Delrina was a Canadian software company, founded in 1988 and was subsequently acquired by the American software firm Symantec in 1995. The company sold electronic form products, including PerForm and FormFlow, but was best known for its WinFax software package, which enabled computers equipped with fax modems to transmit copies of documents to standalone fax machines or other equipped computers. Delrina produced a set of screensavers, including one that resulted in a well-publicized lawsuit for copyright and trademark infringement; the case set a precedent in American law whereby satiric commercial software products are not subject to the same First Amendment exemptions as parodic cartoons or literature. It sold online communications software with its WinComm product and produced a Web browser called Cyberjack; the firm was sold to Symantec in 1995. After the company was acquired by Symantec, various divisions were sold off and several of Delrina's former executives went on to found venture capital firms.
Delrina was founded in Toronto in 1988 by Zimbabwean expatriate Bert Amato, South African expatriates Mark Skapinker and Dennis Bennie and American Lou Ryan. Delrina was Bennie's third major entrepreneurial start up after co-founding Mission Electronics, a high-end home entertainment equipment producer, Aviva Software, which became Ingram Micro Canada. Delrina's business strategy was to "establish technical and market leadership in niche markets", which it accomplished with its electronic form and PC-based fax software. A year before the firm was incorporated and Skapinker had quit their jobs to start work on an electronic forms product which would become PerForm. Both would meet with Bennie, the co-founder and CEO of Ingram Micro Canada before becoming CEO of Carolian Systems International, a firm that made business software for Hewlett-Packard. Bennie facilitated an initial seed investment of $1.5 million CAD to finance a new start-up company, "Delrina", to develop this idea. In return, Carolian received 51% of Delrina's shares, Dennis Bennie would become Chairman and CEO, Mark Skapinker President, Bert Amato CTO of newly formed Delrina Technology Inc.
Delrina's initial corporate headquarters was located in a small office on Mount Pleasant St in Toronto. A sales office was set up in San Jose, California which became its worldwide sales center run by co-founder Lou Ryan. From its Toronto headquarters, the company expanded by establishing branch offices in Kirkland, Washington. Other offices were established in the United Kingdom and Germany. Delrina's initial product offering was an electronic forms application called PerForm. Amato and Skapinker came up with the idea for the product while working as consultants that what their clients wanted was a way to fill in forms electronically, rather than an easier way to create paper-based forms from a computer. There was significant and long-term uptake of electronic forms products within governmental agencies both in Canada and the United States, the latter spurred on in particular by the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act to reduce the total amount of paperwork handled by the United States government.
One of the firm's early major software deals included a multi-year agreement to sell PerForm to the U. S. Navy in 1990. Soon after the software was installed on Compaq laptops that accompanied U. S. troops during the First Gulf War, where it was used to requisition "everything from Coca-Cola to privies". Other significant volume sales went to Rockwell International. What helped set apart Delrina's electronic forms from its competitors in product reviews included its easy-to-use interface, its extensive development tools, its comparatively low price, it scored when it came to workflow and routing functions as well as security features. In early 1991 InfoWorld selected PerForm Pro as its "Product of the Year" in the electronic forms category, PC World Magazine gave the product it's "Best Buy" designation. PerForm proved to be successful in its niche capturing the retail market by 1993. In the early 1990s Delrina made deals with value-added resellers like NCR and GE Information Services who had the staff to customize the product to the needs of corporate customers looking to move away from paper-based forms.
The forms products sold well and the annual revenues for the firm grew steadily. Despite the growing revenues, the company struggled to make a profit. Heavy expenditures—primarily marketing along with research and development costs—drove the firm's losses from $500,000 from 1989 to $1.5 million by the end of the following fiscal year. For fiscal 1991 it posted a net loss of $1.7 million. Needing an infusion of funds, in April 1991 Bennie managed to raise $7.7 million in a private placement. The firm subsequently sought to find ways to more distribute its electronic form software, with Bennie saying in May 1992 that "we've scratched the surface of our market". In early 1992 word leaked to the press on a possible merger between WordStar International Inc. and soon after both firms made public the fact that they had signed a letter of intent on a merger deal. However, just over a month word came out that the merger talks had fallen through, at the time cited to differences over "complex legal and management issues".
