Cerritos named Dairy Valley because of the preponderance of dairy farms in the area, is an affluent suburban city in Los Angeles County, United States, is one of several cities that constitute the Gateway Cities of southeast Los Angeles County. It was incorporated on April 24, 1956; as of the 2010 census, the population was 49,041. It is part of the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, California Metropolitan Statistical Area designated by the Office of Management and Budget. Cerritos was inhabited by Native Americans belonging to the Tongva; the Tongva would be renamed the "Gabrieleños" by the Spanish settlers after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcangel. The Gabrieleños were the largest group of Southern California Indians as well as the most developed in the region; the Gabrieleños lived off the land, deriving food from the animals or plants that could be gathered, snared or hunted, grinding acorns as a staple. Beginning in the late 15th century, Spanish explorers arrived in the New World and worked their way to the California coast in 1542.
The colonization process included "civilizing" the native populations in California by establishing various missions. Soon afterward, a town called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula would be founded and prosper with the aid of subjects from New Spain and Native American labor. One soldier, José Manuel Nieto, was granted a large plot of land by the Spanish King Carlos III, which he named Rancho Los Nietos, it covered 300,000 acres of what are today the cities of Cerritos, Long Beach, Downey, Santa Fe Springs, part of Whittier, Huntington Beach, Buena Park and Garden Grove. The rancho was divided five ways among Nieto's heirs during the nationalization of church property by the Mexican government, with Juan José Nieto retaining the largest plot, called Rancho Los Coyotes. Nieto called the area of Rancho Los Coyotes, where Cerritos is today, "cerritos" or "little hills", although no natural hills exist in modern-day Cerritos. After the Mexican-American war, the rancho would wind up in the hands of the Los Angeles and San Bernardino Land Company, which encouraged development and rail lines to be built by Henry E. Huntington and his Pacific Electric Railway company.
It was through rapid development, combined with improved transportation systems, that the modern-day city of Artesia was formed in Rancho Los Coyotes in 1875, from it, the city of Dairy Valley. Cranford Airport, a small general-aviation airport, was built around 1946 and consisted of two 2,300-foot runways, one oriented north/south & the other northeast/southwest; each runway had a parallel taxiway, a ramp along the south side of the field had two building hangars. The former airport site is on the northwest corner of the intersection of South Street & Carmenita Road. Cranford Airport closed at some point between 1953-54; the city of Dairy Valley was incorporated on April 24, 1956, as a reaction to nearby Artesia's rapid urbanization. The city's name symbolized the more than 400 dairies, 100,000 cows and 106,300 chickens found within its limits; the cows outnumbered the 3,439 residents by a factor of 29 to 1. The chickens outnumbered the residents by over 30 to 1; the first business license in the new city was for Walter Marlowe's "Dairy Valley Egg Farms".
Two years Dairy Valley voted to become a chartered California city. As land values and property taxes in California rose in the early 1960s, agriculture became unprofitable, development pressures increased. In a special election held on July 16, 1963, residents voted to permit large-scale residential development; as a reflection of its newly planned suburban orientation, the city's name was formally changed to Cerritos on January 10, 1967, after the nearby Spanish land grant Rancho Los Cerritos, which figured prominently in the region, after Cerritos College in neighboring Norwalk. Cerritos is a prime example of the "fiscalization" of California politics after the tax revolt of the 1970s and the passage of Proposition 13; the only way for California cities to raise long-term tax revenue in light of Proposition 13 was to create as many commercial zones as possible to take advantage of the percentage of county sales tax allocated back to municipalities as sales tax revenue. Cerritos was one of the first cities in Los Angeles County to develop large-scale retail zones, such as the Los Cerritos Center and Cerritos Auto Square, achieved stunning success.
