A Different World
A Different World is an American sitcom that aired for six seasons on NBC from September 24, 1987 to July 9, 1993. The series centered on Denise Huxtable and the life of students at Hillman College, a fictional black college in Virginia, it was inspired by student life at black colleges and universities. After Bonet's departure in the first season, the remainder of the series focused more on Southern belle Whitley Gilbert and math whiz Dwayne Wayne. While it was a spin-off from The Cosby Show, A Different World addressed issues that were avoided by The Cosby Show writers. One episode that aired in 1990 was one of the first American network television episodes to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic; the original premise was to have a white student there and have Lena Horne as an acting teacher, but in production, the premise changed from being a story about a white girl in a black college to a black girl in a black college with a white friend. It was decided that Denise, of college age, would be spun off and have a white roommate in order to show the dynamic of a white girl in predominantly black surroundings.
Meg Ryan was cast for this role, but she decided to pursue a film career, so Marisa Tomei was cast. The first season of Hillman's student body consisted of both black and white students, but this was changed at the beginning of the second season and a predominantly black student body maintained until the series ended. After the first season, it came to Cosby's and the producers' attention that the series was not portraying a black college and life on campus, so Debbie Allen, an alumna of Howard University, was hired as the chief creative force to revamp the show. During the summer of 1988, Lisa Bonet announced that she and husband Lenny Kravitz were having a baby. Allen was in favor of having a young pregnant student in the show, but Cosby said that Lisa Bonet may be pregnant but not Denise Huxtable, it was felt that viewers would not accept Denise as an unwed mother, having grown to know her as a "good girl" after four seasons of The Cosby Show. Thus it was decided that Denise would drop out of Hillman, return home to her family, travel to Africa throughout the fifth season of The Cosby Show, ensuring that viewers would not see a pregnant Denise.
Allen was in favor of keeping Tomei, as she herself recalls a white student at Howard and wanted to relate that in the show and had possible premises for her character, such as meeting Dwayne's parents and seeing the other side of racism. However, Tomei left the show, she and Marie-Alise Recasner were replaced by Cree Summer and Charnele Brown, respectively. Darryl M. Bell and Sinbad were promoted to the principal cast, Glynn Turman and Lou Myers were added as supporting cast members; these changes led to the placement of Whitley and Dwayne at the center of a wider ensemble, dealing with more relevant issues of the day. Cory Tyler as Terrence Taylor Patrick Malone as Terrell Walker Bumper Robinson as Dorian Heywood Michael Ralph as Spencer Boyer, various characters Gary Dourdan as Shazza Zulu Marie-Alise Recasner as Millie Andrew Lowery as Matthew Kim Wayans as Allison Alisa Gyse Dickens as Kinu Owens Jenifer Lewis as Dean Dorothy Dandridge Davenport Diahann Carroll as Marion Gilbert Patti LaBelle as Adele Wayne Roger Guenveur Smith as Prof. Howard Randolph Rosalind Cash as Dean Hughes Ron O'Neal as Mercer Gilbert Phylicia Rashad as Clair Huxtable Jonell Green as Dashawn Curtis Bill Cosby as Cliff Huxtable Keshia Knight Pulliam as Rudy Huxtable Robert Guillaume as Dean Winston and Professor Murphy Harold Sylvester as Woodson Wayne Malcolm-Jamal Warner as Theo Huxtable Vanessa Bell Calloway as Lily Connors & Jaleesa's sister Tisha Campbell-Martin as Josie Webb Nestor Carbonell as Malik Velasquez Art Evans as Mr. Johnson IMx as Whitley's students Richard Roundtree as Clinton Reese Halle Berry as Jaclyn The Boys as Mice 2 Men Dean Cain as Brian Wayne Federman as A&M Wolf Ernie Sabella as Campus Security En Vogue as Faith, Hope and Henrietta Whoopi Goldberg as Dr. Jordan David Alan Grier as Professor Byron Walcott James Avery as bowler Alfonso Ribeiro as Zach Duncan Heavy D as himself Lena Horne as herself Jesse Jackson as himself Trina McGee as Gennifer Khandi Alexander as Theressa Stone Gladys Knight as herself Kris Kross as Dwayne's juvenile mentees Tupac Shakur as Piccolo Obba Babatundé as Frank Blair Underwood as Zelme
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Historically black colleges and universities
Black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs including public and private institutions; this figure is down from the 121 institutions. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees. Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations.
