San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Bernal Heights, San Francisco
Bernal Heights is a residential neighborhood in southeastern San Francisco, California. The prominent Bernal Heights hill overlooks the San Francisco skyline and features a microwave transmission tower, the nearby Sutro Tower can be seen from the Bernal Heights neighborhood. Bernal Heights lies to the south of San Franciscos Mission District and its most prominent feature is the open parkland and radio tower on its large rocky hill, Bernal Heights Summit. Bernal is bounded by Cesar Chavez Street to the north, San Jose Avenue to the west, US101 to the east, and I-280 to the south. Bernal Heights was part of the 1839 Rancho Rincon de las Salinas y Potrero Viejo, by 1860, the land belonged to François Louis Alfred Pioche, a frenchman and financier, who subdivided it into smaller lots. Its streets were laid out during the Civil War by Army engineers from the Presidio and it was first populated primarily by Irish immigrants who farmed the land and ran dairy ranches. According to legend, a gold rush was triggered in 1876 when con artists planted the hilltop with traces of gold.
Bernal Heights remained undeveloped until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, built atop bedrock, the hills structures survived the tremor, and the sparseness of the development saved much of Bernal from the ravages of the firestorm that followed. The commercial corridor of Eugenia Avenue filled in with shops as the pastureland on the hilltop was developed for homes during the rapid rebuilding of the city. Some of the tiny earthquake cottages, which the city built to house refugees, survive to this day. During World War II, the area saw another population surge, the new arrivals included many African-American families who worked at the nearby San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point. During the Vietnam War, the neighborhood was known as Red Hill for the activists in shared households. By the 1990s, Bernals pleasant microclimate, small houses and freeway access to the peninsula, Bernal has not gentrified to the extent of its neighbor Noe Valley, but gentrification and property values are increasing as urban professionals replace working-class home owners and renters.
Bernal is a haven for young families with children, notable residents include Tom Ammiano, Dan Nakamura, Annie Sprinkle, Charles Gatewood, Terry Zwigoff Matt Nathanson, childrens author Jane Wattenberg and Matt Stewart. Bernal Heights was long known as family oriented neighborhood, giving rise to the nickname Maternal Heights, the local branch of the San Francisco Public Library at 500 Cortland was built by Frederick H. Meyer with funding from the Works Progress Administration and dedicated in 1940. After closing for two years for renovations and after much long-standing contention over the murals that adorn the librarys exterior. There is a collection of restaurants and cafés at the bottom of the northern slope and they center around the newly renovated, rectangular Precita Park. Also notable is Precita Eyes, a mural art center
Ed Lee (politician)
Edwin Mah Ed Lee is an American politician and attorney who is the 43rd and current Mayor of San Francisco, California. Lee won the election on November 8,2011 to serve a term as Mayor. Lee is the first Asian American mayor in San Franciscos history, before being appointed mayor, he was City Administrator. Prior to his employment with the City and County of San Francisco, Mayor Lee was the Managing Attorney for the San Francisco Asian Law Caucus, from 1989 to 1991, Lee worked as a Whistleblower Ordinance Investigator and the Deputy Director of Employment Relations in San Francisco. Lee worked as the director of the Human Rights Commission from 1991 to 1996, Lee became director of the City Purchasing Department in 1996 until his appointment to City Administrator in 2000. In 1989, Lee was appointed by Mayor Art Agnos as the Citys first investigator under the citys Whistleblower Ordinance, Agnos appointed him deputy director of human relations. In 1991, he was hired as director of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, serving in that capacity under Mayors Agnos, Frank Jordan.
Brown appointed him Director of City Purchasing, among other responsibilities, in 2000, he was appointed Director of Public Works for the City, and in 2005 was appointed by Mayor Newsom to a five-year term as City Administrator, to which he was reappointed in 2010. As City Administrator, Lee oversaw the reduction of city government, speculation about possible appointees and debate on whether or not the old Board of Supervisors should cast the vote for the new mayor soon followed Newsoms election as lieutenant governor. The Board of Supervisors nominated four people, former Mayor Art Agnos, Sheriff Michael Hennessey, former Board of Supervisors president Aaron Peskin, and Lee. At the January 7 meeting, the old board voted 10–1 to elect Lee as mayor, at the time, Lee promised not to seek election if appointed, a statement which helped to gain support for his appointment. The vote was preliminary and non-binding, as Newsom had delayed his resignation until new members of the Board took office, a final vote was taken on January 11 by the new board to confirm Lee, one day after Newsoms resignation.