City leaders reinvested funds into the community with large public works projects and an increasing number of community services and programs. The current progressive nature of the Cerritos government and the unusually strong tax base is best reflected in its facilities. In 1978, Cerritos dedicated the nation's first solar-heated City Hall complex. In 1993, the Cerritos Center for the Performing Arts opened its doors. In 1994, the City unveiled the Cerritos Towne Center project, combining office, lodging, fine arts and dining in an open-air location. In 1997, the city opened the Cerritos Sheriff's Station/Community Safety Center to provide public safety services. In 2002, the City rededicated its public library. In 2006, the City celebrated its golden anniversary with memorials and the unveiling of a sculpture garden; the assessed valuation of the city is $7,177,428,066. Between 1970 and 1972, Cerritos was the fastest-growing city in California. Since the 1980s, Cerritos has attracted a large number of Filipino, Taiwanese and Chinese immigrant families.
On August 31, 1986, Aeroméxico Flight 498, on approach to Los Angeles International Airport from Mexico City, was struck by a small Piper aircraft tha
Azusa is a city in the San Gabriel Valley, at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, United States. The A on the San Gabriel Mountains represents the city of Azusa, can be seen within a 30-mile radius; the population was 46,361 at the 2010 census, up from 44,712 at the 2000 census. Azusa is located along historic Route 66, which passes through the city on Foothill Boulevard and Alosta Avenue. "Azusa stands for everything from A to Z in the U. S. A." has been a phrase used to promote the town by organisations such as the Chamber of Commerce for many years. The place name "Azusa" dates to the Mexican Alta California era in the 19th century when Azusa was used to refer to the San Gabriel Valley and the San Gabriel River, it appears to have been derived from the Tongva place name Asuksagna. The area was part of the Tongva peoples homeland since at least 55 BC; the first Mexican settlement in Azusa was at the Rancho el Susa in 1841, a Mexican land grant from the Alta California Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado to Luis Arenas.
In 1844 Arenas sold the rancho's land to Henry Dalton, an English immigrant and wealthy merchant from the Pueblo of Los Angeles, for $7,000. He renamed it Rancho Azusa de Dalton, had built a winery, vinegar house, meat smokehouse, flour mill. A vineyard was planted. Dalton built a house here on a place known as Dalton Hill, near 6th Street and Cerritos Avenue in Azusa. Dalton was the owner of the adjacent and large Rancho San Francisquito and Rancho Santa Anita properties. In the end Dalton owned an unbroken expanse of land from the present day San Dimas to the eastern edge of Pasadena. A portion of Azusa west of the San Gabriel River was within adjacent Rancho Azusa de Duarte With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Francisquito was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the Commission in 1853, but rejected by the US District Court in 1855, on the grounds that Henry Dalton was not, at the time of the grant, a citizen of Mexico.
The decree was reversed by the US Supreme Court, the grant was patented to Henry Dalton in 1867. Azusa was listed in the 1860 census as a township with a population of 363; the 1870 US Census listed the area as the township of Azusa – El Monte Township and 1880 US Census listed the area as the township of San Jose and Azusa. There were a few corrections to cross out the San Jose name on most of the census pages, but this was done sporadically and there remain many index errors in the online census due to these errors. Dalton had borrowed money from Los Angeles banker Jonathan S. Slauson to fund 24 years of litigation, had to sign the land over to him in 1880. Slauson laid out the plan for the city in 1887 and the city was incorporated in 1898; the completion of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad in January 1887 sold to the Santa Fe railroad, brought new people looking for homes and investment opportunities in Azusa. The Gold Line Foothill light rail line is being built on the old rail right-of-way.
