New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc. globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five"; the Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras, its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004. The New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace; the orchestra was called the Philharmonic Society of New York. It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, had as its intended purpose, "the advancement of instrumental music." The first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7, 1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600.
The concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, led by Hill himself. Two other conductors, German-born Henry Christian Timm and French-born Denis Etienne, led parts of the eclectic, three-hour program, which included chamber music and several operatic selections with a leading singer of the day, as was the custom; the musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct. At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves. After only a dozen public performances and four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall; the centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, conducted by George Loder; the chorals were translated into. However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the hoped-for audience was kept away and the new hall would have to wait.
Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, the Ninth soon became the work performed most when a grand gesture was required. During the Philharmonic's first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and Alfred Boucher; this changed in 1849. Eisfeld along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865; that year, Eisfeld conducted the Orchestra's memorial concert for the assassinated Abraham Lincoln, but in a peculiar turn of events which were criticized in the New York press, the Philharmonic omitted the last movement, "Ode to Joy", as being inappropriate for the occasion. That year Eisfeld returned to Europe, Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszt's former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season, but failing to win support from the Philharmonic's public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878.
Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over and continued the competition with the old Philharmonic. It was Walter who would convince Andrew Carnegie that New York needed a first-class concert hall and on May 5, 1891, both Walter and Russian composer Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted at the inaugural concert of the city's new Music Hall, which in a few years would be renamed for its primary benefactor, Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestra's home until 1962; the Philharmonic in 1877 was in desperate financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. Representatives of the Philharmonic wished to attract the German-born, American-trained conductor Theodore Thomas, whose own Theodore Thomas Orchestra had competed directly with the Philharmonic for over a decade and which had brought him fame and great success. At first the Philharmonic's suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra.
Because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877. With the exception of the 1878/79 season – when he was in Cincinnati and Adolph Neuendorff led the group – Thomas conducted every season for fourteen years, vastly improving the orchestra's financial health while creating a polished and virtuosic ensemble, he left in 1891 to found taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him. Another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898. Seidl, who had served as Wagner's assistant, was a renowned conductor of the composer's works. During his tenure, the Philharmonic enjoyed a period of unprecedented success and prosperity and performed its first world premiere written by a world-renowned composer in the United States – Antonín Dvořák's Ninth Symphony "From the New World". Seidl's sudden death in 1898 from food poisoning at the age of 47 was mourned.
Twelve thousand people applied for tickets to his funeral at the Metropolitan Opera House at 39th Street and Broadway and the streets were jammed for blocks with a "surging mass" of his admirers. According to Joseph Horowitz, Sei
The Vienna Philharmonic, founded in 1842, is an orchestra considered to be one of the finest in the world. The Vienna Philharmonic is based at the Musikverein in Austria, its members are selected from the orchestra of the Vienna State Opera. Selection involves a lengthy process, with each musician demonstrating his or her capability for a minimum of three years' performance for the opera and ballet. After this probationary period, the musician may request an application for a position in the orchestra from the Vienna Philharmonic's board; until the 1830s, orchestral performance in Vienna was done by ad hoc orchestras, consisting of professional and amateur musicians brought together for specific performances. In 1833, Franz Lachner formed the forerunner of the Vienna Philharmonic, the Künstlerverein – an orchestra of professional musicians from the Vienna Court Opera; the Vienna Philharmonic itself arose nine years in 1842, hatched by a group who met at the inn'Zum Amor', including the poet Nikolaus Lenau, newspaper editor August Schmidt, critic Alfred Becker, violinist Karlz Holz, Count Laurecin, composer Otto Nicolai, the principal conductor of a standing orchestra at a Viennese theater.