However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania and Lincoln University, were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War; the year 1865 saw the foundation of Storer College at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park. In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state; some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states in the South, required their systems to be segregated and excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890 known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college.
Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research and outreach activities. In the 1920s and 1930s the black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding at state universities, but few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches and featured stellar athletes, set up their own leagues. Many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in black colleges. HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama. After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population.
The purpose was to show that equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola; the new ones, with their year of founding, are: Gibbs Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Volusia County Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Carver Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College Jackson Junior College The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception; the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any black college or university, established before 1964, whose principal mission was, is, the education of black Americans, and, accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter and Brown v. Board of Education rulings by the U. S. Supreme Court and the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HB
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show is an American television sitcom co-created and starring Bill Cosby, which aired for eight seasons on NBC from September 20, 1984, until April 30, 1992. The show focuses on the Huxtable family, an upper middle-class African-American family living in Brooklyn, New York; the Cosby Show spent five consecutive seasons as the number-one rated show on television. The Cosby Show and All in the Family are the only sitcoms in the history of the Nielsen ratings to be the number-one show for five seasons, it spent all eight of its seasons in the top 20. According to TV Guide, the show "was TV's biggest hit in the 1980s, single-handedly revived the sitcom genre and NBC's ratings fortunes." TV Guide ranked it 28th on their list of 50 Greatest Shows. In addition, Cliff Huxtable was named as the "Greatest Television Dad". In May 1992, Entertainment Weekly stated that The Cosby Show helped to make possible a larger variety of shows with a predominantly African-American cast, from In Living Color to The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air.
The Cosby Show was based on comedy routines in Cosby's stand-up act, which in turn were based on his family life. The show led to the spinoff A Different World, which ran for six seasons from 1987 to 1993; the show focuses on the Huxtable family, an upper middle-class African-American family, living in a brownstone in Brooklyn Heights, New York, at 10 Stigwood Avenue. The patriarch is an obstetrician and son of a prominent jazz trombonist; the matriarch is attorney Clair Huxtable. They have four daughters and one son: Sondra, Theo and Rudy. Despite its comedic tone, the show sometimes involves serious subjects, like Theo's experiences dealing with dyslexia, inspired by Cosby's dyslexic son, Ennis; the show deals with teen pregnancy when Denise's friend, becomes pregnant. The Cosby Show pilot episode uses the same title sequence as the rest of the first season, is regarded as the first episode. However, it is notable for a number of differences from the remainder of the series. In the pilot, the Huxtables have only four children.
Following the pilot, the Huxtables have five children, with the addition of their eldest daughter, mentioned in episode four and appears first in episode 11. The character was created when Bill Cosby wanted the show to express the accomplishment of raising a child. Bill Cosby wanted Vanessa L. Williams to play the part of "Sondra" due to her college education and background in theater arts. However, Williams was crowned the first black Miss America and pageant officials would not permit her to play, the Cosby Show role, while she was representing the Miss America pageant. Whitney Houston was considered for the role of Sondra Huxtable. Houston, was unable to commit to the full-time television production schedule in the NBC contract, as she was intending to be a full-time music recording artist. Most of the story in the pilot presentation is taken from Bill Cosby's classic comedy film Bill Cosby: Himself. Cosby's character is called "Clifford" in the early episodes of the first season, his name was switched to "Heathcliff".
