The Maracanã Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, is a football stadium in Rio de Janeiro. The stadium is part of a complex that includes an arena known by the name of Maracanãzinho, which means "The Little Maracanã" in Portuguese. Owned by the Rio de Janeiro state government, it is, as is the Maracanã neighborhood where it is located, named after the Rio Maracanã, a now canalized river in Rio de Janeiro; the stadium was opened in 1950 to host the FIFA World Cup, in which Brazil was beaten 2–1 by Uruguay in the deciding game, in front of 199,854 spectators on 16 July 1950. The venue has seen attendances of 150,000 or more at 26 occasions, the last being on 29 May 1983, as 155,253 spectators watched Flamengo beat Santos 3-0; the stadium has seen crowds of more than 100,000 284 times. But as terraced sections have been replaced with seats over time, after the renovation for the FIFA World Cup 2014, its original capacity has been reduced to the current 78,838, but it remains the largest stadium in Brazil.
The stadium is used for football matches between the major football clubs in Rio de Janeiro, including Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco da Gama. It has hosted a number of concerts and other sporting events; the total attendance at the last game of the 1950 FIFA World Cup was 199,854, making it the world's largest stadium by capacity when it was inaugurated. After its 2010–13 renovation, the rebuilt stadium seats 78,838 spectators, making it the largest stadium in Brazil and the second in South America after Estadio Monumental in Peru, it was the main venue of the 2007 Pan American Games, hosting the football tournament and the opening and closing ceremonies. The Maracanã was rebuilt in preparation for the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the 2014 World Cup, for which it hosted several matches, including the final, it served as the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, with the main track and field events taking place at the Estádio Olímpico. The official name of the stadium, Mário Filho, was given in honor of an old Pernambucan journalist, the brother of Nelson Rodrigues, a strong vocal supporter of the construction of the Maracanã.
The stadium's popular name is derived from the Maracanã River, whose point of origin is in the jungle-covered hills to the west, crossing various bairros of Rio's Zona Norte, such as Tijuca and São Cristóvão, via a drainage canal which features sloping sides constructed of concrete. Upon flowing into the Canal do Mangue, it empties into Guanabara Bay; the name "Maracanã" derives from the indigenous Tupi–Guarani word for a type of parrot which inhabited the region. The stadium construction was prior to the formation of the Maracanã neighborhood, once part of Tijuca; the stadium of Red Star Belgrade, the Red Star Stadium, is popularly called Marakana in honor of the Brazilian stadium. After winning the right to host the 1950 FIFA World Cup, the Brazilian government sought to build a new stadium for the tournament; the construction of Maracanã was criticized by Carlos Lacerda Congressman and political enemy of the mayor of the city, general Ângelo Mendes de Morais, for the expense and for the chosen location of the stadium, arguing that it should be built in the West Zone neighborhood of Jacarepaguá.
At the time, a tennis stadium stood in the chosen area. Still it was supported by journalist Mário Filho, Mendes de Morais was able to move the project forward; the competition for the design and construction was opened by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 1947, with the construction contract awarded to engineer Humberto Menescal, the architectural contract awarded to seven Brazilian architects, Michael Feldman, Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Oscar Valdetaro, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos, Antônio Dias Carneiro. The first cornerstone was laid at the site of the stadium on 2 August 1948. With the first World Cup game scheduled to be played on 24 June 1950, this left a little under two years to finish construction. However, work fell behind schedule, prompting FIFA to send Dr. Ottorino Barassi, the head of the Italian FA, who had organized the 1934 World Cup, to help in Rio de Janeiro. A work force of 1,500 constructed the stadium, with an additional 2,000 working in the final months.
Despite the stadium having come into use in 1950, the construction was only completed in 1965. The opening match of the stadium took place on 16 June 1950. Rio de Janeiro All-Stars beat São Paulo All-Stars 3–1. While the major part of the stadium was finished, it still looked like a construction site. Brazilian officials claimed it could seat over 200,000 people, while the Guinness Book of World Records estimated it could seat 180,000 and other sources pegged capacity at 155,000. What is beyond dispute is that Maracanã overtook Hampden Park as the largest stadium in the world. Despite the stadium's unfinished state, FIFA allowed matches to be played at the venue, on 24 June 1950, the first World Cup match took place, with 81,000 spectators in attendance. In that first match for which Maracanã had been built, Brazil beat Mexico with a final score 4–0, with Ademir becoming the first scorer of a competitive goal at the stadium with his 30th-minute strike. Ademir had one each from Baltasar and Jair.
