University of San Carlos
The University of San Carlos is a private Catholic research university in Cebu City, Philippines, administered by the Society of the Divine Word, missionaries since 1935. It provides basic education and graduate studies higher education. USC’s mandate is to develop competent responsible professionals and lifelong learners in an environment that fosters excellence in the academic core processes of teaching-learning and community extension service, its mission is to provide timely and transformative academic programs responsive to the needs of the local and global communities in a changing world. Its strategic direction is to become a intensive research and entrepreneurial university by 2030 while advancing its academic programs towards the international standards of the Asia-Pacific region. USC is among the biggest university in Cebu City with 5 campuses which have a combined land area of 88 hectares, it is ranked top four nationwide and top one in the Visayas and Mindanao with the most number of centers of excellence and centers of development recognized by the Commission on Higher Education as of March 2016.
USC is one of the few universities in the country ranked by the International/Asia Quacquarelli Symonds Rating as among the Top 350 Universities in Asia as of 2016. USC is ranked by Scopus as top 8th university in the Phils. with the most number of indexed research publications as of 2018. The university is certified with International Standards Organization 9001:2015 Quality Management System for Institutional and Student Support Services as of September 2017 by Technischer Uberwachungsverein Sud Asia Pacific. USC has 22,000+ students of which more than 200 are international students, enrolled in basic education, collegiate undergraduate and graduate programs and served by about 1,200 academic faculty and staff with a teacher to student ratio of 1:20. About 600 Carolinian students are academic scholars, 200 working student scholars and 300 non-academic scholars; the university has established an active international academic and extension linkages with 125 universities and schools in at least 26 countries around the world.
These linkages and partnership agreements with several ASEAN, US, European and East Asian universities led to an active and on-going collaborations and activities in joint research projects and visiting professorship, exchange and visiting students programs which have made USC a multicultural academic community bonded by the common pursuit for global standards. USC consists of five campuses in different areas of Metro Cebu – the Downtown Campus along P. del Rosario St.. Talamban. USC's claims as the "oldest educational institution or school in Asia" has been a long time subject of disputes with the University of Santo Tomas which on the other hand claims to be the "oldest university in Asia". According to the university's claim, San Carlos traces its roots to the Colegio de San Ildefonso founded by three Spanish Jesuit missionaries Antonio Sedeno, Pedro Chirino and Antonio Pereira on August 1, 1595, it was closed in 1769 at the expulsion of the Jesuits. In 1783, Bishop Mateo Joaquin de Arevalo initiated the opening of the Colegio-Seminario de San Carlos.
In 1852, the management of the college was entrusted to the Dominican Christian priests, replaced in 1867 by the Vincentian Fathers in 1935, the Societas Verbi Divini or the Society of the Divine Word. The Second World War led to the interruption of the courses in 1941 because several buildings suffered various amounts of destruction; the buildings reopened as repairs were made over the course of 1945 and 1946. The Colegio de San Carlos was granted its university charter in 1948; the University was named after St. Charles Borromeo. However, this position is contested by some scholars. According to Fr. Aloysius Cartagenas, a professor at the Seminario Mayor de San Carlos of Cebu, “following Church tradition, the foundation event and date of University of San Carlos should be the decree of Bishop Romualdo Jimeno on 15 May 1867 and the first day of classes in the history of what is now USC is 1 July 1867, the day P. Jose Casarramona welcomed the first lay students to attend classes at the Seminario de San Carlos.”
Thus, he says that San Carlos cannot claim to have descended from the Colegio de San Ildefonso founded by the Jesuits in 1595, despite taking over the latter’s facilities when the Jesuits were expelled by Spanish authorities in 1769. According to him there is “no visible and clear link” between Colegio de San Ildefonso and USC. San Carlos was for the training of diocesan priests, it took over the facility of the former, a Jesuit central house with an attached day school; the university, as an autonomous institute as per the modern definition of a university, started to function in
Caraga known as the Caraga Administrative Region or Caraga Region and designated as Region XIII, is an administrative region in the Philippines occupying the northeastern section of the island of Mindanao. The Caraga Region was created through Republic Act No. 7901 on February 23, 1995. The region comprises five provinces: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Dinagat Islands. Butuan is the regional administrative center. Caraga is said to have originated from the native word Kalaga which means "spirit of soul". Hence, the whole Provincia de Caraga of AD 1622 was called region de gente animosa, "region of spirited men". Another fictional etymology of the name flows from a local legend as coming from the word Cagang, a numerous small crabs matting the beach of Caraga, known as katang to the native inhabitants. Legend goes that the town was named as such because the first Spanish missionaries who came in the early years of 1600 found numerous small crabs matting the beach.
