Kama means "desire, longing" in Hindu and Buddhist literature. Kama connotes sexual desire and longing in contemporary literature, but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, passion, pleasure of the senses, desire for, longing to and after, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, enjoyment of love is with or without enjoyment of sexual and erotic desire, may be without sexual connotations. Kama is one of the four goals of human life in Hindu traditions, it is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma and Moksha. Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha. Kama means "desire, wish or longing". In contemporary literature, kama refers to sexual desire. However, the term refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, music, painting and nature; the concept kama is found in some of the earliest known verses in the Vedas. For example, Book 10 of the Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat.
There in hymn 129, it states: The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism, uses the term kama in a broader sense, to refer to any desire: Ancient Indian literature such as the Epics, which followed the Upanishads and explain the concept of kama together with Artha and Dharma. The Mahabharata, for example, provides one of the expansive definitions of kama; the Epic claims kama to be any agreeable and desirable experience generated by the interaction of one or more of the five senses with anything congenial to that sense and while the mind is concurrently in harmony with the other goals of human life. Kama implies the short form of the word kamana. Kama, however, is more than kamana. Kama is an experience that includes the discovery of an object, learning about the object, emotional connection, the process of enjoyment and the resulting feeling of well-being before and after the experience. Vatsyayana, the author of the Kamasutra, describes kama as happiness, a manasa vyapara.
Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kama as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses: ̨hearing, tasting and feeling—in harmony with one's mind and soul. Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art, admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama Sutra, in its discourse on kama, describes many forms of art and music, along with sex, as the means to pleasure and enjoyment. Pleasure enhances ourself appreciation of incense, candle’s, scented oil, yoga stretching and meditation, the experience of the heart chakra. Negativity and hesitation blocks the heart chakra, openness is impaired while attached to desires. Kamala in the heart chakra, is considered to be a seat of devotional worship. Opening the heart chakra is awareness of a divine communion and joy for communion with deities and the self. John Lochtefeld explains kama as desire, noting that it refers to sexual desire in contemporary literature, but in ancient Indian literature kāma includes any kind of attraction and pleasure such as those deriving from the arts.
Karl Potter describes kama as an capacity. A little girl who hugs her teddy bear with a smile is experiencing kama, as are two lovers in embrace. During these experiences, the person connects and identifies the beloved as part of oneself and feels more complete and whole by experiencing that connection and nearness. This, in the Indian perspective, is kāma. Hindery notes the diverse expositions of kama in various ancient texts of India; some texts, such as the Epic Ramayana, paint kama through the desire of Rama for Sita — a desire that transcends the physical and marital into a love, spiritual, something that gives Rama his meaning of life, his reason to live. Sita and Rama both express their unwillingness and inability to live without the other; this romantic and spiritual view of kama in the Ramayana by Valmiki is quite different, claim Hindery and others, than the normative and dry description of kama in the law codes of smriti by Manu for example. Gavin Flood explains kama as "love" without violating dharma and one's journey towards moksha.
In Hinduism, kama is regarded as one of the four proper and necessary goals of human life, the others being Dharma and Moksha. Ancient Indian literature emphasizes that dharma is essential. If dharma is ignored and kama lead to social chaos. Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra recognizes relative value of three goals as follows: artha precedes kama, while dharma precedes both kama and artha. Vatsyayana, in Chapter 2 of Kama Sutra, presents a series of philosophical objections argued against kama and offers his answers to refute those objections. For example, one objection to kama, acknowledges Vatsyayana, is this concern that kāma is an obstacle to moral and ethical life, to religious pursuits, to hard work, to productive pursuit of prosperity and wealth; the pursuit of pleasure, claim objectors, encourages individuals to commit unrighteous deeds, bring distress
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands. The name postcolonialism is modeled on postmodernism, with which it shares certain concepts and methods, may be thought of as a reaction to or departure from colonialism in the same way postmodernism is a reaction to modernism; the ambiguous term colonialism may refer either to a system of government or to an ideology or world view underlying that system—in general postcolonialism represents an ideological response to colonialist thought, rather than describing a system that comes after colonialism. The term postcolonial studies may be preferred for this reason. Postcolonialism encompasses a wide variety of approaches, theoreticians may not always agree on a common set of definitions. On a simple level, it may seek through anthropological study to build a better understanding of colonial life from the point of view of the colonized people, based on the assumption that the colonial rulers are unreliable narrators.