The match was refereed by Englishman George Reader. Five of Brazil's six games at the tournament were played at Maracan
Captain (association football)
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is identified by the wearing of an armband; the only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will be the first one to hoist it; the captain generally leads the teams out of the dressing room at the start of the match.
A captain is tasked with running the dressing room. The captain provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost their team's spirits. Captains may join the manager in deciding the starting eleven for a certain game. In youth or recreational football, the captain takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is appointed for a season. If he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, or must leave the pitch the club vice-captain will assume similar duties; the match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one if he was not the club captain. A good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry.
A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, correspondent on the pitch. Manchester United has had both of these types of captains. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain. São Paulo's Rogério Ceni is the player. A vice-captain is a player, expected to captain the side when the club's captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game, the captain is substituted or sent off. Examples include Thomas Müller at Bayern Munich, Marcelo at Real Madrid, César Azpilicueta at Chelsea, Sergio Busquets at Barcelona, Harry Kane at Tottenham Hotspur, James Milner at Liverpool and Ashley Young at Manchester United; some clubs name a 3rd captain or a 4th captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, when Bryan Robson was injured and vice-captain Ray Wilkins received a two-game suspension for a red card, Peter Shilton became England's captain for the rest of the tournament.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had captained the national team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup, but he did not play in the latter tournament due to a last minute injury. Philipp Lahm was appointed captain in South Africa, but due to an illness that ruled him out of Germany's final fixture, Bastian Schweinsteiger captained the team for that game, the third-place match. Lahm stated in an interview that he would not relinquish the captaincy when Ballack returned, causing some controversy, so team manager Oliver Bierhoff clarified the situation saying "Philipp Lahm is the World Cup captain and Michael Ballack is still the captain". Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany until his retirement, as Ballack was never called up to the national team again. Captain
1962 FIFA World Cup
The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the seventh FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams. It was held from 30 May to 17 June 1962 in Chile; the qualification rounds took place between August 1960 and December 1961, with 56 teams entering from six confederations, fourteen qualifying for the finals tournament alongside Chile, the hosts, Brazil, the defending champions. Brazil defended their World Cup title, defeating Czechoslovakia 3–1 in the final in the Chilean capital of Santiago, they became the second team, after Italy in 1938, to win the World Cup twice in succession. Host nation Chile finished third; the tournament was marred by a toxic violence between players on the pitch. It was the first World Cup that used goal average as a means of separating teams with the same number of points, it was the first World Cup in which the average number of goals per match was less than three. After Europe hosted two consecutive World Cups, the American federations claimed the 1962 edition must be held in South America or face a complete boycott of the tournament, similar to 1938.
Argentina, after failed candidacies, was the favorite. Magallanes' chairman, Ernesto Alvear, attended a FIFA Congress held in Helsinki while the Finnish city was hosting the 1952 Summer Olympics, he considered. Several sources say that FIFA did not want Argentina to run alone, requesting the participation of Chile as symbolic. Chile registered its candidacy in 1954 alongside Argentina and West Germany, the latter withdrawing at the request of FIFA. Chile's football federation committee, led by Carlos Dittborn and Juan Pinto Durán, toured many countries convincing various football associations about the country's ability to organise the tournament in comparison to Argentina's superior sports infrastructure and prestige; the FIFA Congress met in Lisbon, Portugal on 10 June 1956. That day, Raul Colombo, representing Argentina's candidacy, ended his speech with the phrase "We can start the World Cup tomorrow. We have it all." The next day, Dittborn presented four arguments that supported Chile's candidacy: Chile's continued participations at FIFA-organised conferences and tournaments, sports climate, tolerance of race and creed and political and institutional stability of the country.