WordStar, whose share of the word processing market had by that time fallen to 5% was seeking Delrina's advanced technologies while Delrina was hoping to utilize the other firm's established global sales network. Despite the failure of the merge
Heathkit is the brand name of kits and other electronic products produced and marketed by the Heath Company. The products over the decades have included electronic test equipment, high fidelity home audio equipment, television receivers, amateur radio equipment, electronic ignition conversion modules for early model cars with point style ignitions, the influential Heath H-8, H-89, H-11 hobbyist computers, which were sold in kit form for assembly by the purchaser. Heathkit manufactured electronic kits from 1947 until 1992. After closing that business, the Heath Company continued with its products for education, motion-sensor lighting controls; the lighting control business was sold around 2000. The company announced in 2011 that they were reentering the kit business after a 20-year hiatus but filed for bankruptcy in 2012, under new ownership began restructuring in 2013; as of 2018, the company has a live website with products and vintage kits and replacement parts for sale. The Heath Company was founded as an aircraft company in 1911 by Edward Bayard Heath with the purchase of Bates Aeroplane Co, soon renamed to the E.
B. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co. Starting in 1926 it sold the Heath Parasol, in kit form. Heath died during a 1931 test flight; the company moved from Chicago to Niles, Michigan. In 1935, Howard Anthony purchased the then-bankrupt Heath Company, focused on selling accessories for small aircraft. After World War II, Anthony decided that entering the electronics industry was a good idea, bought a large stock of surplus wartime electronic parts with the intention of building kits with them. In 1947, Heath introduced its first electronic kit, the O1 oscilloscope that sold for US$50—the price was unbeatable at the time, the oscilloscope went on to be a huge seller. After the success of the oscilloscope kit, Heath went on to produce dozens of Heathkit products. Heathkits were influential in shaping two generations of electronic hobbyists; the Heathkit sales premise was that by investing the time to assemble a Heathkit, the purchaser could build something comparable to a factory-built product at a lower cash cost and, if it malfunctioned, could repair it themself.
During those decades, the premise was valid. Commercial factory-built electronic products were constructed from generic, discrete components such as vacuum tubes, tube sockets, capacitors and resistors, hand-wired and assembled; the home kit-builder could perform these assembly tasks himself, and, if careful, to at least the same standard of quality. In the case of their most expensive product, the Thomas electronic organ, building the Heathkit version represented substantial savings. One category in which Heathkit enjoyed great popularity was amateur radio. Ham radio operators had been forced to build their equipment from scratch before the advent of kits, with the difficulty of procuring all the parts separately and relying on often-experimental designs. Kits brought the convenience of all parts being supplied together and the assurance of a predictable finished product; the HW-101 HF transceiver became so ubiquitous that today the "Hot Water One-Oh-One" can be found in use, or purchased as used equipment at hamfests, decades after it went out of production.
The exterior fit and finish of the Heathkit enclosures was not always quite up to the standards of factory-built products, but a Heathkit amplifier, for instance, did not look out of place in a living room. The technical characteristics of many Heathkits were good; the ordinary consumer would, of course, buy a factory-built phonograph from the likes of RCA. In the case of electronic test equipment, Heathkits filled a low-end niche. A Hewlett-Packard, Tektronix, or Fluke product might have metal vernier dials or ten-turn pots with digital readouts, while a Heathkit might use a simple plastic pointer and a scale screen printed onto the front panel. A $40 Heathkit oscilloscope might not be remotely comparable to a factory-built oscilloscope—but there were no $40 factory-built oscilloscopes. Building a Heathkit required time and the ability to follow directions. Heathkits were complete except for tools; the instruction books were regarded as the best in the kit industry, being models of clarity, beginning with basic lessons on soldering technique, proceeding with explicit directions, illustrated with line drawings: the drawings opened out so as to be opposite the relevant text and were aligned with the assembler's eye position.
In view was a box to tick as each task was accomplished. No knowledge of electronics was needed to assemble a Heathkit; the assembly process did not teach much about electronics, but provided a great deal of what could have been called "electronics literacy," such as the ability to identify tube pin numbers or read a resistor color code. Many hobbyists began by assembling Heathkits, became familiar with the appearance of components like capacitors, transformers and tubes, were motivated to find out just what these components did. For those builders who had a deeper knowledge of electronics, the assembly manuals included a detailed "Theory of Operation" chapter, which explained the functioning of the kit's circuitry, section by section. Heath developed a relationship with electronics corresponde
Monroe is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan located on the western shore of Lake Erie. It is largest city of Monroe County. Monroe had a population of 20,733 in the 2010 census; the city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township. Monroe is located 14 miles north of Toledo, 25 miles south of Detroit; the United States Census Bureau lists Monroe as the core city in the Monroe Metropolitan Area, which had a population of 152,021 in 2010. Monroe is part of the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint combined statistical area, the city is sometimes unofficially included as a northerly extension of the Toledo Metropolitan Area; the Monroe area was the scene of several military conflicts during the War of 1812 with Great Britain and is best remembered for the Battle of Frenchtown. In 1817, portions of the Frenchtown settlement along the River Raisin were platted and renamed Monroe after then-president James Monroe; when Michigan became a state in 1837, Monroe was incorporated as a city. Monroe is known as the childhood residence of George Armstrong Custer and other members of his family, including his brother Boston Custer and wife Elizabeth Bacon.