On a deeper level, postcolonialism examines the social and political power relationships that sustain colonialism and neocolonialism, including the social and cultural narratives surrounding the colonizer and the colonized. This approach may overlap with contemporary history and critical theory, may draw examples from history, political science, sociology and human geography. Sub-disciplines of postcolonial studies examine the effects of colonial rule on the practice of feminism, anarchism and Christian thought; as an epistemology, as an ethics, as a politics, the field of postcolonialism addresses the politics of knowledge—the matters that constitute the postcolonial identity of a decolonized people, which derives from: the colonizer's generation of cultural knowledge about the colonized people. Postcolonialism is aimed at destabilizing these theories by means of which colonialists "perceive", "understand", "know" the world. Postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their own voices, thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.
Colonialism was presented as "the extension of civilization", which ideologically justified the self-ascribed racial and cultural superiority of the Western world over the non-Western world. This concept was espoused by Joseph-Ernest Renan in La Réforme intellectuelle et morale, whereby imperial stewardship was thought to affect the intellectual and moral reformation of the coloured peoples of the lesser cultures of the world; that such a divinely established, natural harmony among the human races of the world would be possible, because everyone has an assigned cultural identity, a social place, an economic role within an imperial colony. Thus: The regeneration of the inferior or degenerate races, by the superior races is part of the providential order of things for humanity.... Regere imperio populos is our vocation. Pour forth this all-consuming activity onto countries, like China, are crying aloud for foreign conquest. Turn the adventurers who disturb European society into a ver sacrum, a horde like those of the Franks, the Lombards, or the Normans, every man will be in his right role.
Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, who have wonderful manual dexterity, no sense of honour. Let each do what he is made for, all will be well. From the mid- to the late-nineteenth century, such racialist group-identity language was the cultural common-currency justifying geopolitical competition amongst the European and American empires and meant to protect their over-extended economies. In the colonization of the Far East and in the late-nineteenth century Scramble for Africa, the representation of a homogeneous European identity justified colonization. Hence and Britain, France and Germany proffered theories of national superiority that justified colonialism as delivering the light of civilization to unenlightened peoples. Notably, la mission civilisatrice, the self-ascribed'civilizing mission' of the French Empire, proposed that some races and cultures have a higher purpose in life, whereby the more powerful, more developed, more civilized races have the right to colonize other peoples, in service to the noble idea of "civilization" and its economic benefits.
Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity, based on cultural interactions between different identities which are assigned varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyzes the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the colonizer.
Ātman is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul. In Hindu philosophy in the Vedanta school of Hinduism, Ātman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. In order to attain liberation, a human being must acquire self-knowledge, to realize that one's true self is identical with the transcendent self Brahman; the six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe. This is a major point of difference with the Buddhist doctrine of Anatta which holds that there is no unchanging soul or self. "Ātman" is a Sanskrit word which means "essence, soul." It is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₁eh₁tmṓ.Ātman, sometimes spelled without a diacritic as atman in scholarly literature, means "real self" of the individual, "innermost essence", soul. Atman, in Hinduism, is considered as eternal, beyond time, "not the same as body or mind or consciousness, but is something beyond which permeates all these". Atman is a metaphysical and spiritual concept for the Hindus discussed in their scriptures with the concept of Brahman.
The earliest use of word "Ātman" in Indian texts is found in the Rig Veda. Yāska, the ancient Indian grammarian, commenting on this Rigvedic verse, accepts the following meanings of Ātman: the pervading principle, the organism in which other elements are united and the ultimate sentient principle. Other hymns of Rig Veda where the word Ātman appears include I.115.1, VII.87.2, VII.101.6, VIII.3.24, IX.2.10, IX.6.8, X.168.4. Ātman is a central idea in all of the Upanishads, "know your Ātman" is their thematic focus. These texts state that the core of every person's self is not the body, nor the mind, nor the ego, but "Ātman", which means "soul" or "self". Atman is the spiritual essence in their real innermost essential being, it is eternal, it is the essence, it is ageless. Atman is that; the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as that in which everything exists, of the highest value, which permeates everything, the essence of all and beyond description. In hymn 4.4.5, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad describes Atman as Brahman, associates it with everything one is, everything one can be, one's free will, one's desire, what one does, what one doesn't do, the good in oneself, the bad in oneself.