The board voted unanimously for Lee and he took office immediately thereafter, as mayor, Lee reached an agreement with the Board of Supervisors to close a $380 million budget deficit. He implemented the City’s move to cleaner vehicles and an infrastructure to support electric vehicles, Mayor Lee developed and oversaw implementation of the City’s first ever Ten Year Capital Plan to guide our capital priorities and infrastructure investment. In 2012, Mayor Lee pushed for the approval of the Housing Trust Fund which invested $1.5 billion in affordable housing production. In 2014, Mayor Lee pledged to construct 30,000 new and rehabilitated homes throughout the City by 2020, with half available to low and middle income San Franciscans. Mayor Lee launched a Small Site Acquisition Program, which funds the purchase & stabilization of multi-family rental buildings in neighborhoods that are susceptible to evictions, Lee created preferences for Neighborhood Residents and Displaced Tenants in our affordable housing programs to help keep residents in their communities.
Lee launched the Ellis Act Housing Preference Program for tenants who are evicted under the State Ellis Act, Displaced tenants are now given preference for the City’s affordable housing programs
Americans are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may claim an American identity. See Names for United States citizens. S, virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century. It includes influences of African-American culture, westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements, immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics, in addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally.
As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, the United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Some other race is an option in the census and other surveys, people of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72. 4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the peoples of Europe, the Middle East. Of those reporting to be White American,7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial, with largest combination being white, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states, there are four minority-majority states, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority, the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the peoples of Europe.
This includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora, the Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents. 8% of the total population, Hispanic or Latino Americans constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, hispanic/Latino Americans are very racially diverse, and as a result form an ethnic category, rather than a race
Malia Cohen is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 10, born in the Richmond District and a graduate of Lowell High School, she resides in the Potrero Hill neighborhood. Cohen received her B. A. in Political Science from Fisk University, in the 2010 election, she initially finished third out of a field of 22, but eventually won the election based on ranked choice voting. In October 2013, Cohen introduced legislation that expanded an existing San Francisco law making it illegal to sell firearms with magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. In 2014, Cohen was re-elected for a term to represent District 10 after being challenged by Marlene Tran. In 2015, Cohen publicly defended San Franciscos sanctuary city Laws, after the shooting death of Kathryn Steinle by an undocumented immigrant, OReilly had been critical of San Francisco and its elected officials. OReilly said that Cohen should be placed under arrest for her comments defending San Franciscos Sanctuary City Policy and she married Warren Pulley in 2016, a workers compensation attorney.
Office of Supervisor Malia Cohen Campaign website
Jane Kim is an American civil rights attorney and politician, the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco. She represents San Franciscos District 6 on the Board of Supervisors, District 6 includes Union Square, Civic Center, Mid-Market, Cathedral Hill, South of Market, South Beach, Mission Bay, Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, and Alcatraz. Prior to her election to the Board of Supervisors, Kim served as member and her grandfather was a prominent prosecutor in Seoul, and her father served the District Attorneys office in New York as a prosecutor. Kim grew up learning both the English and Korean language, at age 14, Kim began studying taekwondo, eventually earning a black belt. She was involved with community activism, especially the issue of homelessness and she decided in high school to stop reciting the Pledge of Allegiance—she rejected the Pledge words with liberty and justice for all because that goal was not available to all Americans. Kim graduated from Stanford University with a degree in Political Science.
She settled in San Francisco in the late 1990s and in 2005 enrolled in the UC Berkeley School of Law, Kim earned a law degree, and was admitted to the State Bar of California in December 2009. After finishing her Stanford studies, Kim worked as an advocate at Greenlining Institute in Berkeley. She interviewed with Reverend Norman Fong, the leader of the Chinatown Community Development Center in 2000, Fong was doubtful she would fit the position of youth organizer, as she did not speak any Chinese. However, Kim successfully led an effort of San Francisco Chinatown youth cleaning up alleyways. Through her community organization efforts, she met power broker Rose Pak, in 2005 Kim was elected president of the San Francisco Peoples Organization, made up of many left-wing political groups. SFPO worked against several California ballot propositions in November 2005, and assisted with health care, in 2003 while campaigning for Green Party mayoral candidate Matt Gonzalez, Kim felt too few female Asian Americans were engaged in San Francisco politics.