Several structures are named including Custer Airport. The city contains numerous other historic structures. In 1928, La-Z-Boy was founded in Monroe. Long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, the area around the River Raisin was settled by the historic Potawatomi hundreds of years before French explorers and colonists reached it in the late seventeenth century. Robert de LaSalle claimed the area for New France after his 1679 expedition on the Griffon. In 1784, after the American Revolutionary War, Francis Navarre of Canada was given a portion of land south of the River Raisin by the Potawatomi. Colonists settled Frenchtown shortly thereafter as the third European community in what in the early 19th century became the state of Michigan. Around the same time, the Sandy Creek Settlement was established just north of Frenchtown by French-Canadian Joseph Porlier Benec; because of its proximity to Detroit, the area was of strategic importance during the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain after Fort Detroit surrendered to the British in August 1812.
American forces en route to retake Detroit had camped in the area of the River Raisin in the winter of 1812-13. A force of 200 Native Americans and 63 Canadian militia were forced to retreat north away from the River Raisin by 600 Kentucky militiamen and 100 French, under the command of James Winchester, on January 18, 1813; this skirmish was dubbed the'First Battle of the River Raisin'. But, on January 22, 1813, a force of 800 Native Americans and 597 British, under Henry Procter, surprised the force of 1,000 Americans and captured Frenchtown. Many of the American militia were inexperienced, ill-trained, badly equipped, they suffered 397 547 captured. The British and their allies had only slight losses; when the British departed with their captives to Detroit, they left those Americans too wounded to walk in the homes of Frenchtown inhabitants under the guard of a small British detachment and Native American allies, including Potawatomi. The morning after the battle, other Native Americans returned to Frenchtown.
They plundered and burned homes, killed and ritually scalped many of the remaining American captives, taking others as slaves. The official U. S. estimate of casualties in this aftermath include a dozen named individuals killed and up to 30 more who were killed. The British estimated; this event became known throughout the United States as the "River Raisin Massacre". This was known as the Battle of Frenchtown. Today, the site of the battle is preserved as the River Raisin National Battlefield Park, authorized in 2009, it is the first and so far the only national battlefield established for a War of 1812 site. It has a small visitor center; the area of Frenchtown was renamed after the War of 1812 and incorporated as the village of Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. He visited the Michigan Territory in 1817. In the same year, the city of Monroe was named as the county seat of the newly created Monroe County. Monroe was re-incorporated as a city in 1837. Settled by American migrants from New York and New England, Monroe became associated with events in the West in the 19th century the Indian Wars.
It is known as the childhood home of George Armstrong Custer, who had a military career in which he reached the rank of Major General. His family moved here when he was young, he lived in Monroe for much of his childhood. Here he met and in 1864 married Elizabeth Bacon, during the Civil War. In the 19th century, he led troops in the Indian Wars and died at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, in which his forces were killed by the Lakota, they call it the Battle of the Greasy Grass. In 1910, President William Howard Taft and the widow Elizabeth Bacon Custer unveiled an equestrian statue of Custer, which now stands at the corner of Elm Avenue and Monroe Street. Custer is honored in street names, various historic markers, buildings and the regional Custer Airport. City limit signs for Monroe describe the city as "the home of General Custer." The La-Z-Boy furniture company, which became known for its reclining easy chairs, was founded in Monroe in 1927. Their world headquarters are still located in Monroe, in a secluded area south of the intersection of La-Z-Boy Blvd and Stewart Road.
This new facility is 1/2 a mile east of the original location on Telegraph R
Windows XP is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows XP began in the late 1990s as "Neptune", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel, intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows 2000 was originally planned for the business market; as such, Windows XP was the first consumer edition of Windows not to be based on MS-DOS. Upon its release, Windows XP received positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and stability, a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, expanded multimedia capabilities. However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, 2014, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
As of March 2019, 1.75% of Windows PCs run Windows XP, the OS is still most popular in some countries with up to 38% of the Windows share. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. However, the projects proved to be too ambitious. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort; the goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, unveiled the first preview build, 2250.
