Dayanand Saraswati pronunciation was an Indian social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of the Vedic dharma. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "India for Indians" in 1876, a call taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. Denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship prevalent in India at the time, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies. Subsequently, the philosopher and President of India, S. Radhakrishnan called him one of the "makers of Modern India", as did Sri Aurobindo; those who were influenced by and followed Dayananda included Madam Cama, Pandit Lekh Ram, Swami Shraddhanand, Pandit Guru Dutt Vidyarthi, Shyamji Krishna Varma Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Lala Hardayal, Madan Lal Dhingra, Ram Prasad Bismil, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Ashfaq Ullah Khan, Mahatma Hansraj, Lala Lajpat Rai, others. One of his most influential works is the book Satyarth Prakash, which contributed to the Indian independence movement, he was a sanyasi from boyhood, a scholar. He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
Maharshi Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Reincarnation. He emphasized the Vedic ideals of brahmacharya, including devotion to God. Among Maharshi Dayananda's contributions are his promoting of the equal rights for women, such as the right to education and reading of Indian scriptures, his commentary on the Vedas from Vedic Sanskrit in Sanskrit as well as in Hindi. Dayananda Saraswati was born on the 10th day of waning moon in the month of Purnimanta Falguna on the tithi to a Brahmin Hindu family in Jeevapar Tankara, Kathiawad region His original name was Mul Shankar because he was born in Dhanu Rashi and Mul Nakshatra, his father was Karshanji Lalji Kapadi, his mother was Amrutbai. When he was eight years old, his Yajnopavita Sanskara ceremony was performed, marking his entry into formal education, his father taught him the ways to impress Shiva. He was taught the importance of keeping fasts. On the occasion of Shivratri, Dayananda sat awake the whole night in obedience to Shiva. On one of these fasts, he saw a mouse running over the idol's body.
After seeing this, he questioned that if Shiva could not defend himself against a mouse how could he be the savior of the massive world. The deaths of his younger sister and his uncle from cholera caused Dayananda to ponder the meaning of life and death, he began asking questions. He was engaged in his early teens, but he decided marriage was not for him and ran away from home in 1846. Dayananda Saraswati spent nearly twenty-five years, from 1845 to 1869, as a wandering ascetic, searching for religious truth, he gave up material goods and lived a life of self-denial, devoting himself to spiritual pursuits in forests, retreats in the Himalayan Mountains, pilgrimage sites in northern India. During these years he practiced various forms of yoga and became a disciple of a religious teacher named Virajanand Dandeesha. Virajanand believed that Hinduism had strayed from its historical roots and that many of its practices had become impure. Dayananda Sarasvati promised Virajanand that he would devote his life to restoring the rightful place of the Vedas in the Hindu faith.
Dayanand's mission was to ask humankind for universal brotherhood through nobility as stated in the Vedas. He believed that Hinduism had been corrupted by divergence from the founding principles of the Vedas and that Hindus had been misled by the priesthood for the priests' self-aggrandizement. For this mission, he founded the Arya Samaj, enunciating the Ten Universal Principles as a code for Universalism, called Krinvanto Vishwaryam. With these principles, he intended the whole world to be an abode for Nobles, his next step was to reform Hinduism with a new dedication to God. He traveled the country challenging religious scholars and priests to discussions, winning through the strength of his arguments and knowledge of Sanskrit and Vedas. Hindu priests discouraged the laity from reading Vedic scriptures, encouraged rituals, such as bathing in the Ganges River and feeding of priests on anniversaries, which Dayananda pronounced as superstitions or self-serving practices. By exhorting the nation to reject such superstitious notions, his aim was to educate the nation to return to the teachings of the Vedas, to follow the Vedic way of life.