Mosco Carner wrote in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "Nicolai was the least enthusiastic about the idea, had to be persuaded by the others. The orchestra was independent, consisted of members of the Hofoper orchestra, made all of its decisions by a democratic vote of its members. Nicolai and the orchestra gave only 11 concerts in the ensuing five years, when Nicolai left Vienna in 1847, the orchestra nearly folded. Between 1854 and 1857, Karl Eckert – the first permanent conductor of the Vienna Court Opera – led the Vienna Philharmonic in a few concerts. In 1857, Eckert was made Director of the Hofoper – the first musician to have been given the post. Since that time, writes Vienna Philharmonic violinist and president Clemens Hellsberg, "the'Philharmonic Concerts' have been staged without interruption." In 1860, the orchestra elected Otto Dessoff to be the permanent conductor. According to Max Kalbeck, the Vienna-based music critic, newspaper editor, biographer, the fame and excellence of the Vienna Philharmonic resulted from Dessoff's "energy and sense of purpose."
Clemens Hellsberg gives specifics, writing that during the Dessoff years, the Vienna Philharmonic's "repertoire was enlarged, important organizational principles were introduced and the orchestra moved to its third new home, the newly built Goldener Saal in the Musikverein building in Vienna, which has proved to be the ideal venue, with its acoustical characteristics influencing the orchestra's style and sound." After fifteen years, in 1875, Dessoff was "pushed out of his position in Vienna through intrigue", he left Vienna to become conductor of the Badische Staatskapelle in Karlsruhe, Germany. In Karlsruhe the next year, he fulfilled the request of his friend Johannes Brahms to conduct the first performance of his Symphony no. 1. In 1875, the orchestra chose Hans Richter to take Dessoff's place as subscription conductor, he remained until 1898, except for the season 1882/1883, when he was in dispute with the orchestral committee. Richter led the VPO in the world premieres of Brahms's Second Symphony, Tragic Overture, Symphony no.
3, the Violin Concerto of Tchaikovsky, in 1892 the 8th symphony of Anton Bruckner. It was Richter who in 1881 appointed Arnold Rosé as concertmaster, to become Gustav Mahler's brother-in-law and was concertmaster until the Anschluss in 1938. In order to be eligible for a pension, Richter intended to remain in his position for 25 years, he might have done so, given that the orchestra unanimously re-elected him in May 1898, but he resigned on 22 September, citing health reasons, although biographer Christopher Fifield argues that the real reasons were that he wanted to tour, that "he was uneasy as claques in the audience formed in favour of Gustav Mahler". Richter recommended Ferdinand Löwe to the orchestra as his replacement. In 1898, on 24 September, the orchestra elected Gustav Mahler. Under Mahler's baton, the Vienna Philharmonic played abroad for the first time at the 1900 Paris World Exposition. While Mahler had strong supporters in the orchestra, he faced dissension from other orchestral members, criticism of his re-touchings of Beethoven, arguments with the orchestra and over new policies he imposed.
He resigned on 1 April 1901, citing health concerns as a
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev was a Russian Soviet composer and conductor. As the creator of acknowledged masterpieces across numerous musical genres, he is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century, his works include such heard pieces as the March from The Love for Three Oranges, the suite Lieutenant Kijé, the ballet Romeo and Juliet—from which "Dance of the Knights" is taken—and Peter and the Wolf. Of the established forms and genres in which he worked, he created – excluding juvenilia – seven completed operas, seven symphonies, eight ballets, five piano concertos, two violin concertos, a cello concerto, a symphony-concerto for cello and orchestra, nine completed piano sonatas. A graduate of the St Petersburg Conservatory, Prokofiev made his name as an iconoclastic composer-pianist, achieving notoriety with a series of ferociously dissonant and virtuosic works for his instrument, including his first two piano concertos. In 1915, Prokofiev made a decisive break from the standard composer-pianist category with his orchestral Scythian Suite, compiled from music composed for a ballet commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev of the Ballets Russes.
Diaghilev commissioned three further ballets from Prokofiev—Chout, Le pas d'acier and The Prodigal Son—which at the time of their original production all caused a sensation among both critics and colleagues. Prokofiev's greatest interest, was opera, he composed several works in that genre, including The Gambler and The Fiery Angel. Prokofiev's one operatic success during his lifetime was The Love for Three Oranges, composed for the Chicago Opera and subsequently performed over the following decade in Europe and Russia. After the Revolution of 1917, Prokofiev left Russia with the official blessing of the Soviet minister Anatoly Lunacharsky, resided in the United States Germany Paris, making his living as a composer and conductor. During that time, he married Carolina Codina, with whom he had two sons. In the early 1930s, the Great Depression diminished opportunities for Prokofiev's ballets and operas to be staged in America and western Europe. Prokofiev, who regarded himself as composer foremost, resented the time taken by touring as a pianist, turned to the Soviet Union for commissions of new music.