Part of this land boom was the short lived town of Gladstone, now part of Azusa. The city is located at the entrance to the San Gabriel Canyon, giving the city its nickname "The Canyon City." It is on the east side of the San Gabriel River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.7 square miles, over 99% of it is land. Azusa is located at 34°7′50″N 117°54′25″W. Sister citiesAzusa has one sister city: State of Zacatecas, Mexico; this region experiences warm, dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Azusa has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Azusa had a population of 46,361. The population density was 4,794.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Azusa was 26,715 White, 1,499 African American, 562 Native American, 4,054 Asian, 87 Pacific Islander, 11,270 from other races, 2,174 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,328 persons. The Census reported that 43,559 people lived in households, 2,691 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 111 were institutionalized. There were 12,716 households, out of which 5,955 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,310 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,275 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,014 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 891 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 104 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,238 households were made up of individuals and 761 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.43. There were 9,599 families; the population was spread out with 12,407 people under the age of 18, 7,724 people aged 18 to 24, 13,185 people aged 25 to 44, 9,469 people aged 45 to 64, 3,576 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males.
There were 13,386 housing units at an average density of 1,384.4 per square mile, of which 6,802 were owner-occupied, 5,914
Hacienda Heights, California
Hacienda Heights is an unincorporated suburban community and census-designated place in Los Angeles County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the community had a total population of 54,038, up from 53,122 at the 2000 census. Hacienda Heights is the second largest census designated place in Los Angeles County by area and the county's second largest CDP by population. During Spanish rule, Hacienda Heights was a part of Rancho La Puente, operated by the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in San Gabriel; the Rancho was acquired by John A. Rowland and William Workman in 1845 via a Mexican land grant, acquired by Elias "Lucky" Baldwin. In 1912, his descendant, Anita Baldwin, sold the property to Jet Torrance; the pair subdivided the area and named it North Whittier Heights, which became known for avocado and walnut orchards, in 1913. However, from the Great Depression era to the early 1940s, citrus growing became unprofitable because of pests and diseases, setting the impetus for the area's transformation into a suburb.
An agricultural town, beginning in the 1940s and accelerating in the 1950s, suburban residential development, which occurred southward, transformed Hacienda Heights into a residential or bedroom community. In 1961, the Hacienda Heights Branch of the Los Angeles County Public Library opened; the following year, in 1961, the area was renamed Hacienda Heights. In 1964, the local newspaper, the Hacienda Heights Highlander, was established. Hacienda Heights is located at 34°0′2″N 117°58′10″W in the eastern San Gabriel Valley bordering City of Industry to the North, Whittier to the West, La Habra Heights to the South, Rowland Heights to the East along the Pomona Freeway - Route 60. Hacienda Heights is a predominantly residential neighborhood. According to the United States Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 11.2 square miles. 11.2 square miles of it is 0.06 % is water. Hacienda Heights has the Puente Hills forming its'green belt' southern border and much of its western border; the highest point is Workman Hill at 1,391 feet.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Hacienda Heights had a population of 54,038. The population density was 4,832.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Hacienda Heights was 21,873 White, 743 African American, 315 Native American, 21,065 Asian, 99 Pacific Islander, 9,199 from other races, 1,744 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24,608 persons; the Census reported that 53,928 people lived in households, 70 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 40 were institutionalized. There were 16,193 households, out of which 6,185 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,151 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,331 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,024 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 555 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 93 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,111 households were made up of individuals and 1,047 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33.
There were 13,506 families. The population was spread out with 11,864 people under the age of 18, 5,184 people aged 18 to 24, 13,597 people aged 25 to 44, 15,071 people aged 45 to 64, 8,322 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 40.1 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. There were 16,650 housing units at an average density of 1,488.9 per square mile, of which 12,720 were owner-occupied, 3,473 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 42,189 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 11,739 people lived in rental housing units. The "Puente Hills Landfill Native Habitat Preservation Authority" supports public enjoyment and access of the nearby parkland in the Puente Hills. Hsi Lai Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in North America; the temple encompasses 15 acres and a floor area of 102,432 sq ft. The temple's Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty architecture is faithful to the traditional style of buildings, Chinese gardens, statuary of ancient Chinese monasteries.