Although, in one episode, Clair calls him "Heathclifford". Additionally, Vanessa refers to Theo as "Teddy" twice in the dining room scene; the interior of the Huxtables' home features an different living room from subsequent episodes, different color schemes in the dining room and the master bedroom. Throughout the remainder of the series, the dining room is reserved for more formal occasions. In the early 1980s, Marcy Carsey and Tom Werner, two former executives at ABC, left the network to start their own production company. At ABC, they had overseen sitcoms such as Mork & Mindy, Three's Company, Welcome Back, Kotter; the two decided that to get a sitcom to sell for their fledgling company, they needed a big name behind it. Bill Cosby, who starred in two failed sitcoms during the 1970s, produced award-winning stand-up comedy albums, had roles in several different films, was quiet during the early 1980s. According to a Chicago Tribune article from July, 1985, despite Carsey and Werner's connection to the network, Lewis Erlicht, president of ABC Entertainment, passed on the show, prompting a pitch to rival network, NBC.
Outside of his work on his cartoon series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids, Cosby was doing little in film or television, but Carsey and Werner were fans of Cosby's stand-up comedy and thought it would be the perfect material for a family sitcom. Cosby proposed that the couple should both have blue-collar jobs, with the father a limousine driver, who owned his own car, the mother an electrician. With advice from his wife Camille Cosby, the concept was changed so that the family was well-off financially, with the mother a lawyer and the father a physician. Cosby wanted the program to be educational, he insisted that the program be taped in New York City instead of Los Angeles, where most television programs were taped. The Huxtable home exterior was filmed at 10 St. Luke's Place near 7th Avenue in Manhattan's Greenwich Village; the earliest episodes of the series were videotaped at NBC's Brooklyn studios. The network sold that building, production moved to the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens. Though the show was set to take place in Brooklyn, the exterior façade was of a brownstone townhouse located in Manhattan's Greenwich Village at 10 Leroy Street/ 10 St. Luke's Place.
The pilot was filmed in May 1984, with seas
Clinton is a city in Hinds County, United States. Situated in the Jackson metropolitan area, it is the tenth largest city in Mississippi; the population was 25,216 at the 2010 United States Census. Founded in 1823, Clinton was known as Mount Salus, which means "Mountain of health", it was named for the plantation home of Walter Leake, third governor of Mississippi, located in Clinton and built in 1812. In 1828, the city changed its name to Clinton in honor of DeWitt Clinton, the former governor of New York who led completion of the Erie Canal; the first road through Mount Salus/Clinton was the Natchez Trace, improved from a centuries-old Native American path. Clinton has three major highways that pass through the city: the Natchez Trace Parkway, U. S. Route 80, Interstate 20. Mississippi College, a Christian university located in Clinton, is the oldest college in the state of Mississippi, it was founded January 24, 1826 as Hampstead Academy, the second male college in the state after Jefferson College.
Mississippi College is the second oldest Baptist university in the world, was the first coeducational college in the United States to grant a degree to a woman. Clinton is home to sports teams known as the "Clinton Arrows" and "Mississippi College Choctaws". Hillman College for women, was founded in 1853 as Central Female Institute, supported by the Central Baptist Association, it changed its name in 1891. Mount Hermon Female Seminary, a black college, was established in 1875 by Sarah Ann Dickey, it closed in 1924. The Clinton-Vicksburg Railroad was the second oldest in the state, incorporated in 1831, it contributed to the export of 20,000 bales of cotton annually from this city, the most of any city between Vicksburg and Meridian. Cotton from three surrounding counties was shipped through Clinton and by rail to Grand Gulf on the Mississippi. During the Civil War, Confederate forces, as well as Union troops— the latter commanded by generals Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman—briefly occupied Clinton on their way to the Battle of Vicksburg in May 1863.
Grant had mistakenly believed that John C. Pemberton, a Confederate general, would attack him at Clinton. Grant took Vicksburg in this campaign. In September 1875 during the election campaign, a Republican political rally was held in downtown Clinton, where 3000 people were gathered and expecting Governor Adelbert Ames and other prominent speakers. White insurgents disrupted the rally, attacking blacks in what was called the "Clinton Riot." It resulted in the deaths of several white men and an estimated 50 blacks that night and over the next few days. More armed whites arrived by train and attacked blacks. Among the black victims were schoolteachers, church leaders, local Republican organizers. Whites had been attacking black and white Republicans in every election cycle, that year the paramilitary Red Shirts arose in the state as a force to intimidate blacks and suppress black voting; the governor appealed to the federal government for protection and the U. S. government sent more troops. But election-related violence continued through the fall and, together with fraud at the polls, resulted in white Democrats regaining control of the state legislature and, in 1876, the governor's seat.