He enjoyed some success there – notably with Lieutenant Kijé, Peter and the Wolf and Juliet, above all with Alexander Nevsky. The Nazi invasion of the USSR spurred him to compose his most ambitious work, an operatic version of Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace. In 1948, Prokofiev was attacked for producing "anti-democratic formalism." He enjoyed personal and artistic support from a new generation of Russian performers, notably Sviatoslav Richter and Mstislav Rostropovich: he wrote his ninth piano sonata for the former and his Symphony-Concerto for the latter. Prokofiev was born in 1891 in Sontsovka, a remote rural estate in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate of the Russian Empire, his father, Sergei Alexeyevich Prokofiev, was an agronomist. Prokofiev's mother, came from a family of former serfs, owned by the Sheremetev family, under whose patronage serf-children were taught theatre and arts from an early age, she was described by Reinhold Glière as "a tall woman with beautiful, clever eyes … who knew how to create an atmosphere of warmth and simplicity about her."
After their wedding in the summer of 1877, the Prokofievs moved to a small estate in the Smolensk governorate. Sergei Alexeyevich found employment as a soil engineer, employed by one of his former fellow-students, Dmitri Sontsov, to whose estate in the Ukrainian steppes the Prokofievs moved. By the time of Prokofiev's birth, Maria—having lost two daughters—had devoted her life to music. Sergei Prokofiev was inspired by hearing his mother practising the piano in the evenings works by Chopin and Beethoven, wrote his first piano composition at the age of five, an "Indian Gallop", written down by his mother: it was in the F Lydian mode, as the young Prokofiev felt "reluctance to tackle the black notes". By seven, he had learned to play chess. Chess would remain a passion of his, he became acquainted with world chess champions José Raúl Capablanca, whom he beat in a simultaneous exhibition match in 1914, Mikhail Botvinnik, with whom he played several matches in the 1930s. At the age of nine, he was composing his first opera, The Giant, as well as an overture and various other pieces.
In 1902, Prokofiev's mother met Sergei Taneyev, director of the Moscow Conservatory, who suggested that Prokofiev should start lessons in piano and composition with Alexander Goldenweiser. Unable to arrange that, Taneyev instead arranged for composer and pianist Reinhold Glière to spend the summer of 1902 in Sontsovka teaching Prokofiev; the first series of lessons culminated, at the 11-year-old Prokofiev's insistence, with the budding composer making his first attempt to write a symphony. The following summer, Glière revisited Sontsovka to give further tuition. When, decades Prokofiev wrote about his lessons with Glière, he gave due credit to his teacher's sympathetic method but complained that Glière had introduced him to "square" phrase structure and conventional modulations, which he subsequently had to unlearn. Nonetheless, equipped with the n
David Warren Brubeck was an American jazz pianist and composer, considered one of the foremost exponents of cool jazz. He wrote a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranged from refined to bombastic, reflecting both his mother's attempts at classical training and his own improvisational skills, his music is known for employing unusual time signatures as well as superimposing contrasting rhythms and tonalities. Brubeck experimented with time signatures throughout his career, recording "Pick Up Sticks" in 64, "Unsquare Dance" in 74, "World's Fair" in 134, "Blue Rondo à la Turk" in 98, he was a composer of orchestral and sacred music and wrote soundtracks for television, such as Mr. Broadway and the animated miniseries This Is America, Charlie Brown. Incorrectly attributed to Brubeck, the song "Take Five", which has become a jazz standard, was composed by Brubeck's long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond. Appearing on one of the top-selling jazz albums, Time Out, written in 54 time, "Take Five" has endured as a jazz classic associated with Brubeck.
