1920, Suhl has been a centre of left-wing revolutionary groups, so that the Reichswehr occupied the city during the Kapp Putsch and ended the workers uprising. After 1935, the military industry saw another boom, caused by the Nazi armament. About 10,000 forced labourers had to work in the city's arms industry after 1940; the US Army reached Suhl on 3 April 1945 and was replaced by Soviet troops on 1 July 1945. At the same year, Suhl became part of Thuringia, replaced by three Bezirks in 1952. Suhl became the capital of the south-western Bezirk, reaching from Bad Salzungen in the north-west to Sonneberg in the south-east with a population of 550,000. During the GDR period, the upgraded city saw a period of rapid urban growth, defining until today. After the German reunification in 1990, Suhl lost its administrative functions when Thuringia was refounded and replaced the Bezirks.
Furthermore, the industry collapsed. Both led to a structural crises; the population of Suhl declined about 35% since 1988. The metal processing of Suhl led, during the Renaissance, to other major local industries, including gunsmithing and armoring. Suhl was a major producer of cannons throughout the seventeenth and subsequent centuries, Suhl cannons were used by many European powers. A major arms company, located in Suhl for 200 years was J. P. Sauer und Sohn GmbH, producer of hunting rifles and pistols, such as the Sauer 38H, until moving operations to Eckernförde at the end of World War II. Other prominent firearms manufacturers in Suhl included: Simson, Waffenfabrik August Menz, noted for having produced in the 1920s the Liliput pistol, one of the smallest semiautomatic handguns made. C. G. Haenel; the largest manufacturer producing firearms in Suhl is Merkel GmbH, who make both rifles and shotguns. During the Cold War, the East German national shooting arena was located at Suhl, hosted many top-level competitions, including the 1986 ISSF World Championships.
Although surpassed in this respect in the unified Germany by the Olympic shooting centre at Munich, Suhl remains an important place to the sport. It hosts Germany's only school for armorers, a well equipped museum of weapons. ¹ Census Suhl is locat
Bishopric of Würzburg
The Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire located in Lower Franconia west of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg. Würzburg had been a diocese since 743; as established by the Concordat of 1448, bishops in Germany were chosen by the canons of the cathedral chapter and their election was confirmed by the pope. Following a common practice in Germany, the prince-bishops of Würzburg were elected to other ecclesiastical principalities as well; the last few prince-bishops resided at the Würzburg Residence, one of the grandest baroque palaces in Europe. As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, Würzburg, along with the other ecclesiastical states of Germany, was secularized in 1803 and absorbed into the Electorate of Bavaria. In the same year Ferdinand III, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the Electorate of Salzburg. In the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, Ferdinand lost Salzburg to the Austrian Empire, but was compensated with the new Grand Duchy of Würzburg, Bavaria having relinquished the territory in return for the Tyrol.
This new state lasted until 1814. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Würzburg was reestablished in 1821 without temporal power. In 1115, Henry V awarded the territory of Eastern Franconia to his nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen, who used the title "Duke of Franconia." Franconia remained a Hohenstaufen power base until 1168, when the Bishop of Würzburg was formally ceded the ducal rights in Eastern Franconia. The name "Franconia" fell out of usage, but the bishop revived it in his own favour in 1442 and held it until the reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte abolished it; the charge of the original coat of arms showed the “Rennfähnlein” banner, quarterly argent and gules, on a lance or, in bend, on a blue shield. In the 14th century another coat of arms was created; the coat of arms represents the holism of earth. The three white pikes represent the Trinity of God and the four red pikes, directed to earth, stand for the four points of the compass, representing the whole spread of earth; the red colour represents the blood of Christ.
The Prince-Bishops used both within their personal coat of arms. The Rechen and the Rennfähnlein represented the diocese, while the other fields showed the personal coat of arms of the bishop's family; the coat of arms showed the Rechen in the first and third field, the Rennfähnlein in the second and fourth field. In 741 or 742 the first bishop of Würzburg was consecrated by Saint Boniface. Secular power lost in 1803. Territory ceded to Bavaria until 1805. Würzburg Cathedral – for burial locations of most Würzburg bishops Ebrach Abbey – beginning with the 13th century, the bishops of Würzburg had their hearts brought to Ebrach Abbey. About 30 hearts of bishops, some of, desecrated during the German Peasants' War, are said to have found their final resting place at Ebrach. Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn broke with this tradition and had his heart buried in the Neubaukirche at Würzburg. Peter Kolb und Ernst-Günther Krenig: Unterfränkische Geschichte. Würzburg 1989. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 1: Die Bischofsreihe bis 1254.
Germania Sacra, NF 1: Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz, Berlin 1962. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 2 - Die Bischofsreihe von 1254 bis 1455. In: Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte: Germania Sacra - Neue Folge 4 - Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz. Berlin 1969. ISBN 978-3-11-001291-0. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 3: Die Bischofsreihe von 1455 bis 1617. Germania Sacra, NF 13: Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz, Berlin/New York 1978. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg 1803-1957. Würzburg 1965. Wissenschaftliche Vereinigung für den Deutschen Orden e. V. und Historische Deutschorden-Compaigne zu Mergentheim 1760 e. V.: 1300 Jahre Würzburg - Zeichen der Geschichte, Bilder und Siegel der Bischöfe von Würzburg. Heft 23. Lauda-Königshofen 2004
The Werra, a river in central Germany, forms the right-source of the Weser. The Werra has its source near Eisfeld in southern Thuringia. After 293 kilometres the Werra joins the river Fulda in the town of Hann. Münden, forming the Weser; the Werra Valley forms a natural border between the Thuringian Forest. Local attractions include Eiben Forest near Dermbach, the fairytale sandstone cave at Walldorf, the deepest lake in Germany formed by land subsidence, the "Krayenburg", the ruins of a castle; the following towns or municipalities lie along the Werra: Hildburghausen, Bad Salzungen, Merkers-Kieselbach, Philippsthal, Wanfried, Bad Sooden-Allendorf and Hann. Münden. Werra Viaduct, Hedemünden List of rivers of Thuringia Media related to Werra at Wikimedia Commons