Hill Road, Hong Kong
Hill Road is a road in Shek Tong Tsui, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. Hill Road Flyover, an unusually tall elevated road open on August 18, 1981, stretches above the large part of Hill Road. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong
The Bandstand Promenade known as Bandra Bandstand is a 1.2 kilometer long walkway along the sea on the western coast of Mumbai, India in the neighborhood of Bandra. It is a popular hangout spot, a jogging track and a park. Towards the Land's End side of the promenade is an amphitheater, it serves as a venue for the Mumbai Festival, Celebrate Bandra and other events including concerts, classical dance and other performances. The'Artist's Court' is another performance venue built into the promenade that witnesses public Jam sessions on Sundays. Bandra Fort is located right at the end of road adjacent to Hotel Taj Land's End, it was built by the Portuguese in 1640 as a watchtower overlooking Mahim Bay, the Arabian Sea and the southern island of Mahim. Castella de Aguada has been featured in several Hindi films, such as Dil Chahta Hai, Buddha Mil Gaya and Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na; the Bandra–Worli Sea Link the Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link, is a cable-stayed bridge with pre-stressed concrete viaduct approaches, which links Bandra in West Mumbai with Worli and Nariman Point, is the first phase of the proposed West Island Freeway system.
The Sea Link reduces travel time between Worli from 45 -- 60 minutes to 7 minutes. The link has an average traffic of around 37,500 vehicles per day; the Basilica of Our Lady of the Mount, more known as Mount Mary Church, is considered to be one of the oldest in the city of Mumbai. The church stands on a hillock, about 80 metres above sea level off Bandstand overlooking the Arabian Sea, it draws lakhs of pilgrims annually. The Walk of the Stars is a 2 kilometres section of the Bandstand Promenade honoring Bollywood film stars; the path features about six statues of famous Bollywood actors as well as about 100 brass plates embossed with the handprints and signatures of other stars. The walk was inspired by the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it is funded and managed by UTV and promoted through their UTV Stars television channel. As of December 2014, the walk with the stars section of the promenade has been removed
A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians called dar-e mehr or agiyari. In the Zoroastrian religion, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies regarded as the basis of ritual life", which "are the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity". For, one "who sacrifices unto fire with fuel in his hand... is given happiness". As of 2019, there were 167 fire temples in the world, of which 45 in Mumbai, 105 in the rest of India, 17 in other countries. There is a religious custom in India of not allowing Zoroastrian women to enter the Fire Temple and the Tower of Silence if they marry a non-Zoroastrian person; this custom has been challenged before the Supreme Court of India after a Zoroastrian woman was denied entry into Zoroastrian institutions. Main article: Atar, Zoroastrian fire. First evident in the 9th century BCE, the Zoroastrian rituals of fire are contemporary with that of Zoroastrianism itself.
It appears at the same time as the shrine cult and is contemporaneous with the introduction of Atar as a divinity. There is no allusion to a temple of fire in the Avesta proper, nor is there any Old Persian language word for one; that the rituals of fire was a doctrinal modification and absent from early Zoroastrianism is evident in the Atash Nyash. In the oldest passages of that liturgy, it is the hearth fire that speaks to "all those for whom it cooks the evening and morning meal", which Boyce observes is not consistent with sanctified fire; the temple is an later development: from Herodotus it is known that in the mid-5th century BCE the Zoroastrians worshipped to the open sky, ascending mounds to light their fires. Strabo confirms this, noting that in the 6th century, the sanctuary at Zela in Cappadocia was an artificial mound, walled in, but open to the sky, although there is no evidence whatsoever that the Zela-sanctuary was Zoroastrian. Although the "burning of fire" was a key element in Zoroastrian worship, the burning of "eternal" fire, as well as the presence of "light" in worship, was a key element in many other religions.
By the Hellenic Parthian era, there were two places of worship in Zoroastrianism: one, called bagin or ayazan, was a sanctuary dedicated to a specific divinity. The second, the atroshan, were the "places of burning fire" which became more and more prevalent as the iconoclastic movement gained support. Following the rise of the Sassanid dynasty, the shrines to the Yazatas continued to exist, but with the statues – by law – either abandoned or replaced by fire altars; as Schippman observed, there is no evidence during the Sassanid era that the fires were categorized according to their sanctity. "It seems probable that there were only two, namely the Atash-i Vahram, the lesser Atash-i Adaran, or'Fire of Fires', a parish fire, as it were, serving a village or town quarter". It was only in the Atash-i Vahram that fire was kept continuously burning, with the Adaran fires being annually relit. While the fires themselves had special names, the structures did not, it has been suggested that "the prosaic nature of the middle Persian names reflect a desire on the part of those who fostered the temple-cult... to keep it as close as possible in character to the age-old cult of the hearth-fire, to discourage elaboration".