In 2004, she decided to run for the San Francisco Board of Education, in 2006, Kim mounted a stronger campaign. She was endorsed by politicians, community groups and media. In 2007 when she was sworn in she became the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco, Kims election was part of a progressive shift in the school board. Fellow Green Mark Sanchez served as president and progressive Kim-Shree Maufas was elected. In 2006, the board took up the issue of whether to continue the 90-year-old Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps program in San Francisco high schools. The board voted to phase out the JROTC program over two years, in December 2006, previous to taking office, Kim learned about a death threat against her that was sent from a JROTC cadet to his friend on Facebook
San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body within the government of the City and County of San Francisco, United States. The City and County of San Francisco is a consolidated city-county, being simultaneously a city and charter county with a consolidated government. Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors were paid $110,858 per year in 2015, there are 11 members of the Board of Supervisors, each representing a geographic district. How the Board of Supervisors should be elected has been a matter of contention in recent San Francisco history, but San Francisco, notwithstanding a population of over 700,000, was often an exception. Prior to 1977 and again from 1980 through 2000, the Board of Supervisors was chosen in at-large elections, the person who received the most votes was elected President of the Board of Supervisors, and the next four or five were elected to seats on the board. District elections were enacted by Proposition T in November 1976, district elections were repealed by Proposition A in August 1980 by a vote of 50.
58% Yes to 49. 42% No. An attempt was made to district elections in November 1980 with Proposition N. District elections were reinstated by Proposition G in November 1996 with a November runoff, runoffs were eliminated and replaced with instant-runoff voting with Proposition A in March 2002. Under the current system, supervisors are elected by district to four-year terms, a partial term counts as a full term if the supervisor is appointed and/or elected to serve more than two years of it. The terms are staggered so that half the board is elected every two years, thereby providing continuity. Supervisors representing odd-numbered districts are elected every fourth year counted from 2000, Supervisors representing even-numbered districts were elected to transitional two-year terms in 2000, thereafter to be elected every fourth year. Terms of office begin on the January 8th following the election for each seat. Each supervisor is elected on a basis and is required to live in his or her district. Although supervisors positions are non-partisan, as of 2016 all 11 supervisors are members of the Democratic Party, the most recent supervisoral elections were held on November 8,2016.
The President of the Board of Supervisors, under the new system, is elected by the members of the Board from among their number. This is typically done at the first meeting of the new session commencing after the general election, members of the Board of Supervisors are elected from 11 single-member districts. The districts cover the following neighborhoods, the maps shown below lack markings for streets or street names. The City of San Francisco has detailed maps of each district available on its website, members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors San Francisco Board of Supervisors website
San Francisco Chronicle
It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a fall in circulation in the early 21st century. The newspaper publishes two web sites, SFGate, which has a mixture of news and web features. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Josephine Newhall took a bold, the newspaper grew in circulation to become the citys largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner. The demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner, from 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation. This arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle, beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco.
The Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper, the sections covered San Francisco, and four different suburban areas. They each featured a unique columnist, enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community, the newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27,2000, following the sale, the Hearst Corporation transferred the Examiner to the Fang family, publisher of the San Francisco Independent and AsianWeek, along with a $66-million subsidy. Under the new owners, the Examiner became a free tabloid, in 1949, the de Young family founded KRON-TV, the Bay Areas third television station. Until the mid-1960s, the station, operated from the basement of the Chronicle Building, KRON moved to studios at 1001 Van Ness Avenue. The frequent bold-faced, all-capital-letter headlines typical of the Chronicles front page were eliminated, editor Ward Bushees note heralded the issue as the start of a new era for the Chronicle.