He exhorted the Hindu nation to accept social reforms, including the importance of Cows for national prosperity as well as the adoption of Hindi as the national language for national integration. Through his daily life and practice of yoga and asanas, preaching and writings, he inspired the Hindu nation to aspire to Swarajya and spiritualism, he advocated the equal rights and respects to women and advocated for the education of all children, regardless of gender. Swami Dayanand made logical and critical analyses of faiths including Christianity & Islam, as well as of other Indian faiths like Jainism and Sikhism. In addition to discouraging idolatry in Hinduism, he was against what he considered to be the corruption of the true and pure faith in his own country. Unlike many other reform movements of his times within Hinduism, the Arya Samaj's appeal was addressed not only to the educated few in India, but to the world as a whole as evidenced in the sixth principle of the Arya Samaj; as a result, his teachings professed universalism for all the living beings and not for any particular sect
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Christendom has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the "Christian world": Christian-majority countries and the countries in which Christianity dominates or prevails, or, in the historic, Catholic sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity is the established religion, having a Catholic Christian polity. Since the spread of Christianity from the Levant to Europe and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West. Different versions of the Christian religion arose with their own beliefs and practices, centred around the cities of Rome and Constantinople. From the 11th to 13th centuries, Latin Christendom rose to the central role of the Western world. In its historical sense, the term refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power, juxtaposed with both the pagan and the Muslim world.
In the traditional Roman Catholic sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church is the established religion of the state or to those with ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See. The Anglo-Saxon term cristendom appears to have been invented in the 9th century by a scribe somewhere in southern England at the court of king Alfred the Great of Wessex; the scribe was translating Paulus Orosius' book History Against the Pagans and in need for a term to express the concept of the universal culture focused on Jesus Christ. It had the sense now taken by Christianity; the current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity is the dominant religion" emerged in Late Middle English. This semantic development happened independently in the languages of late medieval Europe, which leads to the confusing semantics of English Christendom equalling German Christenheit, Dutch christenheid, French chrétienté vs. English Christianity equalling German Christentum, Dutch christendom, French christianisme.
The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both theologically and politically. "Christendom" as a geopolitical term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, arguably during the European wars of religion and the Ottoman wars in Europe. Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall stated that "Christendom" means the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian religion." Thomas John Curry, Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Los Angeles, defined Christendom as "the system dating from the fourth century by which governments upheld and promoted Christianity." Curry states that the end of Christendom came about because modern governments refused to "uphold the teachings, customs and practice of Christianity." British church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch described Christendom as "the union between Christianity and secular power." The Christian world is collectively known as the Corpus Christianum, translated as the Christian body, meaning the community of all Christians.
The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah; the word "Christendom" is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term Christendom refers to Christians as a group, the "political Christian world", as an informal cultural hegemony that Christianity has traditionally enjoyed in the West. In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian-majority countries, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith. Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word, much like the terms Western world, known world or Free World; when Thomas F. Connolly said, "There isn't enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want!", he was using a figure of speech, although it is true that during the Cold War, just as the totalitarianism of the Communist Bloc presented a contrast to the liberty of the Free World, the state atheism of the Communist Bloc contrasted with the religious freedom and the powerful religious institutions in North America and Western Europe.
The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom". In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity was a religion spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, it may be divided into two distinct phases: the apostolic period, when the first apostles were alive and organizing the Church, the post-apostolic period, when an early episcopal structure developed, whereby bishoprics were governed by bishops. The post-apostolic period concerns the time after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations; the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. 107. Early Christendom would close at t
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Hindu denominations are traditions within Hinduism centered on one or more gods or goddesses, such as Shiva and Brahma. Sometimes the term is used for sampradayas led by a particular guru with a particular philosophy. Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination or tradition. Four major traditions are, used in scholarly studies: Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism; these are sometimes referred to as the denominations of Hinduism, they differ in the primary deity at the centre of the tradition. A notable feature of Hindu denominations is that they do not deny other concepts of the divine or deity, celebrate the other as henotheistic equivalent; the denominations of Hinduism, states Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals practising more than one, he suggests the term "Hindu polycentrism". Although Hinduism contains many denominations and philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites and the questioning of authority.