The build notably introduced an early version of Windows XP's visual styles system. Microsoft released the first beta build of Whistler, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. Subsequent builds introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognise, such as Internet Explorer 6.0, the Microsoft Product Activation system and the Bliss desktop background. On February 5, 2001, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for "eXPerience". In June 2001, Microsoft indicated that it was planning to, in conjunction with Intel and other PC makers, spend at least 1 billion US dollars on marketing and promoting Windows XP; the theme of the campaign, "Yes You Can", was designed to emphasize the platform's overall capabilities. Microsoft had planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24, 2001, Windows XP build. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus, copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases, who flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, 2001, XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, 2001. On the same day, Microsoft announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional". While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows, "visual styles", which changed the appearance of the operating system; the number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP added ClearType, a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. A new set of system icons was introduced; the default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list and display used applications opened documents, the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows; the notification area hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions. Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and loggin
Compuware Corporation is an American software company with products aimed at the information technology departments of large businesses. The company's services include testing, development and performance management software for programs running on mainframe computer systems; the company has its headquarters in Michigan. In December 2014, Compuware was acquired by private equity firm Thoma Bravo and became a held company. In 1973, Peter Karmanos, Jr. Thomas Thewes, Allen B. Cutting established Compuware Corporation, their vision was to help people do things with computers by providing their clients with professional technical services, allowing them to focus on their own core businesses. In 1977, Compuware introduced its first software product. Designed to detect bugs and suggest corrective action in corporate IBM mainframe systems; the release of Abend-AID established a product strategy for Compuware, alleviating the peaks and valleys of revenue that occur in the services business. By 1978, Compuware opened its first remote office to service the Washington, D.
C. and Baltimore area. Compuware launched its File-AID product line. Using a request-driven interface, File-AID products help programmers and developers and find, extract, fix, load, edit and compare data; this allows developers to focus on maintaining applications that meet business needs. Compuware announced Playback, the company's first automated testing tool. Compuware moved from its Southfield location to a new corporate headquarters in Farmington Hills, Michigan. Compuware acquired its first European subsidiaries during the 1980s. Compuware launched Powerbase with Datazoom, a user-friendly, non-programmable, relational database for MS-DOS through Compuware/Power-base Systems, Inc. Throughout the 1990s, Compuware acquired several companies, building their position in the marketplace, including Centura Software, XA Systems, EcoSystems Software, Uniface development environment, Coronet, Direct Technology Limited, DRD Promark, Inc, NuMega, Data Processing Resources Corporation and the CACI Products Company.
In 1992, Compuware completed its initial public offering of stock trading on the NASDAQ under the symbol CPWR. In 1994, Compuware commenced a secondary public offering to raise cash, named Joseph A. Nathan President and Chief Operating Officer. By April 1998, Compuware had more than $800 million in sales. At the end of 1998, Compuware surpassed the US$1 billion revenue mark. In 1999, the number of Compuware employees grew prompting the company to build a new headquarters building in Campus Martius Park in Detroit, Michigan. Since 2000, Compuware has acquired Inc.. Nomex, Inc. Covisint, LLC, Inc. SteelTrace, Proxima Technology's Centauri Business Service Manager. In 2003, the company's 30th year of existence, Compuware completed construction on its new world headquarters building in downtown Detroit. On November 9, 2009 Compuware acquired Gomez, Inc. for its application performance management software. On July 6, 2011, Compuware acquired dynaTrace software. On September 25, 2013 Compuware subsidiary Covisint announced pricing of Initial Public Offering.
On January 8, 2014 Compuware announced the planned divestiture of its Changepoint, Professional Services, Uniface divisions to Marlin Equity Partners for $160 million. Compuware completed a spin-off of Covisint on October 31, 2014. In December 2014, Compuware was acquired by private equity firm Thoma Bravo, LLC. On September 2, 2014 Compuware and private equity firm Thoma Bravo, LLC, jointly announced that Compuware had entered into a definitive agreement to be acquired by Thoma Bravo for $2.5 billion. After finalizing the deal in December 2014, plans were announced to separate Compuware's remaining Mainframe and Application Performance Management business units into two distinct companies; the mainframe business unit retains the Compuware name and is focused on mainframe software. Christopher O'Malley is the current CEO. Compuware's former APM business operates independently under the new Dynatrace name with John Van Siclen operating as CEO; as a result of the privatization, Compuware stock is no longer listed on the NASDAQ.