Dave Brubeck was born in the San Francisco Bay Area city of Concord and grew up in a city located in the Mother Lode called Ione, California. His father, Peter Howard "Pete" Brubeck, was a cattle rancher, his mother, who had studied piano in England under Myra Hess and intended to become a concert pianist, taught piano for extra money, his father had Swiss ancestry and Native American Modoc lineage, while his maternal grandparents were English and German. Brubeck did not intend to become a musician, but took lessons from his mother, he could not read music during these early lessons, attributing this difficulty to poor eyesight, but "faked" his way through well enough that this deficiency went unnoticed. Intending to work with his father on their ranch, Brubeck entered the College of the Pacific in Stockton, studying veterinary science, he changed to music on the urging of the head of zoology, Dr. Arnold, who told him "Brubeck, your mind's not here. It's across the lawn in the conservatory. Please go there.
Stop wasting my time and yours." Brubeck was nearly expelled when one of his professors discovered that he could not read music on sight. Several of his professors came forward, arguing that his ability to write counterpoint and harmony more than compensated, demonstrated his familiarity with music notation; the college was still afraid that it would cause a scandal, agreed to let Brubeck graduate only after he had promised never to teach piano. After graduating in 1942, Brubeck was drafted into the U. S. Army, he served in Europe in the Third Army. He volunteered to play piano at a Red Cross show and was such a hit that he was spared from combat service and ordered to form a band, he created one of the U. S. armed forces' first racially integrated bands, "The Wolfpack". While serving in the military, Brubeck met Paul Desmond in early 1944, he returned to college after serving nearly four years in the army, this time attending Mills College in Oakland. He studied under Darius Milhaud, who encouraged him to study fugue and orchestration, but not classical piano.
While on active duty, he received two lessons from Arnold Schoenberg at UCLA in an attempt to connect with high modernist theory and practice. However, the encounter did not end on good terms since Schoenberg believed that every note should be accounted for, an approach which Brubeck could not accept, although according to his son Chris Brubeck, there is a twelve-tone row in The Light in the Wilderness, Dave Brubeck's first oratorio. In it, Jesus's twelve disciples are introduced each singing their own individual notes. In 1949, Sheedy was talked into making the first recording of Brubeck's octet and his trio, but Sheedy was unable to pay his bills and in 1949 turned his masters over to his record stamping company, the Circle Record Company, owned by Max and Sol Weiss. The Weiss brothers soon changed the name of their business to Fantasy Records; these initial Brubeck records sold well, he recorded and issued new records for Fantasy. Soon the company was shipping 40,000 to 50,000 copies of Brubeck records each quarter, making enormous profits.
In 1951, Brubeck damaged several neck vertebrae and his spinal cord while diving into the surf in Hawaii. He would remark that the rescue workers who responded had described him as a "DOA". Brubeck recovered after a few months, but suffered with residual nerve pain in his hands for years after; the injury influenced his playing style towards complex, blocky chords rather than speedy, high-dexterity, single-note runs. Brubeck organized the Dave Brubeck Quartet with Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, they took up a long residency at San Francisco's Black Hawk nightclub and gained great popularity touring college campuses, recording a series of albums with such titles as Jazz at Oberlin, Jazz at the College of the Pacific, Brubeck's debut on Columbia Records, Jazz Goes to College. When Brubeck signed with Fantasy Records, he thought he had a half interest in the company and he worked as a sort of A & R man for the label, encouraging the Weiss
Enrico Caruso was an Italian operatic tenor. He sang to great acclaim at the major opera houses of Europe and the Americas, appearing in a wide variety of roles from the Italian and French repertoires that ranged from the lyric to the dramatic. Caruso made 260 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920. All of these recordings, which span most of his stage career, remain available today on CDs and as downloads and digital streams. Enrico Caruso came from a poor but not destitute background. Born in Naples in the via Santi Giovanni e Paolo n° 7 on 25 February 1873, he was baptised the next day in the adjacent Church of San Giovanni e Paolo, his parents came from Piedimonte d'Alife in the Province of Benevento, in the Province of Caserta in Campania, Southern Italy. Called Errico in accordance with the Neapolitan language, he would adopt the formal Italian version of his given name, Enrico; this change came at the suggestion of his singing teacher Guglielmo Vergine. Caruso was the third of one of only three to survive infancy.
