Balinese Hinduism is the form of Hinduism practiced by the majority of the population of Bali. This is associated with the Balinese people residing on the island, represents a distinct form of Hindu worship incorporating local animism, ancestor worship or Pitru Paksha, reverence for Buddhist saints or Bodhisattava; the population of Indonesian islands is predominantly Muslim. The island of Bali is an exception. Upon independence from the Dutch colonial rule, the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia guaranteed the freedom of religion to all its citizens. In 1952, states Michel Picard – an anthropologist and scholar of Balinese history and religion, the Indonesian Ministry of Religion came under the control of Islamists who constrained an acceptable definition of a "religion". To be acceptable as an official Indonesian religion, the ministry defined "religion" as one, monotheistic, has codified religious law and added a number of requirements. Further, Indonesia denied the rights of citizenship such as the right to vote to anyone not belonging to an recognized monotheistic religion.
The minority Balinese Hindus adapted and declared their form of Hinduism to be monotheistic, presented it in a form to be politically eligible for the status of "agama". Balinese Hinduism has been formally recognized by the Indonesian government as one of the official religions practiced in Bali. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; the Javanese prose work Tantu Pagelaran of the 14th century, a collection of ancient tales and crafts of Indonesia, extensively uses Sanskrit words, Indian deity names and religious concepts. Ancient Chandis excavated in Java and western Indonesian islands, as well as ancient inscriptions such as the 8th century Canggal inscription discovered in Indonesia, confirm widespread adoption of Shiva lingam iconography, his companion goddess Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and other Hindu deities by about the middle to late 1st millennium AD.
Ancient Chinese records of Fa Hien on his return voyage from Ceylon to China in 414 AD mention two schools of Hinduism in Java, while Chinese documents from 8th century refer to the Hindu kingdom of King Sanjaya as Holing, calling it "exceedingly wealthy," and that it coexisted peacefully with Buddhist people and Sailendra ruler in Kedu Plain of the Java island. About 1400 CE, the kingdoms on the Indonesian islands were attacked from coast-based Muslim armies. Over the 15th and 16th centuries, this Muslim campaign led by Sultans targeted Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities in the Indonesian archipelago, with each Sultan trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious Islamic Sultanates emerged in north Sumatra, south Sumatra and central Java, in southern Borneo; the violence ended the Hindu-Buddhist communities in many of the islands of Indonesia. In other cases and Buddhists left and concentrated as communities in islands that they could defend.
Hindus of western Java moved east and to the island of Bali and the neighboring small islands, thus starting Balinese Hinduism. While this era of religious conflict and inter-Sultanate warfare was unfolding, new power centers were attempting to consolidate regions under their control, European colonialism arrived; the Indonesian archipelago was soon dominated by the Dutch colonial empire. The Dutch colonial empire helped prevent inter-religious conflict, it began the process of excavating and preserving Indonesia's ancient Hindu-Buddhist cultural foundations in Java and western islands of Indonesia. Upon independence from the Dutch colonial rule, Article 29 of the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia guaranteed the freedom of religion to all its citizens. In 1952, states Michel Picard, the Indonesian Ministry of Religion came under the control of Islamists who constrained an acceptable definition of a "religion". To be acceptable as an official Indonesian religion, the ministry defined "religion" as one, monotheistic, has codified religious law, possess a prophet and a Holy Book amongst other requirements.
Balinese Hindus were declared as "people without a religion", available to be converted. Balinese Hindus disagreed, debated and declared their form of Hinduism to be monotheistic, presented it in a form to be eligible for the status of "agama" under the 1952 amended articles. To accomplish this, the Balinese Hindus initiated a series of student and cultural exchange initiatives between Bali and India helped formulate the core principles behind Balinese Hinduism. In particular, the political self-determination movement in Bali in mid 1950s led to the joint petition of 1958 which demanded Indonesian government recognize Hindu Dharma; this joint petition quoted the following Sanskrit mantra from the Hindu scriptures, Om tat sat ekam eva advitiyamTranslation: Om, thus is the essence of the all prevading, undivided one. The petition's focus on the "undivided one" was to satisfy the constitutional requirement that Indonesian citizens have a monotheistic belief in one God; the petitioners identified Ida Sanghyang Widhi Wasa a
Hinduism in Seychelles
Hinduism in the Seychelles is the second largest religion after Christianity, with more than 2.4% of the population. The Hindu following in Seychelles has seen an increase in the community with the organization of the Seychelles Hindu Kovil Sangam and the consecration of the Navasakti Vinayagar Temple; the increase in size and popularity of Hinduism caused the Government to declare Taippoosam Kavadi Festival a holiday. 6% of the population of Seychelles are Ethnic Indians. But only 2.4% are Hindus In 1901 there were 332 Hindu families out of a population of 19,237 and 3,500 Tamil speaking people. The organization of the Seychelles Hindu Kovil Sangam in 1984 and the consecration of the Navasakti Vinayagar Temple in May 1992 were landmarks for the resurgence of Indian cultural activities apart from the religious awakening. There were over 2,150 Hindus in the Seychelles as of the 2010 Population and Housing Census, an increase of 500 from the 2002 census; the percentage of Hindus from the 2002 census to the 2010 census increased from 2.1 to 2.4%.