That Atman is indeed Brahman. It is identified with the intellect, the Manas, the vital breath, with the eyes and ears, with earth, air, ākāśa, with fire and with what is other than fire, with desire and the absence of desire, with anger and the absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with everything — it is identified, as is well known, with this and with that; as it does and acts, so it becomes: by doing good it becomes good, by doing evil it becomes evil. It becomes virtuous through good acts, vicious through evil acts. Others, say, "The self is identified with desire alone. What it desires, so it resolves; this theme of Ātman, soul and self of oneself, every person, every being is the same as Brahman, is extensively repeated in Brihadāranyaka Upanishad. The Upanishad asserts that this knowledge of "I am Brahman", that there is no difference between "I" and "you", or "I" and "him" is a source of liberation, not gods can prevail over such a liberated man. For example, in hymn 1.4.10, Brahman was this before.
I am Brahman, therefore it became all. And whoever among the gods had this enlightenment became That, it is the same with the same with men. Whoever knows the self as “I am Brahman,” becomes all this universe; the gods cannot prevail against him, for he becomes their Ātma. Now, if a man worships another god, thinking: “He is one and I am another,” he does not know, he is like an animal to the gods. As many animals serve a man, so does each man serve the gods. If one animal is taken away, it causes anguish; therefore it is not pleasing to the gods. Along with the Brihadāranyaka, all the earliest and middle Upanishads discuss Ātman as they build their theories to answer how man can achieve liberation and bliss; the Katha Upanishad, for example, explains Atman as immanent and transcendent innermost essence of each human being and living creature, that this is one though the external forms of living creatures manifest in different forms, for example, in hymns 2.2.9 and others, its states As the one fire, after it has entered the world, though one, takes different forms according to whatever it burns,so does the internal Ātman of all living beings, though one, takes a form according to whatever He enters and is outside all forms.
Katha Upanishad, in Book 1, hymns 3.3 to 3.4, describes the cited analogy of chariot for the relation of "Soul, Self" to body and senses. Stephen Kaplan translates these hymns as, "Know the Self as the rider in a chariot, the body as the chariot. Know the intellect as the charioteer, the mind as the reins; the senses, they say are the horses, sense objects are the paths around them". The Katha Upanishad declares that "when the Self understands this and is unified, integrated w
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It refers to the concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, existence", a fundamental assumption of most Indian religions. In short, it is the cycle of rebirth. Saṃsāra is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence"; the concept of Saṃsāra has roots in the post-Vedic literature. It appears in developed form, but in the early Upanishads; the full exposition of the Saṃsāra doctrine is found in Sramanic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, as well as various schools of Hindu philosophy after about the mid-1st millennium BCE. The Saṃsāra doctrine is tied to the Karma theory of Indian religions, the liberation from Saṃsāra has been at the core of the spiritual quest of Indian traditions, as well as their internal disagreements; the liberation from Saṃsāra is called Moksha, Mukti or Kaivalya.
Saṃsāra means "wandering", as well as "world" wherein the term connotes "cyclic change". Saṃsāra is a fundamental concept in all Indian religions, is linked to the karma theory, refers to the belief that all living beings cyclically go through births and rebirths; the term is related to phrases such as "the cycle of successive existence", "transmigration", "karmic cycle", "the wheel of life", "cyclicality of all life, existence". Many scholarly texts spell Saṃsāra as Samsara. According to Monier-Williams, Saṃsāra is rooted in the term Saṃsṛ, which means "to go round, pass through a succession of states, to go towards or obtain, moving in a circuit". A conceptual form from this root appears in ancient texts as Saṃsaraṇa, which means "going around through a succession of states, rebirth of living beings and the world", without obstruction; the term shortens to Saṃsāra, referring to the same concept, as a "passage through successive states of mundane existence", a transmigration, metempsychosis, a circuit of living where one repeats previous states, from one body to another, a worldly life of constant change, rebirth, growth and redeath.
The concept is contrasted with the concept of moksha known as mukti, nibbana or kaivalya, which refers to liberation from this cycle of aimless wandering. The concept of Samsara developed in the post-Vedic times, is traceable in the Samhita layers such as in sections 1.164, 4.55, 6.70 and 10.14 of the Rigveda. While the idea is mentioned in the Samhita layers of the Vedas, there is lack of clear exposition there, the idea develops in the early Upanishads. Damien Keown states that the notion of "cyclic birth and death" appears around 800 BCE; the word Saṃsāra appears, along with Moksha, in several Principal Upanishads such as in verse 1.3.7 of the Katha Upanishad, verse 6.16 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, verses 1.4 and 6.34 of the Maitri Upanishad. The word Samsara is related to Saṃsṛti, the latter referring to the "course of mundane existence, flow, circuit or stream"; the word means "wandering through, flowing on", states Stephen J. Laumakis, in the sense of "aimless and directionless wandering".