Hsi Lai was built to serve as a spiritual and cultural center for those interested in learning Buddhism and Chinese culture. In the state senate, Hacienda Heights is located in California's 32nd State Senate district, California’s thirty-second state senate district is represented by Democrat Bob Archuleta In the California State Assembly it is located in California's 57th State Assembly district, represented by Democrat Ian Calderon. Federally, Hacienda Heights is located in California's 39th congressional district, which has a Even Cook PVI and is represented by Democrat Gil Cisneros; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Industry Station in the City of Industry, serving Hacienda Heights. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Pomona Health Center in Pomona, serving Hacienda Heights. In 2003, voters were asked to decide whether the community should incorporate and become a city. Proponents argued that a new city would be able to better control development and provide increased police and fire service, whil
Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a
Culver City, California
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The city was named after Harry Culver; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,883. It is surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, but shares a border with unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Over the years, it has annexed more than 40 pieces of adjoining land and now comprises about five square miles. Since the 1920s, Culver City has been a center for motion picture and television production, best known as the home of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. From 1932 to 1986, it was the headquarters for the Hughes Aircraft Company. National Public Radio West and Sony Pictures Entertainment have headquarters in the city; the NFL Network studio is based in Culver City. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the area of present-day Culver City since at least 8,000 BC; the region was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans. The city was founded on the lands of the former Rancho La Ballona, Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes, Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera.
In 1861, during the American Civil War, Camp Latham was established by the 1st California Infantry under Col. James H. Carleton and the 1st California Cavalry under Lt. Col. Benjamin F. Davis. Named for California Senator Milton S. Latham, the camp was the first staging area for the training of Union troops and their operations in Southern California, it was located on land of the Rancho La Ballona, on the South side of Ballona Creek, near what is now the intersection of Jefferson and Overland Boulevards. The post was moved to Camp Drum, which became the Drum Barracks. Harry Culver first attempted to establish Culver City in 1913; the first film studio in Culver City was built by Thomas Ince in 1918. Silent film comedy producer Hal Roach built his studios there in 1919, Metro Goldwyn Mayer in the'20s. During Prohibition and nightclubs such as the Cotton Club lined Washington Boulevard. Culver Center, one of Southern California's first shopping malls, was completed in 1950 on Venice Boulevard near the Overland Avenue intersection.
Many other retail stores, including a Rite Aid and several banks and restaurants, have occupied the center since then. Hughes Aircraft opened its Culver City plant in July 1941. There the company built the H-4 Hercules transport. Hughes was an active subcontractor in World War II, it developed and patented a flexible feed chute for faster loading of machine guns on B-17 bombers, manufactured electric booster drives for machine guns. Hughes produced more ammunition belts than any other American manufacturer, built 5,576 wings and 6,370 rear fuselage sections for Vultee BT-13 trainers. Hughes grew after the war, in 1953 Howard Hughes donated all his stock in the company to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. After he died in 1976, the institute sold the company, which made it the second-best-endowed medical research foundation in the world; the Hal Roach Studios were demolished in 1963. In the late 1960s, much of the MGM backlot acreage, the nearby 28.5-acre of the RKO Forty Acres, once owned by RKO Pictures and Desilu Productions, were sold by their owners.
In 1976 the sets were razed to make way for redevelopment. Today the RKO site is the southern expansion of the Hayden Industrial Tract, while the MGM property has been converted to a subdivision and a shopping center known as Raintree Plaza. In the 1990s, Culver City launched a successful revitalization program in which it renovated its downtown as well as several shopping centers in the Sepulveda Boulevard corridor near Westfield Culver City. Around the same time, Sony's motion picture subsidiary, Columbia Pictures, moved into the old MGM lot; the influx of many art galleries and restaurants to the eastern part of the city, formally designated the Culver City Art District, prompted The New York Times in 2007 to praise the new art scene and call Culver City a "nascent Chelsea."In 2012 Roger Vincent of the Los Angeles Times said that, according to local observers, the city's "reputation as a pedestrian-friendly destination with upscale restaurants, gastropubs and a thriving art scene is less than a decade old."