There is a story of Caruso's parents having had 21 children. However, on the basis of genealogical research, biographers Pierre Key, Francis Robinson, Enrico Caruso Jr. and Andrew Farkas, have proven this to be an urban legend. Caruso himself and his brother Giovanni may have been the source of the exaggerated number. Caruso's widow Dorothy included the story in a memoir that she wrote about her husband, she quotes the tenor, speaking of his mother, Anna Caruso: "She had twenty-one children. Twenty boys and one girl – too many. I am number nineteen boy."Caruso's father, was a mechanic and foundry worker. Marcellino thought his son should adopt the same trade, at the age of 11, the boy was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer who constructed public water fountains. Caruso worked alongside his father at the Meuricoffre factory in Naples. At his mother's insistence, he attended school for a time, receiving a basic education under the tutelage of a local priest, he studied technical draftsmanship. During this period he sang in his church choir, his voice showed enough promise for him to contemplate a possible career in music.
Caruso was encouraged in his early musical ambitions by his mother, who died in 1888. To raise cash for his family, he found work as a street singer in Naples and performed at cafes and soirees. Aged 18, he used the fees he had earned by singing at an Italian resort to buy his first pair of new shoes, his progress as a paid entertainer was interrupted, however, by 45 days of compulsory military service. He completed this in 1894. On 15 March 1895 at the age of 22, Caruso made his professional stage debut at the Teatro Nuovo in Naples in the now-forgotten opera, L'Amico Francesco, by the amateur composer Mario Morelli. A string of further engagements in provincial opera houses followed, he received instruction from the conductor and voice teacher Vincenzo Lombardi that improved his high notes and polished his style. Three other prominent Neapolitan singers taught by Lombardi were the baritones Antonio Scotti and Pasquale Amato, both of whom would go on to partner Caruso at the Met, the tenor Fernando De Lucia, who would appear at the Met and sing at Caruso's funeral.
Money continued to be in short supply for the young Caruso. One of his first publicity photographs, taken on a visit to Sicily in 1896, depicts him wearing a bedspread draped like a toga since his sole dress shirt was away being laundered. At a notorious early performance in Naples, he was booed by a section of the audience because he failed to pay a claque to cheer for him; this incident hurt Caruso's pride. He never appeared again on stage in his native city, stating that he would return "only to eat spaghetti". During the final few years of the 19th century, Caruso performed at a succession of theaters throughout Italy until in 1900 he was rewarded with a contract to sing at La Scala, his La Scala debut occurred on 26 December of that year in the part of Rodolfo in Giacomo Puccini's La bohème with Arturo Toscanini conducting. Audiences in Monte Carlo and Buenos Aires heard Caruso sing during this pivotal phase of his career and, in 1899–1900, he appeared before the tsar and the Russian aristocracy at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg and the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow as part of a touring company of first-class Italian singers.
The first major operatic role that Caruso was given the responsibility of creating was Loris in Umberto Giordano's Fedora at the Teatro Lirico, Milan, on 17 November 1898. At that same theater on 6 November 1902, he created the role of Maurizio in Francesco Cilea's Adriana Lecouvreur. Caruso took part in a grand concert at La Scala in February 1901 that Toscanini organised to mark the recent death of Giuseppe Verdi. Among those appearing with him at the concert were two other leading Italian tenors of the day, Francesco Tamagno and Giuseppe Borgatti, he embarked on his last series of La Scala performances in March 1902, creating along the way the principal tenor part in G
Jan Kubelík was a Czech violinist and composer. He was born in Michle, his father, a gardener by occupation, was an amateur violinist. He taught his two sons the violin and after discovering the talent of Jan, aged five at the time, arranged for him to study with Karel Weber and Karel Ondříček. Aged eight he studied at the Prague Conservatory with Otakar Ševčík, of whose technique he became the most famous representative; as a child, he used to practice 10 to 12 hours a day, or "until my fingers started to bleed." After 1898, he toured as a soloist, soon becoming renowned for his great virtuosity and flawless intonation, his full and noble tone. He played a Guarneri del Gesù and two Stradivarius violins: he acquired the 1715 Stradivarius Emperor in 1910. After great success following his debut in Vienna, in London, Kubelík toured in the USA in 1901 for the first time, he made his first appearance for the Royal Philharmonic Society, London in the season of 1901-2, in 1902 was awarded the Society's Gold Medal.