This political shift signaled the end of the Reconstruction era, confirmed when the federal government withdrew remaining troops in 1877. During World War II, Camp Clinton was established as a German POW camp south of town. Most of the prisoners were from the Afrika Korps. Of the 40 German generals captured in the war, Camp Clinton housed 35 of them; the German soldiers provided the labor to build a replica model of the Mississippi River Basin for the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, used for designing flood prevention. Clinton, the smallest city to host a Fortune 500 company, was the headquarters for WorldCom from the mid-1990s until 2002, it went bankrupt due to what was at the time the largest accounting scandal in U. S. history. The financial dealings resulted in fraud-related convictions of Bernard Ebbers, CEO, Scott Sullivan, CFO; the company changed its name to MCI and moved its corporate headquarters location to Ashburn, Virginia. Verizon, MCI's successor, owns SkyTel, it still occupies the massive former WorldCom compound in Clinton.
On April 15, 2011, an EF3 tornado struck the city at about 11:00 a.m. CDT, it produced damage near Interstate 20. Malaco Records was destroyed as well. Ten people were injured by the tornado. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city has a total area of 42.147 square miles, of which 41.822 square miles is land and 0.325 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 25,216 people and 9,328 households in the city; the population density was 598.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.4% White, 33.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. The average household size was 2.54. The median income for a household was $56,539, the per capita income was $26,398. About 9.1% of the population was below the poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,347 people, 8,328 households, 6,079 families residing in the city.
The population density was 979.2 people per square mile. There were 8,899 housing units at an average density of 373.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.92% White, 22.53% Black, 0.10% Native American, 1.54% Asian, 0.0
Charles Hillman Brough
Charles Hillman Brough was the 25th Governor of the U. S. state of Arkansas from 1917 to 1921. Charles Brough was born in Clinton in Hinds County in central Mississippi. In 1894, he graduated from Mississippi College in Clinton, he earned his Ph. D. in 1898 from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He graduated from the University of Mississippi Law School in 1902, he taught at Mississippi College and the former women's institution, Hillman College in Clinton and the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. He was a deacon in the Baptist Church. Brough was elected governor in 1916, he defeated attorney Wallace Townsend, an Iowa native who served as the long-term Republican national committeeman from Arkansas. Townsend made another unsuccessful gubernatorial bid in 1920 against Brough's successor, Thomas Chipman McRae. During the Brough administration, the state reformatory for women was founded and a girl's industrial school was opened, he signed into law a bill. Under Brough, Arkansas became the only southern state to allow women's suffrage prior to the 19th Amendment.
Brough, a liberal Democrat, publicly supported anti-lynching laws. He was reelected as governor in 1918, when the Republican Party endorsed Brough against the Socialist Clay Fulks. In 1919, the Elaine Race Riot in Elaine in Phillips County took place where white residents created false conspiracies about black residents wanting to kill whites, when black residents were only unionizing to demand better wages as sharecroppers. Brough accompanied the troops to the scene. At the scene, soldiers rounded up black residents and like the Mississippi vigilantes and local posse had been doing, killed black residents indiscriminately, with a total of 237 lives lost; this was one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Brough was a personal friend of the Woodward family and was an early influence on prominent southern historian C. Vann Woodward. Brough served as the director of the Public Information Bureau from 1925 to 1928 and in 1929 as president of Central Baptist College in Conway, Arkansas.
He chaired the Virginia-District of Columbia Boundary Commission from 1934 to 1935. Brough was a Civitan. Brough unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. Senate in 1932, losing in the Democratic Primary to Senator Hattie Caraway. Brough died in Washington, D. C. Like many other Arkansas governors, he is interred at the Roselawn Memorial Park Cemetery in the capital city of Little Rock. Asked how to pronounce his surname, he told The Literary Digest: "Pronounced as if it were spelled bruff." Moore v. Dempsey Cortner, Richard, A Mob Intent On Death, ISBN 0-8195-5161-9 Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Charles Hillman Brough