Hundreds of movies have been produced on the lots of Culver City's studios: Sony Pictures Studios, Culver Studios, the former Hal Roach Studios. These include The Wizard of Oz, The Thin Man, Gone with the Wind, the Tarzan series, the original King Kong. More recent films made in Culver City include Grease, Raging Bull, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, City Slickers, Air Force One, Wag the Dog and Contact. Television series made on Culver City sets have included Las Vegas, Cougar Town, Mad About You, Hogan's Heroes, The Green Hornet, Arrested Development, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Jeopardy!, The Nanny, Hell's Kitchen, MasterChef, the syndicated version of Wheel of Fortune and Tosh. O; the television series The Green Hornet featured Bruce Lee as Kato. John Travolta's "Stranded at the Drive-In" sequence in Grease was filmed at the Studio Drive-In on the corner of Jefferson and Sepulveda, it served as a set including Pee-wee's Big Adventure. The theatre was closed in 1993 and demolished in 1998.
Culver City's streets have been featured in television series. Since much of the
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,456. It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Downtown Compton, Richland Farms; the city is a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods, is home to a young population, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 38. In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area; the tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was applied to the Dominguez Hills area south of Compton; the tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets. The rancho was subdivided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848.
American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848. In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of 30 pioneers to the area; these families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California, in search of ways to earn a living other than the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton. Compton's earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence; the weather continued to be harsh and cold, fuel was difficult to find. To gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena; the round trip took a week. Many in the Compton party wanted to relocate to a friendlier climate and settle down, but as there were two general stores within traveling distance—one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington—they decided to stay put.
By 1887, the settlers realized. A series of town meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned for agriculture and named Richland Farms. In January 1888, a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton was forwarded to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. On May 11, 1888 the city of Compton was incorporated with a population of 500 people; the first City Council meeting was held on May 14, 1888. The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, food to feed them, along with building a barn, caring for livestock; the farms attracted the black families who had begun migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, there they found their'home away from home'. Compton couldn't support large-scale agricultural business, but it did give the residents the opportunity to work the land for their families.
The 1920s saw the opening of the Compton Airport. Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street. On March 10, 1933, a destructive earthquake caused many casualties: schools were destroyed and there was major damage to the central business district. While it would be home to a large black population, in 1930 there was only one black resident. From the 1920s through the early 1940s, the Compton area was home to a sizable Japanese American population, a large proportion of whom were farmers. Shortly after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 in February 1942, Compton residents of Japanese descent were forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated for the duration of World War II. Most were detained at the Santa Anita Assembly Center. In the late 1940s, middle class blacks began moving into the area on the west side. Compton grew in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton; the eastern side of the city was predominately white until the 1970s.
Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the legacy of Griffith D. Compton, there still remains one small pocket of agriculture from its earliest years. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the Supreme Court declared all racially exclusive housing covenants unconstitutional in the case Shelley v. Kraemer, the first black families moved to the area. Compton's growing black population was still ignored and neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was built to accommodate a burgeoning student population. At one time, the City Council discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. A black man first ran for City Council in 1958, the first black councilman was elected in 1961. In 1969, Douglas Dollarhide became the mayor, the first black man elected mayor of any metropolitan city in California. Two blacks and one Mexican-American were elected to the local school board.
Four years in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first female black mayor of a metropolitan American city. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest conce
Downey is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States, 13 mi southeast of downtown Los Angeles. It is considered part of the Gateway Cities; the city is the birthplace of the Apollo space program. It is the home of the oldest still operational McDonald's restaurant in the world; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 111,779. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in Alta California, the area, now Downey was inhabited by the Tongva ethnic group, which came to be called the Gabrielino by the Spanish; the nearest Tongva settlements appear to have been just north and northeast of present-day Downey, although there is difficulty in locating them precisely. The villages of Naxaaw’nga and Sehat seem to have been situated near the present-day community of Los Nietos, or farther west on sites that were lost to floods of the San Gabriel River. Chokiishnga and Huutnga are other Tongva place names that may have referred to villages in the general area north of Downey between the San Gabriel River and Rio Hondo.