The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah and the Battle of Nihavānd were instrumental to the collapse of the Sassanid Empire and state-sponsored Zoroastrianism. The faith was practiced by the aristocracy but large numbers of fire temples did not exist; some fire temples continued with their original purpose. Legend says that some took fire with them and it most served as a reminder of their faith in an persecuted community since fire originating from a temple was not a tenet of the religious practice; the oldest remains of what has been identified as a fire temple are those on Mount Khajeh, near Lake Hamun in Sistan. Only traces of the foundation and ground-plan survive and have been tentatively dated to the 3rd or 4th century BCE; the temple was rebuilt during the Parthian era, enlarged during Sassanid times. The characteristic feature of the Sassanid fire temple was its domed sanctuary where the fire-altar stood; this sanctuary always had a square ground plan with a pillar in each corner that supported the dome.
Archaeological remains and literary evidence from Zend commentaries on the Avesta suggest that the sanctuary was surrounded by a passageway on all four sides. "On a number of sites the gombad, made of rubble masonry with courses of stone, is all that survives, so such ruins are popularly called in Fars čahār-tāq or'four arches'."Ruins of temples of the Sassanid era have been found in various parts of the former empire in the southwest, but the biggest and most impressive are those of Adur Gushnasp in Media Minor. Many more ruins are popularly identified as the remains of Zoroastrian fire temples when their purpose is of evidently secular nature, or are the remains of a temple of the shrine cults, or as is the case of a fort-like fir
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Automated teller machine
An automated teller machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety of names, including automatic teller machine in the United States redundantly ATM machine, automated banking machine. Although ABM is used in Canada, ATM is still commonly used in Canada and many Canadian organizations use ATM over ABM. In British English, the terms cash point, cash machine, "hole in the wall" are most used. Other terms include any time money, nibank, tyme machine, cash dispenser, bankomat or bancomat. Many ATMs have a sign above them, indicating the name of the bank or organisation that owns the ATM, including the networks to which it can connect. In Canada, ABMs that are not operated by a financial institution are known as "white-label ABMs". According to the ATM Industry Association, there are now close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide.
However, the use of ATMs in Australia is declining – most notably in retail precincts. On most modern ATMs, customers are identified by inserting a plastic ATM card into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal identification number, which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card, or in the issuing financial institution's database. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial transactions such as cash withdrawals, check balances, or credit mobile phones. ATMs can be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial institution's exchange rate; the idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from bankers' needs in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States. Little is known of the Japanese device other than that it was called "Computer Loan Machine" and supplied cash as a three-month loan at 5% p.a. after inserting a credit card.
The device was operational in 1966. Adrian Ashfield invented the basic idea of a card combining the key and user's identity in February 1962; this was granted UK Patent 959,713 for "Access Controller" in June 1964 and assigned to W. S. Atkins & Partners who employed Ashfield, he was paid ten shillings for the standard sum for all patents. It was intended to dispense petrol but the patent covered all uses. In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device", his 132nd patent, first filed on 30 June 1960. The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance; the Bankograph did not have cash dispensing features. It is accepted that the first cash machine was put into use by Barclays Bank in its Enfield Town branch in North London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967.
This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney. This instance of the invention is credited to the engineering team led by John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours. Transactions were initiated by inserting paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a model were matched with a six-digit personal identification number. Shepherd-Barron stated "It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash."The Barclays–De La Rue machine beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company called Metior's machine by a mere nine days and Westminster Bank's–Smith Industries–Chubb system by a month. The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world; the collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a fourth machine, marketed after 1969 in Europe and the US by the Burroughs Corporation.