In 1902 he brought the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra to London, having assisted it financially in the previous year. In 1903 he married Countess Anna Julie Marie Széll von Bessenyö, niece of former Prime Minister of Hungary Kálmán Széll, with whom he had eight children, five violinist daughters and three sons, among them conductor Rafael Kubelík. Kubelík made a number of recordings; the Gramophone Company recorded him as obbligato to Dame Nellie Melba in 1904, a match which reflected the classical phrasing, tonal purity and security of his art and was an ideal complement to it. Their early version of the Bach-Gounod Ave Maria was recorded twice, in October 1904 and again in February 1905, this was one of the great early classics of the gramophone, one of those records which'made' the instrument a popular success, though the double celebrity single-sided title retailed at one guinea. Nine years the partnership was reformed to re-make the record, in May 1913 with organ accompaniment and again in October 1913.
It was the latter version which survived in the inter-war catalogue in two-sided form. His 1935 Carnegie Hall concert was recorded and has been reissued, he wrote music, including six violin concertos, continued to perform in public until his death, with a pause between the end of World War I and 1920, during which period he composed. In 1920 he resumed his concert career, but with the advent of Jascha Heifetz, his career dwindled somewhat. In 1917, he was elected as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity by the fraternity's Alpha Chapter at the New England Conservatory in Boston. Jan Kubelík died in Prague in 1940, aged 60. In 1907, reviewing a concert by Kubelik at New York's massive Hippodrome Theatre, the New York Times wrote Mr. Kubelik's artistry is of the most remarkable kind, he is not a moving player. There is something aloof in him. Octaves and sixths drop from his instrument in a tone of honeyed sweetness and oily smoothness. There is something of feminine grace and charm in Mr. Kubelik's playing, he compels by its authority or stirs by its passion and virility, but in its way it is wholly delightful.
In 1903 Kubelik's portrait was painted by Philip de László, a 1912 Cubist painting by Georges Braque incorporates a handbill featuring the words "Mozart Kubelick". Carl Sandburg mentions Jan Kubelík in his Chicago Poems, 1916, he is adored by the sisters in Sally Benson's collected short stories which became the film Meet Me in St. Louis, he is referred to in Robert Ludlum's 2002 novel The Janson Directive. Concerto No. 1 in C major Concerto No. 2 Concerto No. 3 Concerto No. 4 in B♭ major Concerto No. 5 Concerto No. 6 Cadenzas for the Violin Concerto in D major, Op.61 by Ludwig van Beethoven Cadenzas for the Violin Concerto in D major, Op.77 by Johannes Brahms Cadenzas for the Violin Concerto No. 5 in A major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Burlesque Oriental Scene Menuett 39162 Souvenir XPh 270 39163 Danse Hongroise XPh 272 39164 Variazioni sulla ballata di Mefisto XPh 2732 39191 Serenade 39192 Perpetuum mobile XPh 276 39193 Serenade 39194 Traumerei XPh 285? 39195 La Ronde des Lutins XPh 295 39884 Scherzo Tarantella XPh 2231 39925 Der Zephir XPh 2228 62036 Cavatina XPh 2400 62037 Vision 62496 Serenata napolitana 62497 Le cygne 62573 Poeme 62574 Berceuse 62603 Serenade de Pierrot 69010 Sextet, Lucia di Lammermoor 69013 Variazioni sull'Inno Nazionale Inglese XXPh 275 74083 Danza Spagnola Zapateado 5
Audra Ann McDonald is an American actress and singer. Known for her work on the Broadway stage, she has won six Tony Awards, more performance wins than any other actor, is the only person to win all four acting categories, she has performed in musicals and dramas such as A Moon for the Misbegotten, 110 in the Shade, Ragtime, Master Class and Porgy and Bess. As a classical soprano, she has performed in staged operas with the Houston Grand Opera and the Los Angeles Opera and in concerts with symphony orchestras like the Berlin Philharmonic and New York Philharmonic. In 2008 her recording of Kurt Weill's Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny with the Los Angeles Opera won the Grammy Award for Best Classical Album and the Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording, she has a close working relationship with composer Michael John LaChiusa who has written several works for her, including the Broadway musical Marie Christine, the opera Send, The Seven Deadly Sins: A Song Cycle. With her full lyric soprano voice, she maintains an active concert and recording career throughout the United States performing a wide repertoire from classical to musical theater to jazz and popular songs.