In all four cases, it is difficult to relate the original location descriptions, based on ranchos and land grants, to more specific sites identifiable by today's landmarks. Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was founded on September 8, 1771, near these concentrations of Tongva population, at a site in the Whittier Narrows on a bluff overlooking the Rio Hondo near the intersection of today's San Gabriel Blvd and Lincoln Avenue. After five years, flooding forced the relocation of the mission to its present site in San Gabriel. In 1784, Governor Pedro Fages granted to former soldier Manuel Nieto the largest of the land concessions made during the Spanish control of California, its 300,000 acres stretched from the Santa Ana River on the east to the Old San Gabriel River on the west, from the mission highway on the north to the ocean on the south. Its acreage was reduced at the insistence of Mission San Gabriel on whose lands it infringed; the Spanish concessions, of which 25 were made in California, were unlike the Mexican land grants in that title was not transferred, but were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown.
The Rancho Los Nietos passed to Manuel Nieto's four children upon his death and remained intact until, in 1833, his heirs petitioned Mexican Governor José Figueroa to partition the property. The northwestern portion of the original rancho, comprising the Downey-Norwalk area, was granted as Rancho Santa Gertrudes to Josefa Cota, the widow of Manuel's son, Antonio Nieto. At 21,000 acres, Santa Gertrudes was itself a sizable rancho and contained the old Nietos homestead, a center of social life east of the pueblo of Los Angeles. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, many of the Californio ranchos were obtained by affluent Anglo-Americans who were immigrating west under the United States manifest destiny doctrine, marrying into established Californio Spanish families; this migration was distinct from. Dairy was a major industry in Downey; the Central Milk Agency marketed the milk for "seven hundred dairymen whose dairy herds range from thirty to two thousand head" with the value of the products marketed in excess of $1,000,000 per month.
Some of Downey's settlers came from Ireland. Downey was founded by and named for the former and youngest governor of California, John Gately Downey, born in Ireland. Although he was an Irish Democrat, he supported the Republican Lincoln in his efforts to keep the Union intact during the American Civil War, he pioneered the modern subdivision with land he acquired between the Rio Hondo and the San Gabriel River, in about 1865. Downey was convinced that oranges would flourish in Southern California, so he imported several varieties, therefore set in motion what became one of the state's biggest cash crops. In conjunction with the construction of the Tehachapi Loop, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in 1873. Farmers in the area grew grain, castor beans and fruit, by 1935 Downey was characterized as an "orange-grove town". Downey was incorporated in 1956, instituted a charter form of government in 1964. Suburban homes and factories replaced the farms after World War II. Vultee Aircraft was Downey's largest employer during World War II, producing 15% of all of America's military aircraft by 1941.
The company was a pioneer in the use of women in manufacturing positions, was the first aircraft company to build airplanes on a powered assembly line. Vultee became a part of North American Aviation, whose facilities were the birthplace of the systems for the Apollo Space Program as well as the Space Shuttle. For over 70 years, Downey's Rockwell NASA plant produced and tested many of the 20th century's greatest aviation and space endeavors. By the early 1970s, the facilities encompassed some 1,700,000 square feet of enclosed area over more than 200 acres. But, by the post-Cold War 1990s, Downey was brutally hit by cutbacks in the defense budget. Rockwell International, who once had over 30,000 employees, had less than 5,000 in 1992; the seventy-year history of airplane and space vehicle manufacturing in Downey came to an end when the Rockwell plant closed in 1999. The former North American Rockwell plant was demolished, the site now features the Columbia Memorial Space Center, Downey Landing shopping center, a Kaiser Permanente hospital, a city recreation fields park, the former movie studio site of Downey Stud