The patent for this device was filed in September 1969 by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe, Malcom David Roe. Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher, retained by the machine, while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back, they used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a group of engineers working at Smiths Group on the Chubb MD2 in 1965 and, credited to James Goodfellow; the essence of this system was that it enable
Parsis or Parsees are a Zoroastrian community who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Arab conquest of Persia of 636–651 AD. According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, Parsis migrated from Greater Iran to Gujarat, where they were given refuge, between the 8th and 10th century AD to avoid persecution following the Muslim conquest of Persia. At the time of the Muslim conquest of Persia, the dominant religion of the region was Zoroastrianism. Iranians such as Babak Khorramdin rebelled against Muslim conquerors for 200 years. During this time many Iranians chose to preserve their religious identity by fleeing from Persia to India; the word پارسیان, pronounced "Parsian", i.e. "Parsi" in the Persian language means Persian. Note that Farsi is an arabization of the word Parsi, used as an endonym of Persian, Persian language is spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and some other former regions of the Persian Empire; the long presence of the Parsis in India distinguishes them from the smaller Zoroastrian Indian community of Iranis, who are much more recent arrivals descended from Zoroastrians fleeing the repression of the Qajar dynasty and the general social and political tumult of late 19th- and early 20th-century Iran.
After having spent centuries in South Gujarat Udvada and Navsari, the majority of the Parsi diaspora speak Gujarati. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica,Parsi spelled Parsee, member of a group of followers in India of the Persian prophet Zoroaster; the Parsis, whose name means "Persians", are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims. They live chiefly in Mumbai and in a few towns and villages to the south of Mumbai, but a few minorities near by in Karachi and Bangalore. There is a sizeable Parsee population in Pune as well in Hyderabad. A few Parsee families reside in Kolkata and Chennai. Although they are not speaking, a caste, since they are not Hindus, they form a well-defined community; the exact date of the Parsi migration is unknown. According to tradition, the Parsis settled at Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, but finding themselves still persecuted they set sail for India, arriving in the 8th century; the migration may in fact have taken place as late in both.
They settled first at Diu in Kathiawar but soon moved to south Gujarāt, where they remained for about 800 years as a small agricultural community. The term Pārsi, which in the Persian language is a demonym meaning "inhabitant of Pārs" and hence "ethnic Persian", is not attested in Indian Zoroastrian texts until the 17th century; until that time, such texts use the Persian-origin terms Zartoshti "Zoroastrian" or Vehdin " the good religion". The 12th-century Sixteen Shlokas, a Sanskrit text in praise of the Parsis, is the earliest attested use of the term as an identifier for Indian Zoroastrians; the first reference to the Parsis in a European language is from 1322, when a French monk, Jordanus refers to their presence in Thane and Bharuch. Subsequently, the term appears in the journals of many European travelers, first French and Portuguese English, all of whom used a Europeanized version of an local language term. For example, Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta observed in 1563 that "there are merchants... in the kingdom of Cambaia... known as Esparcis.
We Portuguese call them Jews. They are Gentios." In an early 20th-century legal ruling, Justices Davar and Beaman asserted that "Parsi" was a term used in Iran to refer to Zoroastrians. Notes that in much the same way as the word "Hindu" was used by Iranians to refer to anyone from the Indian subcontinent, "Parsi" was used by the Indians to refer to anyone from Greater Iran, irrespective of whether they were ethnic Persian people. In any case, the term "Parsi" itself is "not an indication of their Iranian or'Persian' origin, but rather as indicator – manifest as several properties – of ethnic identity". Moreover, if heredity were the only factor in a determination of ethnicity, the Parsis would count as Parthians according to the Qissa-i Sanjan; the term "Parseeism" or "Parsiism" is attributed to Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron, who in the 1750s, when the word "Zoroastrianism" had yet to be coined, made the first detailed report of the Parsis and of Zoroastrianism, therein mistakenly assuming that the Parsis were the only remaining followers of the religion.
In addition to above, the Parsi identity was well an identity before they moved to India: The earliest reference to the Parsis is found in the Assyrian inscription of Shalmaneser III. Darius the Great establishes this fact when he records his Parsi ancestry for posterity, “parsa parsahya puthra ariya ariyachitra”, meaning, “a Parsi, the son of a Parsi, an Aryan, of Aryan family. In Outlines of Parsi History, Dasturji Hormazdyar Dastur Kayoji Mirza, Bombay 1987, pp. 3-4 writes, “According to the Pahlavi text of Karnamak i Artakhshir i Papakan, the Indian astrologer refers to Artakhshir as khvatay parsikan ‘the king of the Parsis’. Herodotus and Xenophon, the two great historians who lived in the third and fourth centuries BC referred to Iranians as Parsis. In ancient Persia, Zoroaster taught that good and evil were opposite forces and the battle between them is more or less evenly matched. A person should always be vigilant to