In addition, Dittborn invoked Article 2 of the FIFA statutes that addressed the tournament's role in promoting the sport in countries deemed "underdeveloped". Chile won 31 votes to Argentina's 12. Thirteen members abstained from voting. 57 teams entered the 1962 World Cup. Chile as host nation and Brazil as reigning World Cup champions were granted automatic qualification, with the remaining 14 finals places divided among the continental confederations. Eight places were contested by three by CONMEBOL teams. CAF teams, AFC teams, NAFC teams, CCCF teams contested three play-offs slots; the three winners would face a European or South American team for entry into the World Cup. The 1962 tournament was the last one. Two teams qualified for the first time ever: Colombia and Bulgaria. Colombia would not qualify for another World Cup until 1990. Among the teams who failed to qualify were 1958 runners up Sweden and 1958 third-place finishers France. Austria withdrew during the qualification tournament; the following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament.
Eight stadiums were selected to host the World Cup matches in eight cities: Santiago, Viña del Mar, Arica, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia. The Valdivia earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded, occurred on 22 May 1960. With over 50,000 casualties and more than 2 million people affected, the earthquake forced the organising committee to modify the World Cup's calendar. Talca, Concepción, Talcahuano and Valdivia were damaged and discarded as venues. Antofagasta and Valparaíso declined to host any matches as their venues were not financially self-sustainable. Viña del Mar and Arica managed to rebuild their stadiums while Braden Copper Company an American company that controlled the El Teniente copper mine, allowed the use of its stadium in Rancagua; the most used stadium was the Estadio Nacional in Santiago, with 10 matches. Being concerned with the build-up of the country after the 1960 earthquake, government support for the tournament was minimal. Squads for the 1962 World Cup consisted of 22 players, as for the previous tournament in 1958.
After Attilio Demaría and Luis Monti, who both represented Argentina in 1930 and Italy in 1934, Ferenc Puskás, José Santamaría and José Altafini became the third and fifth players to play for two national teams in the World Cup. In light of this, FIFA created stipulations describing that once a player represents a nation during a World Cup or its qualifying rounds the player cannot switch to another national team
Obdulio Jacinto Muiños Varela was a Uruguayan football player. He was the captain of the Uruguayan national team that won the 1950 World Cup after beating Brazil in the decisive final round match popularly known as the Maracanazo, he was nicknamed "El Negro Jefe" because of his dark skin and the influence he had on the pitch during the unlikely victory over Brazil. He was of African and Greek ancestry. Regarded as one of the greatest classic holding midfielders, Varela was adept in defence and was renowned for his tenacity and leadership, he is regarded as one of the greatest captains in football history. Varela, born in Montevideo, emerged as a centre half and senior player at Deportivo Juventud, club which he joined in 1936, he debuted in first division with Montevideo Wanderers in 1938. In 1943, he joined C. A. Peñarol, club for which he would play until his professional retirement in 1955. Varela's international debut came in a 3 -- 2 win against Chile in the 1939 Copa América in Peru. Varela entered the match as a substitute.
He played 45 international matches for Uruguay from 1939 to 1954. He's most remembered as the captain of the Uruguay team that won 1950 FIFA World Cup, in which he played a vital role; the decisive match was against the hosts Brazil. Uruguay needed to win; when the team were on the dressing room, Juan López, the coach of the Uruguayan team told his players that the best way they could get a chance against Brazil was if they adopted a defensive style he left the room and Varela told his teammates'Juan is a good man, but if we do defend ourselves we will suffer the same fate of Sweden and Spain', said'the game is played on the pitch, when you come out to the pitch, don't look to the crowd, those on the outside are made of wood'. The speech played a vital role on his teammates, who played without fear getting a 0–0 draw on the halftime. Five minutes in the second half, Brazil scored, Varela took scene, when he intentionally walked to his goal, picked up the ball and argued with the English referee George Reader about an innexistent offside, with the intention of delaying the restart of the game so the crowd cooled off.