The concept of Saṃsāra is associated with the belief that the person continues to be born and reborn in various realms and forms. The earliest layers of Vedic text incorporate the concept of life, followed by an afterlife in heaven and hell based on cumulative virtues or vices. However, the ancient Vedic Rishis challenged this idea of afterlife as simplistic, because people do not live an moral or immoral life. Between virtuous lives, some are more virtuous, they introduced the idea of an afterlife in heaven or hell in proportion to one's merit, when this runs out, one returns and is reborn. This idea appears in ancient and medieval texts, as the cycle of life, death and redeath, such as section 6:31 of the Mahabharata and section 6.10 of Devi Bhagavata Purana. The historical origins of a concept of a cycle of repeated reincarnation are obscure but the idea appears in texts of both India and ancient Greece during the first millennium BCE; the idea of Samsara is hinted in the late Vedic texts such as the Rigveda.
The late textual layers of the Vedas mention and anticipate the doctrine of Karma and rebirth, however states Stephen Laumakis, the idea is not developed. It is in the early Upanishads where these ideas are more developed, but there too the discussion does not provide specific mechanistic details; the detailed doctrines flower with unique characteristics, starting around the mid 1st millennium BCE, in diverse traditions such as in Buddhism and various schools of Hindu philosophy. Some scholars state that the Samsara doctrine may have originated from the Sramana traditions and was adopted by the Brahmanical traditions; the evidence for who influenced whom in the ancient times, is slim and speculative, the odds are the historic development of the Samsara theories happened in parallel with mutual influences. While Saṃsāra is described as rebirth and reincarnation of living beings, the chronological development of the idea over its history began with the questions on what is the true nature of human existence and whether people die only once.
This led first to the concepts of Punaravṛtti. These early theories asserted that the natu
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is regarded as having sensitivity, an emotional aspect to suffering, though when based on cerebral notions such as fairness and interdependence, it may be considered rational in nature and its application understood as an activity based on sound judgment. Compassion is a feeling. There is an aspect of equal dimension, such that individual's compassion is given a property of "depth", "vigor", or "passion"; the etymology of "compassion" is Latin, meaning "co-suffering." Compassion involves "feeling for another" and is a precursor to empathy, the "feeling as another" capacity for better person-centered acts of active compassion. Compassion involves allowing ourselves to be moved by suffering and experiencing the motivation to help alleviate and prevent it. An act of compassion is defined by its helpfulness. Qualities of compassion are wisdom, it is though not the key component in what manifests in the social context as altruism.
Expression of compassion is prone to be hierarchical and controlling in responses. Difference between sympathy and compassion is that the former responds to suffering from sorrow and concern while the latter responds with warmth and care; the English noun compassion, meaning to love together with, comes from Latin. Its prefix com- comes directly from com, an archaic version of the Latin preposition and affix cum. Compassion is thus related in origin and meaning to the English noun patient, from patiens, present participle of the same patior, is akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν and to its cognate noun πάθος. Ranked a great virtue in numerous philosophies, compassion is considered in all the major religious traditions as among the greatest of virtues. Theoretical perspectives of compassion have been developed through the years, the following three proposed perspectives show contrasts in their evolution and approaches to compassion. Compassion is a variation of love or sadness, not a distinct emotion.
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, compassion can be viewed as a distinct emotional state, which can be differentiated from distress and love. Compassion as a synonym of empathic distress, characterized by the feeling of distress in connection with another person's suffering; this perspective of compassion is based on the finding that people sometimes emulate and feel the emotions of people around them. The more one person knows about the human condition and the associated experiences, the more vivid the route to identification with suffering becomes. Identifying with another person is an essential process for human beings, it is seen throughout the world as people adapt and change with new styles of clothing, behavior, etc., illustrated by infants who begin to mirror the facial expressions and body movements of their mother as early as the first days of their lives. Personality psychology agrees that people are inherently different and distinct from one another, which leads to the conclusion that human suffering is always individual and unique.