Beginning in 2014, around the time of Thoma Bravo, LLC's acquisition, Compuware began shifting from a Waterfall development methodology to Agile development. With the release of Compuware Topaz—a solution that allows developers, data architects and other IT professionals to discover and work with mainframe and non-mainframe data in a common, intuitive manner—on January 5, 2015, Compuware has since released net-new mainframe software on a quarterly basis. In an interview with Jim Probasco of Benzinga, Compuware CEO Chris O'Malley said the company had adopted a startup mentality and that he supported an "agenda of innovation where our strategy is, every quarter like clockwork, to introduce updates to the existing base of technology as well as bringing out net new products." "We've retooled development," he added, "and gone from the traditional'waterfall' model that has 12 to 18 month development cycles quarterly with an'agile' methodology." By pursuing technology integrations and partnerships with companies focused on non-mainframe DevOps software, Compuware has allowed "CIOs to shift responsibility for mainframe applications to enterprise DevOps staff with mainstream skills using popular tools within today's mainstream culture of agility and innovation."
According to eWeek, "O'Malley said he believes that large enterprises that fail to bring Agile and DevOps best practices to their high-value COBOL applications wi
IBM Personal Computer
The IBM Personal Computer known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, was introduced on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture, within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, software proliferated. "IBM compatible" became an important criterion for sales growth. International Business Machines, one of the world's largest companies, had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market in 1982. In the late 1970s the new personal computer industry was dominated by the Commodore PET, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Tandy Corporation's TRS-80, various CP/M machines.
With $150 million in sales by 1979 and projected annual growth of more than 40% in the early 1980s, the microcomputer market was large enough for IBM's attention. Other large technology companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, Data General had entered it, some large IBM customers were buying Apples, so the company saw introducing its own personal computer as both an experiment in a new market and a defense against rivals and small. In 1980 and 1981 rumors spread of an IBM personal computer a miniaturized version of the IBM System/370, while Matsushita acknowledged that it had discussed with IBM the possibility of manufacturing a personal computer for the American company; the Japanese project, codenamed "Go", ended before the 1981 release of the American-designed IBM PC codenamed "Chess", but two simultaneous projects further confused rumors about the forthcoming product. Data General and TI's small computers were not successful, but observers expected AT&T to soon enter the computer industry, other large companies such as Exxon, Montgomery Ward and Sony were designing their own microcomputers.
Xerox produced the 820 to introduce a personal computer before IBM, becoming the second Fortune 500 company after Tandy to do so, had its Xerox PARC laboratory's sophisticated technology. Whether IBM had waited too long to enter an industry in which Tandy and others were successful was unclear. An observer stated that "IBM bringing out a personal computer would be like teaching an elephant to tap dance." Successful microcomputer company Vector Graphic's fiscal 1980 revenue was $12 million. A single IBM computer in the early 1960s cost as much as $9 million, occupied one quarter acre of air-conditioned space, had a staff of 60 people; the "Colossus of Armonk" only sold through its own sales force, had no experience with resellers or retail stores, did not introduce the first product designed to work with non-IBM equipment until 1980. Another observer claimed that IBM made decisions so that, when tested, "what they found is that it would take at least nine months to ship an empty box"; as with other large computer companies, its new products required about four to five years for development.
IBM had to learn how to develop, mass-produce, market new computers. While the company traditionally let others pioneer a new market—IBM released its first commercial computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC in 1951, but within five years had 85% of the market—the personal-computer development and pricing cycles were much faster than for mainframes, with products designed in a few months and obsolete quickly. Many in the microcomputer industry resented IBM's power and wealth, disliked the perception that an industry founded by startups needed a latecomer so staid that it had a strict dress code and employee songbook; the potential importance to microcomputers of a company so prestigious, that a popular saying in American companies stated "No one got fired for buying IBM", was nonetheless clear. InfoWorld, which described itself as "The Newsweekly for Microcomputer Users", stated that "for my grandmother, for millions of people like her, IBM and computer are synonymous". Byte stated in an editorial just before the announcement of the IBM PC: Rumors abound about personal computers to come from giants such as Digital Equipment Corporation and the General Electric Company.
But there is no contest. IBM's new personal computer... is far and away the media star, not because of its features, but because it exists at all. When the number eight company in the Fortune 500 enters the field, news... The influence of a personal computer made by a company whose name has come to mean "computer" to most of the world is hard to contemplate; the editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: "I want to see personal computing take a giant step." Desktop sized programmable calculators by HP had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972. In 1972–1973 a team led by Dr. Paul Friedl at the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Po
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in