Rock Creek, Minnesota
Rock Creek is a city in Pine County, United States. The population was 1,628 at the 2010 census. Portions of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation are located within Rock Creek. Interstate 35 and Minnesota State Highway 70 are two of the main routes in the community. Rock Creek is a rural area, made up of farm lands. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.32 square miles, of which 43.01 square miles is land and 0.31 square miles is water. It is by far the largest city by area in Pine County; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,628 people, 582 households, 441 families residing in the city. The population density was 37.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 635 housing units at an average density of 14.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.0% White, 0.4% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 582 households of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.2% were non-families.
17.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 39.1 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.6% male and 47.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,119 people, 389 households, 301 families residing in the city; the population density was 26.0 people per square mile. There were 417 housing units at an average density of 9.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.30% White, 0.09% African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.45% of the population. There were 389 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.3% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.4% were non-families. 15.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.5% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,000, the median income for a family was $48,482. Males had a median income of $33,523 versus $20,391 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,281. About 6.8% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Sandstone is a city in Pine County, United States, along the Kettle River. The population was 2,849 at the 2010 census. Interstate 35 and Minnesota State Highways 18 and 23 are three of the main routes in the community. Banning State Park is nearby; the Village of Fortuna was platted by W. A. Porter and incorporated on May 19, 1857, it was platted at the junction of the Point Douglas to Superior Military Road and Kettle River. Fortuna served as the county seat for Minnesota. By 1887, it had 200 residents. Just north of Fortuna, the Village of Sandstone was platted in June 1887 and incorporated on September 28, 1887. On April 14, 1920, the villages of Fortuna and Sandstone merged and re-incorporated as the City of Sandstone; the city's name in the Ojibwe language is Asinikaaning, meaning "At the quarrying place" due to the sandstone quarry located at the edge of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.43 square miles, of which 5.26 square miles is land and 0.17 square miles is water.
Sandstone is located on the Kettle River, known for its glacial kettles, rapids well loved by kayakers and canoeists. The town was built-up around a large Sandstone quarry. Railroad conglomerate James J. Hill built many of the remaining sandstone structures in the town; the city has Robinson Park, an historic and natural area that serves as the picnic area for the community, hosts ice climbing in the winter, preserving the Sandstone Quarry history and is an access point for the Kettle River. The Sandstone Ice Festival sandstoneicefest.com celebrates the coming of winter and is held in the beginning of December each year. The event welcomes in the winter with winter camping and snow shoeing. In the spring local paddlers host the Kettle River Paddle Festival kettleriverpaddlefest.com, an event for canoeists and kayakers. A down river race and a whitewater rodeo attract paddlers from all over the mid-western United States; the community is surrounded by Banning State Park, has a connection to the Munger Bicycle Trail and is home to the Audubon Center of the North Woods, a residential environmental education and conference facility that offers programs for schools, adults and retreats.
In recent years, Sandstone has gained national recognition as the home of the Midwest Country Music Theatre. Performances from this traditional country and western music venue are seen on the RFD-TV satellite network. A Federal Correctional Institution rated for low-security federal inmates is located 2 miles outside of Sandstone; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,849 people, 602 households, 362 families residing in the city. The population density was 541.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 652 housing units at an average density of 124.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.5% White, 15.5% African American, 5.7% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.0% of the population. There were 602 households of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.9% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.9% were non-families.
33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 34.9 years. 14.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 71.0% male and 29.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,549 people, 580 households, 359 families residing in the city; the population density was 292.5 people per square mile. There were 634 housing units at an average density of 119.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.84% White, 0.39% African American, 3.55% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population. There were 580 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families.
32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 24.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,265, the median income for a family was $43,684. Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $21,181 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,053. About 11.6% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 13.9% of those age 65 or over. Doug Carlson and politician Yonassan Gershom and author, early proponent of the Jewish Renewal movement The KanDells, 1960s early garage rock band of cult status The area is served by East Central Schools.
VisitSandstoneMN official tourism website for Sandstone Minnesota Interstate Highway 35 Minnesota Highway 18 Minnesota Highway 23 Minnesota Highway 123 Visit
Arna Township, Pine County, Minnesota
Arna Township is a township in Pine County, United States. The population was 86 at the 2000 census. Arna Township was founded on March 11, 1910, its name was proposed by a county auditor by the name of W. H. Hamlin. Early settlers to the area were attracted by the lumber industry. In 1912 the Soo Line Railroad passed through Arna Township, the community of Markville sprang up with the railroad. By 1920 the population of Arna had reached a peak of 350, but this number decreased over the following decades. In 1981, the last train passed through Markville, the railroad bed was subsequently dismantled and replaced by the Gandy Dancer Trail, used exclusively by All Terrain Vehicles and snowmobiles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 37.8 square miles, of which 37.7 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Located within Arna Township is the community of Markville, with a population of 30 people. Major bodies of water include the Saint Croix River.