During pre-colonial times, the Rajahnate of Butuan ruled in what is now Agusan del Norte and Butuan City. It had much influenced on all of Caraga, portions of Northern Mindanao, western side of Bohol. According to records, Butuan was in conflict with the Sultanate of Ternate in the present-day Moluccas of Indonesia; the Ternateans would attack and ransack Butuan and its wealth. It was known that the Rajahnate of Butuan had friendly relations with the Rajahnate of Cebu which it considered as an ally; the Rajahnate of Butuan became a powerful Hindu state, much known for its goldsmithing and boat-making. The people of Butuan used gigantic boats known as balangay. Relics of these gold crafts and giant boats have been unearthed and preserved by the National Museum of the Philippines and other international museums. Butuan had cordial relations with the Kingdom of Champa in what is now central Vietnam; the Butuan people managed to traverse the Sulu Sea and the South China Sea to reach Champa for trade.
While the Rajahnate of Butuan was at large, the indigenous lumads of the inner sections of Caraga were free and had their own democratic societies that were advanced. Their societies were known for their knowledge on nature, medicine and warfare. Chinese traders came into Butuan and the Sino-Butuan trade became the focal point of Champa-Butuan relations, where both nations were competing against each other to win favor of better trade with Chinese traders. Butuan started to weaken due to massive attacks from Ternate. Cebu was unable to help at the time because it was being attacked by Ternate; the Kedatuan of Dapitan in Bohol, "The Venice of the Visayas", was destroyed by an attack from Ternate. When the Spaniards came and subjugated the Rajahante of Butuan, weak due to much tensions with the Sultanate of Ternate, the boat-making and goldsmithing traditions were eradicated and the relations between the coastal Butuan and the lumads of the interior became less known; the lumads of the interior were converted to Christianity, which diminished some of their traditions on nature worship.
The Spanish attacked the Sultanate of Ternate to negate any future attacks in Caraga, which they succeeded at due to much gun power. With the Spaniards having full control of Caraga, they started establishing Spanish-modeled centers to maximize their coverage and control over the territory, where they succeeded; the Spaniards would rule the country until the United States defeats them in a war which would lead into the handling of the entire archipelago into American possession. The "Kalagan", called "Caragan" by the Spaniards, occupied the district composed of the two provinces of Surigao, the northern part of Davao Oriental and eastern Misamis Oriental; the two Agusan provinces were organized under the administrative jurisdiction of Surigao and became the independent Agusan province in 1914. In 1960, Surigao was divided into Norte and Sur, in June 1967, Agusan followed suit. While Butuan was just a town of Agusan, the logging boom in the 1950s drew business to the area. On August 2, 1950, by virtue of Republic Act 523, the City Charter of Butuan was approved.
On February 23, 1995, the Caraga region was created through the issue of Republic Act No. 7901 during the administration of President Fidel Ramos. The provinces of Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur and Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur were annexed as part of the newly-created region, it is reported that during the early years of the Caraga Region, its inhabitants came from mainland Asia, followed by Malayans, Chinese, Japanese and Americans. Migrants from the Visayan and Luzon provinces settled in the area. Most of its inhabitants speak reside in the rural areas. Caraga Region, situated in the northeast section of Mindanao, is between 8 00' to 10 30' N. latitude and 125 15' to 126 30' E. longitude. It is bounded on the north by the Bohol Sea; the region has a total land area of 18,846.97 square kilometres, representing 6.3% of the country's total land area and 18.5% of the island of Mindanao. 47.6% of the total land area of the region belongs to the province of Agusan del Sur. Of the total land area, 71.22% is forestland and 28.78% is alienable and disposable land.
Major land uses include forest
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH or GIZ in short is a German development agency headquartered in Bonn and Eschborn that provides services in the field of international development cooperation. GIZ implements technical cooperation projects of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, its main commissioning party, although it works with the private sector and other national and supranational government organizations on a public benefit basis. In its activities GIZ seeks to follow the paradigm of sustainable development, which aims at economic development through social inclusion and environmental protection. GIZ offers consulting and capacity building services in a wide range of areas, including management consulting, rural development, sustainable infrastructure and peace-building, social development and democracy, environment and climate change, economic development and employment. GIZ was established on January 1, 2011, through the merger of three German international development organizations: the Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung.