Hindus subscribe to a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but have no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book. Hinduism as it is known can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six darsanas, two schools and Yoga, are the most prominent. Classified by primary deity or deities, four major Hinduism modern currents are Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism; these deity-centered denominations feature a synthesis of various philosophies such as Samkhya and Vedanta, as well as shared spiritual concepts such as moksha, karma, ethical precepts such as ahimsa, ritual grammar and rites of passage. McDaniel distinguishes six generic types of Hinduism, in an attempt to accommodate a variety of views on a rather complex subject: Folk Hinduism, based on local traditions and cults of local deities and extending back to prehistoric times, or at least prior to written Vedas. Shrauta or "Vedic" Hinduism as practised by traditionalist brahmins.
Vedantic Hinduism, including Advaita Vedanta, based on the philosophical approach of the Upanishads. Yogic Hinduism the sect based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. "Dharmic" Hinduism or "daily morality", based on Karma and upon societal norms such as Vivāha. Bhakti or devotionalist practices In Hinduism, a sampradaya is a denomination; these are teaching traditions with autonomous practices and monastic centers, with a guru lineage, with ideas developed and transmitted and reviewed by each successive generation of followers. A particular guru lineage is called parampara. By receiving diksha into the parampara of a living guru, one belongs to its proper sampradaya. Vaishnavism is a devotional sect of Hinduism; as well as Vishnu himself, followers of the sect worship Vishnu's ten incarnations. The two most-worshipped incarnations of Vishnu are Krishna and Rama, whose stories are told in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana respectively; the adherents of this sect are non-ascetic and devoted to meditative practice and ecstatic chanting.
Vaishnavites are devotional. Their religion is rich in saints and scriptures; the Vaishnava sampradayas include: Ramanandi Sampradaya known as the Ramayat Sampradaya or the Ramavat Sampradaya adheres to the teachings of the Advaita scholar Ramananda. This is the largest monastic group within Hinduism and in Asia, these Vaishnava monks are known as Ramanandis, Vairagis or Bairagis. Vishistadvaita includes Udhava Sampradaya to which the Swaminarayan Sampradaya belongs, they adhere to the teachings of Vishistadvaita scholar Ramanuja. Srivaishnavism /Srivaishnava/Sri Sampradaya/Iyengar is associated with Lakshmi; the principal acharyas are Vedanta Desikan. Swaminarayan Hinduism or Swaminarayanism, based on the teachings of Swaminarayan. Brahma Sampradaya is associated with Vishnu, the Para-Brahma, not to be confused with the Brahma deity; the founder of this sampradaya was the Dvaita Vedanta philosopher Madhvacharya. Gaudiya Vaishnavism is associated with Brahma Sampradaya, is associated with Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness belongs to this sampradaya. Krishnaism or Bhagavatism. Rudra Sampradaya; the principal acharya is Vallabhacharya. Kumara Sampradaya is the tradition associated with Four Kumaras; the principal acharya is Nimbarka, hence Nimbarka Sampradaya. Other Vaishnava schools and the principal teachers connected with them are: Manavala Mamunigal's sect is the oldest Vaishnava sect in India; this sampraday was followed by Vyasa, Bodhayana. The lineage of Acharya is Lord Narayana, next Lakshmi and Vishweksenar, Nathamuni, Manakal Nambi, Periya Nambi and Vedanta Desikan as per the Vadagalai sampradaya. Thenacharya Sampradaya Vaikhanasa Sampradaya; the principal acharya is Vaikhanasa. Ekasaranism or Asomiya Vaishnavism, adheres to the teachings of Srimanta Sankaradeva. Krishna Pranami Sampradaya, adheres to the teachings of Devachandra Maharaj. Varkari Sampradaya, teaching of bhakti s
Advaita Vedanta known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy, one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization. The term Advaita refers to its idea that the true self, Atman, is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality; the followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins, they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidyā, meaning knowledge, of one's true identity as Atman, the identity of Atman and Brahman. Advaita Vedanta traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads, it relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads", the Brahma Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita. Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, one of the six orthodox Hindu philosophies. Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Shankara. Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.
The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Maya, Avidya and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions, but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha. Advaita Vedanta is one of the most influential schools of classical Indian thought. Many scholars describe it as a form of monism, others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic. Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedanta, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement. Beyond Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism and Buddhism. Advaita Vedanta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara. In modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedanta movements, it has been termed as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality.