Suffering can result from psychological and physical trauma and it happens in acute forms as as chronically. Due to the inherent differences in people's personalities some may define their early stages of suffering to their external circumstances and those life events being quiet or not discussed; the stages may involve the person expressing their victimization and searching for help. Suffering has been defined as the perception of a person's impending destruction or loss of integrity, which continues until the threat is vanished or the person's integrity can be restored; the importance of identifying with others for compassion is contrasted by the negative physical and psychological effects of abandonment. Compassion is a characteristic element of democratic societies. Compassion is recognized through identifying with other people, the knowledge of human behavior, the perception of suffering, transfer of feelings, knowledge of goal and purpose changes in sufferers, leads to the absence of the suffering from the group.
The compassion process is related to identifying with the other person because sympathizing with others is possible among people from other countries, locations, etc. A possible source of this process of identifying with others comes from a universal category called "Spirit." Toward the late 1970s different cultures and nations around the world took a turn to religious fundamentalism, attributed to "Spirit". The role of compassion as a factor contributing to individual or societal behavior has been the topic of continuous debate. In contrast to the process of identifying with other people, a complete absence of compassion may require ignoring or disapproving identification with other people or groups. Earlier studies established the links between interpersonal violence and cruelty which leads to indifference; this concept has been illustrated throughout history: The Holocaust, European colonization of the Americas, etc. The essential step in these atrocities could be the definition of the victims as "not human" or "not us."
The atrocities committed throughout human history have only been relieved through the presence of compassio
A Venn diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict elements as points in the plane, sets as regions inside closed curves. A Venn diagram consists of multiple overlapping closed curves circles, each representing a set; the points inside a curve labelled S represent elements of the set S, while points outside the boundary represent elements not in the set S. This lends to read visualizations. In Venn diagrams the curves are overlapped in every possible way, showing all possible relations between the sets, they are thus a special case of Euler diagrams, which do not show all relations. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn, they are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, statistics and computer science. A Venn diagram in which the area of each shape is proportional to the number of elements it contains is called an area-proportional or scaled Venn diagram.
This example involves A and B, represented here as coloured circles. The orange circle, set A, represents all living creatures; the blue circle, set B, represents the living creatures. Each separate type of creature can be imagined as a point somewhere in the diagram. Living creatures that both can fly and have two legs—for example, parrots—are in both sets, so they correspond to points in the region where the blue and orange circles overlap, it is important to note that this overlapping region would only contain those elements that are members of both set A and are members of set B Humans and penguins are bipedal, so are in the orange circle, but since they cannot fly they appear in the left part of the orange circle, where it does not overlap with the blue circle. Mosquitoes have six legs, fly, so the point for mosquitoes is in the part of the blue circle that does not overlap with the orange one. Creatures that are not two-legged and cannot fly would all be represented by points outside both circles.
The combined region of sets A and B is called the union of A and B, denoted by A ∪ B. The union in this case contains all living creatures that can fly; the region in both A and B, where the two sets overlap, is called the intersection of A and B, denoted by A ∩ B. For example, the intersection of the two sets is not empty, because there are points that represent creatures that are in both the orange and blue circles. Venn diagrams were introduced in 1880 by John Venn in a paper entitled On the Diagrammatic and Mechanical Representation of Propositions and Reasonings in the "Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science", about the different ways to represent propositions by diagrams; the use of these types of diagrams in formal logic, according to Frank Ruskey and Mark Weston, is "not an easy history to trace, but it is certain that the diagrams that are popularly associated with Venn, in fact, originated much earlier. They are rightly associated with Venn, because he comprehensively surveyed and formalized their usage, was the first to generalize them".
Venn himself did not use the term "Venn diagram" and referred to his invention as "Eulerian Circles". For example, in the opening sentence of his 1880 article Venn writes, "Schemes of diagrammatic representation have been so familiarly introduced into logical treatises during the last century or so, that many readers those who have made no professional study of logic, may be supposed to be acquainted with the general nature and object of such devices. Of these schemes one only, viz. that called'Eulerian circles,' has met with any general acceptance..." Lewis Carroll includes "Venn's Method of Diagrams" as well as "Euler's Method of Diagrams" in an "Appendix, Addressed to Teachers" of his book "Symbolic Logic". The term "Venn diagram" was used by Clarence Irving Lewis in 1918, in his book "A Survey of Symbolic Logic". Venn diagrams are similar to Euler diagrams, which were invented by Leonhard Euler in the 18th century. M. E. Baron has noted that Leibniz in the 17th century produced similar diagrams before Euler, but much of it was unpublished.