GIZ is one of the world's largest development agencies, with a business volume in excess of €2.4 billion in 2016 as well as 19,506 employees spread over more than 120 countries. Additionally, in cooperation with the German Federal Employment Agency, GIZ operates the Centre for International Migration and Development, an agency specialized on international cooperation activities related to global labor mobility. GIZ's headquarters are located in Eschborn, it has a representation in Berlin and offices at 16 other locations across Germany. Outside Germany, the company has a representation in Brussels and operates 90 offices around the world; because GIZ is incorporated under German law as a GmbH, it is governed by a management board that acts on behalf of the company's shareholders and is monitored by a supervisory board. Additionally, GIZ has a Board of Trustees and a Private Sector Advisory Board. GIZ's management board consists of four managing directors and is chaired by Tanja Gönner, while the Federal Republic of Germany is GIZ's sole shareholder.
The organization is structured into ten departments. GIZ holds a 49% share in sequa gGmbH, the implementing partner of the German business community, in line with the company's objective to foster private sector development and cooperate with business chambers and associations abroad. Moreover, GIZ is a member of the European Network of Implementing Development Agencies, co-founded by GTZ in 2000. GIZ's considers capacity development to be its core competence; the company's services are grouped into eight so-called "product areas": Methods:Advisory services: management of complex projects and programs.
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Mindanao or still known as Southern Philippines, is the second largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated total of 25,537,691 residents. According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro City, General Santos City, Iligan City, Butuan City and Cotabato City. About 70% of residents identify as Christian, 20% identify as Muslim. Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads and the Moros (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, the Sama concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Joining them are the indigenous Butuanons and the Surigaonons of the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of settlers from the Visayas and Luzon, among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons. Mindanao is considered the major breadbasket of the Philippines, with eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines coming from the island group itself. Mindanao is known for its moniker being The Philippines' Land of Promise. Archaeological findings on the island point to evidence of human activity dating back to about ten thousand years ago. At around 1500 BC Austronesian people spread throughout the Philippines; the Subanon are believed to have established themselves on Mindanao Island during the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, the period in the development of human technology beginning around 10,000 BC according to the ASPRO chronology. The evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence.
Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have been found in caves, together with shell bracelets and gold ornaments. Many of the ceramic objects are from the Ming periods. Evidently, there was a long history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter's contact with Islam. In the classic epoch of Philippine history, the people of Mindanao were exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Indianized abugida scripts such as Kawi and Baybayin was introduced via Sulawesi and Java, the cultural icons of the sarong, the pudong turban and batik and ikat weaving and dyeing methods were introduced. Artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, the Ganesh pendant; these cultural traits passed from Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, but were subsequently lost or modified after the Spanish arrival in the 16th century. The Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest in the coastal areas of the island, but were incorporated into local animist beliefs and customs tribes that resided more inland.
The Rajahnate of Butuan, a Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan. The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most complete local version of the Ramayana; the Maguindanao at this time had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana epic saga that survives to the modern day, albeit Islamized from the 17th century on wards. The spread of Islam in the Philippines began in the 14th century by Muslim merchants from the western part of the Malay Archipelago; the first Mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul. Around the 16th century, Muslim sultanates: Sulu and Maguindanao were established from Hindu-Buddhist Rajahnates; as Islam gained a foothold over most of Mindanao, the natives residing within the Sultanates were either converted into Islam or obligated to pay tribute to their new Muslim rulers.
The largest of the Muslim settlements was the Sultanate named after the Maguindanaoans. Maps made during the 17th and 18th centuries suggest that the name Mindanao was used by the natives to refer to the island, by Islam was well established in Mindanao and had influenced groups on other islands to the north. On 2 February 1543, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos was the first Spaniard to reach Mindanao, he called the island "Caesarea Caroli" after Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Shortly after Spain's colonization of Cebu, they moved on to colonize Butuan and the surrounding Caraga region in northeast Mindanao and discovered significant Muslim presence on the island. Over time a number of tribes in Mindanao converted to Roman Catholicism and built settlements and forts throughout the coastal regions of the island; these settlements endured despite incurring attacks fr