On July 6,2009, the paper unveiled some alterations to the new design that included yet newer section fronts and wider use of color photographs and graphics. In a special section publisher Frank J. Vega described new, the newer look was accompanied by a reduction in size of the broadsheet. On November 9,2009, the Chronicle became the first newspaper in the nation to print on high-quality glossy paper, the high-gloss paper is used for some section fronts and inside pages. As of 2013 the publisher of the Chronicle is Jeffrey Johnson, audrey Cooper was named editor-in-chief in January 2015 and is the first woman to hold the position
Government of San Francisco
It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and one of only thirteen charter counties of California. The fiscal year 2007–08 city and county budget was approximately $6 billion, San Francisco utilizes the strong mayor form of mayoral/council government, composed of the mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities. San Francisco voters use ranked-choice voting to elect the mayor, the Mayor of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the city and county government. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office, the Board of Supervisors is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets. Proposition K - 2009-2034, Different formula for local streets and local and regional public transit, pursuant to its charter, San Francisco causes to be published several codified version of its ordinances and regulations, the San Francisco Municipal Codes.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, and every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, San Franciscans make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. In addition, several regional governmental units in San Francisco operate independently of the municipal government, there are several school districts that are co-extensive with San Francisco. The San Francisco Unified School District is governed by the elected seven-member San Francisco Board of Education, the community college district of the City College of San Francisco is governed by an elected seven-member Board of Trustees. Also notable are the independent police forces of the University of California, San Francisco and the Park Police of the Presidio Trust and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The San Francisco Democratic Central Committee, the body of the San Francisco Democratic Party, is a county central committee of the California Democratic Party for San Francisco. The SFDCC is elected from the two Assembly districts in San Francisco and consists of 24 members, with a 14/10 member split between the two Assembly districts based on number of registered Democrats
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Mission District, San Francisco
This mission, San Franciscos oldest standing building, is located in the northwest area of the neighborhood. The Mission District is located in east-central San Francisco and it is bordered to the east by U. S. Route 101, which forms the boundary between the eastern portion of the district, known as Inner Mission, and its eastern neighbor, Potrero Hill. Sanchez Street separates the neighborhood from Eureka Valley to the north west, the part of the neighborhood from Valencia Street to Sanchez Street, north of 20th Street, is known as the Mission Dolores neighborhood. South of 20th Street towards 22nd Street, and between Valencia and Dolores Streets is a neighborhood known as Liberty Hill. Cesar Chavez Street is the border, across Cesar Chavez Street is the Bernal Heights neighborhood. North of the Mission District is the South of Market neighborhood, bordered roughly by Duboce Avenue, the principal thoroughfare of the Mission District is Mission Street. South of the Mission District, along Mission Street, are the Excelsior and Crocker-Amazon neighborhoods, the Mission District is part of San Franciscos supervisorial districts 6,9 and 10.
The Mission is often warmer and sunnier than other parts of San Francisco, the Missions geographical location insulates it from the fog and wind from the west. The Mission includes four recognized sub-districts, the northeastern quadrant, adjacent to Potrero Hill is known as a center for high tech startup businesses including some chic bars and restaurants. The northwest quadrant along Dolores Street is famous for Victorian mansions, prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries, the area which now includes the Mission District was inhabited by the Ohlone people who populated much of the San Francisco bay area. The Yelamu Indians inhabited the region for over 2,000 years, Spanish missionaries arrived in the area during the late 18th century. They found these people living in two villages on Mission Creek and it was here that a Spanish priest named Father Francisco Palóu founded Mission San Francisco de Asis on June 29,1776. The Mission was moved from the shore of Laguna Dolores to its current location in 1783, franciscan friars are reported to have used Ohlone slave labor to complete the Mission in 1791.
This period marked the beginning of the end of the Yelamu culture, the Indian population at Mission Dolores dropped from 400 to 50 between 1833 and 1841. The lands around the abandoned mission church became a focal point of raffish attractions including bull and bear fighting, horse racing, baseball. A famous beer parlor resort known as The Willows was located along Mission Creek just south of 18th Street between Mission Street and San Carlos Street. From 1865 to 1891, a conservatory and zoo known as Woodwards Gardens covered two city blocks bounded by Mission Street, Valencia Street, 13th Street, and 15th Street. During Californias early statehood period, in the 19th and 20th century, large numbers of Irish and settlement intensified after the 1906 earthquake, as many displaced businesses and residents moved into the area, making Mission Street a major commercial thoroughfare