After that he said to his teammates'Now it's time to win' and the Brazilians in the crowd were in a silent mood. Uruguay scored through Schiaffino and 9 minutes before the finish, with a nervous Brazil team, Alcides Ghiggia scored the 2–1 for Uruguay, winning the World Cup, he played on the 1954 FIFA World Cup with Uruguay defending his 1950 title, but this time, Varela got injured before the semifinals against Hungary, Uruguay lost 4–2 after extra time. Uruguay had never lost a World Cup match, his last match was on June 1955 with Peñarol against América. Varela, one of the team's coaches along with Roque Maspoli, came off the bench for the second half but when he realized he couldn't continue, he decided to end his career. Varela died on August 2, 1996, his remains are buried at Cementerio del Montevideo. With Uruguay: FIFA World Cup winner in 1950 Copa América winner in 1942 Copa Baron de Rio Branco winner against Brasil in 1940, 1946, 1948 Copa Escobar Gerona winner in 1943With Peñarol: Uruguayan first division league champion in 1944, 1945, 1949, 1951, 1953 and 1954 Torneo de Honor winner in 1944, 1945, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952 and 1953 Competencia tourney winner in 1943, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1951 1953Varela was among the 13 best South American players of the 20th century according to the IFFHS' Century Elections.
Obdulio Jacinto Varela 1917-1996 – career information and an interview with Varela Varela at the Brazilian Museo dos Esportes
Edson Arantes do Nascimento, known as Pelé, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is regarded by many in the sport, including football writers and fans, as the greatest player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics, was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award; that same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful domestic league goal-scorer in football history scoring 650 goals in 694 League matches, in total 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and is a Guinness World Record. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world. Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player to do so.
Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is the record goalscorer for Santos, led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos. Averaging a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, he would use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor.
Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, legacy in the sport. Pelé was born Edson Arantes do Nascimento on 23 October 1940, in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, the son of Fluminense footballer Dondinho and Celeste Arantes, he was the elder of two siblings. He was named after the American inventor Thomas Edison, his parents decided to remove the "i" and call him "Edson", but there was a mistake on the birth certificate, leading many documents to show his name as "Edison", not "Edson", as he is called. He was nicknamed "Dico" by his family, he received the nickname "Pelé" during his school days, when it is claimed he was given it because of his pronunciation of the name of his favorite player, local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Bilé, which he misspoke but the more he complained the more it stuck. In his autobiography, Pelé stated he had no idea what the name did his old friends. Apart from the assertion that the name is derived from that of Bilé, that it is Hebrew for "miracle", the word has no known meaning in Portuguese.
Pelé grew up in poverty in Bauru in the state of São Paulo. He earned extra money by working in tea shops as a servant. Taught to play by his father, he could not afford a proper football and played with either a sock stuffed with newspaper and tied with a string or a grapefruit, he played for several amateur teams in his youth, including Sete de Setembro, Canto do Rio, São Paulinho, Amériquinha. Pelé led Bauru Athletic Club juniors to two São Paulo state youth championships. In his mid-teens, he played. Indoor football had just become popular in Bauru, he was part of the first Futebol de Salão competition in the region. Pelé and his team won several others. According to Pelé, indoor football presented difficult challenges. Pelé accredits indoor football for helping. In addition, indoor football allowed him to play with adults. In one of the tournaments he participated, he was considered too young to play, but went on to end up top scorer with fourteen or fifteen goals. "That gave me a lot of confidence", Pelé said, "I knew not to be afraid of whatever might come".
In 1956, de Brito took Pelé to Santos, an industrial and port city located near São Paulo, to try out for professional club Santos FC, telling the directors at Santos that the 15-year-old would be "the greatest football player in the world." Pelé impressed Santos coach Lula during his trial at the Estádio Vila Belmiro, he signed a professional contract with the club in June 1956. Pelé was promoted in the local media as a future superstar, he made his senior team debut on 7 September 1956 at the age of 15 against Corinthians Santo Andre and had an impressive performance in a 7–1 victory, scoring the first goal in his prolific career during the match. When the 1957 season started, Pelé was given a starting place in the first team and, at the age of 16, became the top scorer in the league. Ten months after signing professionally, the teenager was called up to the Brazil national team. After the 1958 and the 1962 World Cup, wealthy Euro
Brazil national football team
The Brazil national football team represents Brazil in international men's association football. Brazil is administered by the Brazilian Football Confederation, the governing body for football in Brazil, they have been a member of FIFA since 1923 and member of CONMEBOL since 1916. Brazil is the most successful national team in the FIFA World Cup, the main football international competition, being crowned winner five times: 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Brazil has the best overall performance in the World Cup, both in proportional and absolute terms, with a record of 73 victories in 109 matches played, 124 goal difference, 237 points, 18 losses. Brazil is the only national team to have played in all World Cup editions without any absence nor need for playoffs; the seleção is the most successful national team in the FIFA Confederations Cup with four titles: 1997, 2005, 2009 and 2013. In relation to ranking standings Brazil fare well, having the all-time highest average football Elo Rating, the fourth all-time highest football Elo Rating established in 1962.