She observes earlier Euler-like diagrams by Ramon Llull in the 13th Century. In the 20th century, Venn diagrams were further developed. D. W. Henderson showed in 1963 that the existence of an n-Venn diagram with n-fold rotational symmetry implied that n was a prime number, he showed that such symmetric Venn diagrams exist when n is five or seven. In 2002 Peter Hamburger found symmetric Venn diagrams for n = 11 and in 2003, Griggs and Savage showed that symmetric Venn diagrams exist for all other primes, thus rotationally symmetric Venn diagrams exist. Venn diagrams and Euler diagrams were incorporated as part of instruction in set theory as part of the new math movement in the 1960s. Since they have been adopted in the curriculum of other fields such as reading. A Venn diagram is constructed with a collection of simple closed curves drawn in a plane. According to Lewis, the "principle of these diagrams is that classes be represented by regions in such relation to one another that all the possible logical relations of these classes can be indicated in the same diagram.
That is, the diagram leaves room for any possible relation
State University of New York
The State University of New York is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Kristina M. Johnson, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $10.7 billion budget. SUNY includes many institutions and four university Centers: Albany, Binghamton and Stony Brook. SUNY's administrative offices are in Albany, the state's capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D. C. SUNY's largest campus is the University at Buffalo, which has the greatest endowment and research funding; the State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University.
The Commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, at the time Chairman of General Electric; the system was expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Apart from units of the City University of New York, SUNY comprises all other institutions of higher education statewide that are state-supported; the first colleges were established with some arising from local seminaries. But New York state had a long history of supported higher education prior to the creation of the SUNY system; the oldest college, part of the SUNY System is SUNY Potsdam, established in 1816 as the St. Lawrence Academy. In 1835, the State Legislature acted to establish stronger programs for public school teacher preparation and designated one academy in each senatorial district to receive money for a special teacher-training department; the St. Lawrence Academy received this distinction and designated the village of Potsdam as the site of a Normal School in 1867.
On May 7, 1844, the State legislature voted to establish New York State Normal School in Albany as the first college for teacher education. In 1865, the endowed Cornell University was designated as New York's land grant college, it began direct financial support of four of Cornell's colleges in 1894. From 1889 to 1903, Cornell operated the New York State College of Forestry, until the Governor vetoed its annual appropriation; the school was moved to Syracuse University in 1911. It is now the State University of New York College of Environmental Forestry. In 1908, the State legislature began the NY State College of Agriculture at Alfred University. In 1946-48 a Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, chaired by Owen D. Young, Chairman of the General Electric Company, studied New York's existing higher education institutions, it was known New York's private institutions of higher education were discriminatory and failed to provide for many New Yorkers. Noting this need, the commission recommended the creation of a public state university system.
In 1948 legislation was passed establishing SUNY on the foundation of the teacher-training schools established in the 19th century. Most of them had developed curricula similar to those found at four-year liberal arts schools long before the creation of SUNY, as evidenced by the fact they had become known as "Colleges for Teachers" rather than "Teachers' Colleges." On October 8, 1953, SUNY took a historic step of banning national fraternities and sororities that discriminated based on race or religion from its 33 campuses. Various fraternities challenged this rule in court; as a result, national organizations felt pressured to open their membership to students of all races and religions. The SUNY resolution, upheld in court states: Resolved that no social organization shall be permitted in any state-operated unit of the State University which has any direct or indirect affiliation or connection with any national or other organization outside the particular unit. Despite being one of the last states in the nation to establish a state university, the system was expanded during the chancellorship of Samuel B. Gould and the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in the design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.
Rockefeller championed the acquisition of the private University of Buffalo into the SUNY system, making the public State University of New York at Buffalo. SUNY is governed by a State University of New York Board of Trustees, which consists of eighteen members, fifteen of whom are appointed by the Governor, with consent of the New York State Senate; the sixteenth member is the President of the Student Assembly of the State University of New York. The last two members are the Presidents of the University Faculty Senate and Faculty Council of Community Colleges, both of whom are non-voting; the Board of Trustees appoints the Chancellor. The state of New York assists in financing the SUNY system, along with CUNY, provides lower-cost college-level