In 2016, McDonald was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama. In 2017 she was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. On television, McDonald portrayed Dr. Naomi Bennett as a main cast member of Shonda Rhimes's ABC television drama Private Practice from 2007-2011, she portrayed the recurring character of Liz Lawrence in Season 4 of The Good Wife. In 2013 she performed the role of Mother Superior in The Sound of Music Live! Opposite Carrie Underwood as Maria, she has twice been nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie for her portrayals of Susie Monahan in Wit opposite Emma Thompson in 2001 and for her performance of Ruth Younger in A Raisin in the Sun in 2008. In 2016 she was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performance in Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill for HBO in which McDonald portrayed jazz legend Billie Holiday.
She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Class Program in 2015 for her work hosting the program Live from Lincoln Center. On film she is best known for her portrayals of Maureen in Ricki and the Flash opposite Meryl Streep and Madame de Garderobe in the 2017 film version of Disney's Beauty and the Beast, she has been nominated five times for the NAACP Image Awards for her work in film. McDonald was born in West Berlin, the daughter of American parents, Anna Kathryn, a university administrator, Stanley McDonald Jr. a high school principal. At the time of her birth, her father was stationed with the United States Army. McDonald was raised in Fresno, the elder of two daughters. McDonald graduated from the Roosevelt School of the Arts program within Theodore Roosevelt High School in Fresno, she got her start in acting with Dan Pessano and Good Company Players, beginning in their junior company. In a feature article about her written when she was a child, she said that she knew she wanted to be involved in theater "when I had my first chance to perform with the Good Company Players Junior Company."
She said that the people who have had the most impact on her life are "Good Company director Dan Pessano and my mother." She studied classical voice as an undergraduate under Ellen Faull at the Juilliard School, graduating in 1993. McDonald was a three-time Tony Award winner by age 28 for her performances in Carousel, Master Class, Ragtime, placing her alongside Shirley Booth, Gwen Verdon and Zero Mostel by accomplishing this feat within five years, she was nominated for another Tony Award for her performance in Marie Christine before she won her fourth in 2004 for her role in A Raisin in the Sun, placing her in the company of four-time winning actress Angela Lansbury. She reprised her Raisin role for a 2008 television adaptation, earning her a second Emmy Award nomination. On June 10, 2012, McDonald scored her fifth Tony Award win for her portrayal of Bess in Broadway's The Gershwins' Porgy and Bess, thus tying Angela Lansbury and Julie Harris, her 2014 performance as Billie Holiday in Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill earned McDonald her sixth Tony award and made her the first person to win all four acting categories.
McDonald appeared as Lizzie in the Roundabout Theatre Company's 2007 revival of 110 in the Shade, directed by Lonny Price at Studio 54, for which she shared the Drama Desk Award for Best Actress in a Musical with Donna Murphy. On April 29, 2007, while she was in previews for the show, her father was killed when an experimental aircraft he was flying crashed north of Sacramento, California. McDonald is known for defying racial typecasting in her various Tony Award-winning and -nominated roles, her performances as Carrie Pipperidge in Nicholas Hytner's 1996 revival of Carousel and Lizzie Curry in Lonny Price's 2007 revival of 110 in the Shade made her the first black woman to portray those roles in a major Broadway production. Of her groundbreaking work in encouraging diversity in musical theatre casting, she said in an interview for The New York Times, "I refuse to be stereotyped. If I think I am right for a role I will go for it in. I refuse to say no to myself. I can't control what a producer will do or say but I can at least put myself out there."
In a Talk of the Nation interview on NPR, Asian-American actor Thom Sesma said McDonald's performance in Carousel "transcended any kind of type at all", proving her to be "mor