The topography of the area is level, but there are several low hills and ridges in the township. As of the census of 2000, there were 86 people, 43 households, 22 families residing in the township; the population density was 2.3 people per square mile. There were 194 housing units at an average density of 5.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 74.42% White, 1.16% African American, 17.44% Native American, 5.81% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.33% of the population. There were 43 households out of which 11.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 2.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.8% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.55. In the township the population was spread out with 12.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 18.6% from 25 to 44, 38.4% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 126.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.6 males. The median income for a household in the township was $30,875, the median income for a family was $30,875. Males had a median income of $31,389 versus $28,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,521. There were 8.6% of families and 10.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including 33.3% of under eighteens and none of those over 64
Pine City, Minnesota
Pine City is a city in Pine County, Minnesota, in east central Minnesota. Pine City is the county seat of Pine County. A portion of the city is located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation. Founded as a railway town, it became a logging community and the surrounding lakes made it a resort town. Today, it exists in part as a commuter town to jobs in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area; the Dakota Indians were the first in the area. With the Ojibwa expansion, the area became a mixture of the two. By the early 19th century, the area became predominantly Ojibwa, they hunted on the land and traded furs at the nearby trading posts. With the Treaty of St. Peters of 1837, dubbed the "White Pine Treaty", lumbering began in the area. Lumbering, was limited by access to the available waterways. In the late 19th century, European settlers came to the Pine City area, still forested with thick stands of white pine, some of the largest in the state; when the railroad arrived in Pine City so began a logging expansion.
Pine City prospered and grew into a city that had everything needed to serve residents and the fast expanding lumber industry. Pine City was platted in 1869; the city was incorporated in 1881. When Buchanan County was merged with Pine County in 1861, the county seat was consolidated to Pine City because it was well-established; because of its location on the far southern edge of Pine County, there have been attempts over the years to move the county seat to more centrally located Hinckley and Sandstone. However, being the most populous city in the county, Pine City always prevailed as the county seat. In 2005, the city became the first in rural Minnesota with an annual gay pride event, East-Central Minnesota Pride, one of only two rural communities to hold such an event in the United States. A book capturing Pine City's history in vintage photos was written as part of the Images of America series and became available in 2010. Pine City is reached as a day trip for tourists from the Twin Cities who enjoy the downtown's specialty stores and restaurants as well as a nearby casino and recreational opportunities, including the scenic St. Croix River valley.
A local historical site situated along the Snake River, the Snake River Fur Post, has become a tourist draw. Pine City is home to two golf courses, the Pine City Country Club, a nine-hole, par 36 public course that opened in 1971, Pokegema Lake Golf Course, a course located just west of town; the Pine County Fair takes place in Pine City each year in late July/early August. A highlight of the fair is a three-night demolition derby, one of Minnesota's largest, drawing several thousand spectators each evening; the five-day event is a free gate fair and features free on-site parking. The Initiative Foundation named Pine City "Outstanding Community" of 2009 and the NAMM Foundation identified it as one of the "Best Communities for Music Education in America" for 2010, 2011 and 2012. In 2016, Movoto named Pine City one of "The 7 Best Towns in Minnesota for LGBT Families", it is a participant in the Green Steps program by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.91 square miles, of which 3.44 square miles is land and 0.47 square miles is water.
Below is a table of average low temperatures throughout the year in Pine City. Of note, Pine City's early years included historic temperature extremes as it was the site of three record-setting cold temperatures: March 2, 1897 November 30, 1896 December 31, 1898 As of the census of 2000, there were 3,043 residents, 1,222 households, 734 families in the city; the population density was 1,076.3 people per square mile. There were 1,275 housing units at an average density of 451.0 per square mile. 95.58% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.22% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.74% Asian, 0.26% African American, 0.19% from other races, 0.03% Pacific Islander and 1.67% from two or more races. The city has continued to grow. In fact, it is one of only three small towns in Minnesota, along with Mora and Litchfield, to have never lost population. Much of the growth of the area occurs around the lakes in the neighboring townships, in Pokegama, Chengwatana or Pine City Township, as of the latest census, the Pine City Zip Code had 9,348 residents.
There were 1,222 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,000 and the median income for a family was $37,000. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,000. About 10.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.
Ancestry of Pine City residents is German, Norwegian and Czech. After the
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including