The Advaita Vedanta school has been referred to by various names, such as Advaita-vada, Abheda-darshana, Dvaita-vada-pratisedha, Kevala-dvaita. According to Richard King, a professor of Buddhist and Asian studies, the term Advaita first occurs in a recognizably Vedantic context in the prose of Mandukya Upanishad. In contrast, according to Frits Staal, a professor of Philosophy specializing in Sanskrit and Vedic studies, the word Advaita is from the Vedic era, the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya is credited to be the one who coined it. Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, translates the Advaita containing verse excerpt in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as follows: Advaita is a subschool of Vedanta, the latter being one of the six classical Hindu darśanas. It, like nearly all these philosophies, has an integrated body of textual interpretations and religious practices for what Hinduism considers four proper aims of life: virtue, material prosperity and the fourth and final aim being moksha, the spiritual liberation or release from cycles of rebirth.
Traditional Advaita Vedanta centers on the study of the sruti the Principal Upanishads, along with the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. Within the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism are many sub-schools, of which Advaita is one. Unlike Buddhism, but like Jainism, all Vedanta schools consider the existence of Atman as self-evident; the Vedanta tradition posits the concept of Brahman as the eternal, unchanging metaphysical reality. The sub-schools of Vedanta disagree on the relation between Brahman; the Advaita darsana considers them to be identical. Advaita Vedanta believes that the knowledge of Atman is liberating. Along with self-knowledge, it teaches that moksha can be achieved by the correct understanding of one's true identity as Ātman, the dispassionate and unmoveable observer, the identity of Ātman and Brahman; the process of acquiring this knowledge entails realising that one’s True Self, the Atman, is the same as Brahman. This is achieved through. Sankara contends that this direct awareness is construction-free, not construction-filled.
Self-knowledge is, not seen as an awareness of Brahman, but instead an awareness, Brahman, since one will transcend any form of duality in this state of consciousness. Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman, is obtained through three stages of practice, sravana and nididhyasana; the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism rejects the dualism of Samkhya. The Samkhya school of Hindu thought proposes two metaphysical realities, namely Purusha and Prakriti states that Purusha is the efficient cause of all existence while Prakriti is its material cause. Advaita, like all Vedanta schools, states that Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause, "that from which the origination and dissolution of this universe proceed." What created all existence is present in and reflected in all beings and inert matter, the creative principle was and is everywhere, always. This Brahman it postulates is sat-cit-ananda. By accepting thi
Sikhism, or Sikhi Sikkhī, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner") is a religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century, has variously been defined as monotheistic and panentheistic. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him.
The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. The Guru Granth Sahib is notable for being written by the founders of the religion, for including works by members of other religions. Sikhism rejects claims; the Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar, its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being. Sikhism emphasizes simran, that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo as a means to feel God's presence, it teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves". Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active and practical life" of "truthfulness, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, carries out that Will". Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal and spiritual realms to be mutually coexistent.
Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur – were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers after they refused to convert to Islam; the persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier. The Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh; the majority of Sikh scriptures were written in the Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means disciples of the Guru; the anglicised word'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana, Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning". The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion, while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one, expressed through the many.
However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on'one'". In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar and Alakh Niranjan; the Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar, which refers to the "formless one", understood in the Sikh tradition as monotheistic unity of God. Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism and Jainism, given its geographical origin and its sharing some concepts with them. Sikh ethics emphasize the congruence between everyday moral conduct, its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living". God in Sikhism is known as the One Supreme Reality or the all-pervading spirit; this spirit has no gender in Sikhism. It is Akaal Purkh and Nirankar. In addition, Nanak wrote; the traditional Mul Mantar goes from Ik Oankar until Nanak Hosee Bhee Sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib and each subsequent raga, mentions Ik Oankar: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat-nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhan gur prasād.
"There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru." Māyā, defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality", is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, greed and lust, known as the Five Thieves, are believed to be distracting and hurtful. Sikhs believe the world is curren