In FIFA's own ranking, Brazil holds the record for most Team of the Year wins with 12. Many commentators and former players have considered the Brazil team of 1970 to be the greatest football team ever. Other Brazilian teams are highly estimated and appear listed among the best teams of all time, such as the Brazil teams of 1958–62, with honorary mentions for the gifted 1982 side. Brazil is the only national team to have won the World Cup on four different continents: once in Europe, once in South America, twice in North America and once in Asia, they share with France and Argentina the feat to have won the three most important men's football titles recognized by FIFA: the World Cup, the Confederations Cup, the Olympic tournament. They share with Spain a record of 35 consecutive matches undefeated. Brazil has notable rivalries with Argentina—known as the Superclássico das Américas in Portuguese—and Italy—known as the Clásico Mundial in Spanish or the World Derby in English. Brazil has produced players considered as the best of the world at their time and among the best in history, such are the cases of Pelé, Zico, Romário, Roberto Carlos, Rivaldo, Kaká and Neymar.
A common quip about football is: "Os ingleses o inventaram, os brasileiros o aperfeiçoaram". It is believed that the first game of the Brazilian national football team was a 1914 match between a Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo select team and the English club Exeter City, held in Fluminense's stadium. Brazil won 2–0 with goals by Oswaldo Gomes and Osman, though it is claimed that the match was a 3–3 draw. In contrast to its future success, the national team's early appearances were not brilliant. Other early matches played during that time include several friendly games against Argentina and Uruguay. However, led by the goalscoring abilities of Arthur Friedenreich, they were victorious at home in the South American Championships in 1919, repeating their victory at home, in 1922. In 1930, Brazil played in the first World Cup, held in Uruguay in 1930; the squad lost to Yugoslavia, being eliminated from the competition. They lost in the first round to Spain in 1934 in Italy, but reached the semi-finals in France in 1938, being defeated 2-1 by eventual winners Italy.
Brazil were the only South American team to participate in this competition. The 1949 South American Championship held in Brazil ended a 27-year streak without official titles; the last one had been in the 1922 South American Championship played on Brazilian soil. After that, Brazil first achieved international prominence; the team went into the last game of the final round, against Uruguay at Estádio do Maracanã in Rio, needing only a draw to win the World Cup. Uruguay, won the match and the Cup in a game known as "the Maracanazo"; the match led to a period of national mourning. For the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland, the Brazilian team was almost renovated, with the team colours changed from all white to the yellow and green of the national flag, to forget the Maracanazo, but still had a group of star players. Brazil reached the quarter-final, where they were beaten 4–2 by tournament favourites Hungary in one of the ugliest matches in football history, known as the Battle of Berne. For the 1958 World Cup, Brazil were drawn in a group with the USSR and Austria.
They beat Austria 3–0 in their first match drew 0–0 with England. Before the match, coach Vicente Feola made three substitutions that were crucial for Brazil to defeat the Soviets: Zito and Pelé. From the kick-off, they kept up the pressure relentlessly, after three minutes, which were described as "the greatest three minutes in the history of football", Vavá gave Brazil the lead, they won the match by 2–0. Pelé scored the only goal of their quarter-final match against Wales, they beat France 5–2 in the semi-final. Brazil beat Sweden 5–2 in the final, winning their first World Cup and becoming the first nation to win a World Cup title outside of its own continent. Pelé described it tearfully as a nation coming of age. In the 1962 World Cup, Brazil earned its second title with Garrincha as the star player, a mantle and responsibility laid upon him after the regular talisman, Pelé, was injured during the second group match against Czechoslovakia and unable to play for the rest of t