The Seychelles Hindu Kovil Sangam, over a short span of seventeen years, has established and entrenched some strong foundations for the preservation and further flowering of the Hindu culture. The ever-popular kavadi festival and special Hindu festivals are covered in Tamil, English in the national media and there is a wide coverage of such events over national radio and television. Thiru Navasakthi Vinayakar Kovil Victoria The Arulmigu Navasakti Vinayagar Temple is the first and the only Hindu temple in Seychelles that has Ganesha as the presiding deity. Since 1999, Ganesha has been elevated to this position. Apart from the presiding deity, icons of Murugan, Durga, Sreenivasa Perumal and Chandekeswarar are enshrined in the inner mandapam of the temple. Prayers are performed for the different deities on special occasions. Taippoosam Kavadi Festival, which began in Seychelles in the inner courtyard of the temple during 1993, is now conducted in the outer courtyard and a chariot kavadi is taken out in procession.
This festival has gained popularity as a national festival, so much so that as from 1998 the government has declared it a holiday for Hindus. Hinduism in Africa Indian Community in Seychelles Tamil Hindus in Seychelles
Hinduism in Bangladesh
For Hinduism in the State of India, see: Hinduism in West Bengal Hinduism is the second largest religious affiliation in Bangladesh, covering about 10.7% of the population, according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics for 2011 Bangladesh census. In terms of population, Bangladesh is the third largest Hindu state in the world after India and Nepal. According to an estimate from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, there were 17 million Hindus in Bangladesh as of 2015. In nature, Bangladeshi Hinduism resembles the forms and customs of Hinduism practised in the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal, with which Bangladesh was united until the partition of India in 1947; the vast majority of Hindus in Bangladesh are Bengali Hindus. The Goddess – venerated as Durga or Kali – is revered alongside her consort Shiva; the worship of Shiva has found adherents among the higher castes in Bangladesh. Worship of Vishnu more explicitly cuts across caste lines by teaching the fundamental oneness of humankind in spirit.
Vishnu worship in Bengal expresses the union of the male and female principles in a tradition of love and devotion. This form of Hindu belief and the Sufi tradition of Islam have influenced and interacted with each other in Bengal. Both were popular mystical movements emphasizing the personal relationship of religious leader and disciple instead of the dry stereotypes of the brahmins or the ulama; as in Bengali Islamic practice, worship of Vishnu occurs in a small devotional society. Both use the language of earthly love to express communion with the divine. In both traditions, the Bengali language is the vehicle of a large corpus of mystical literature of great beauty and emotional impact. In Bangladeshi Hinduism ritual bathing and pilgrimages to sacred rivers and shrines are common practice. An ordinary Hindu will worship at the shrines of Muslim pirs, without being concerned with the religion to which that place is supposed to be affiliated. Hindus ascetics conspicuous for their bodily mortifications.
Some believe that they attain spiritual benefit by looking at a great holy man. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is the most important festival of Bangladeshi Hindus and it is celebrated across Bangladesh. Thousands of pandals are set up in various cities and villages to mark the festival. Other festivals are Kali Puja, Holi, Saraswati Puja and Rathayatra, the most popular being the century-old Dhamrai Rathayatra; the principle of ahimsa is expressed in universally observed rules against eating beef. By no means are all Bangladeshi Hindus vegetarians, but abstinence from all kinds of meat is regarded as a "higher" virtue. Brahmin or "Upper-caste" Bangladeshi Hindus, unlike their counterparts elsewhere in South Asia, ordinarily eat fish and chicken; this is similar to the Indian state of West Bengal which has a similar climate to that of Bangladesh, where Hindus consume fish, egg and mutton. There are non-Bengali Hindus in Bangladesh,majority of the Hajong, Rajbongshi people and Tripuris in Bangladesh are Hindus.
According to the 2001 census there are 11,379,000 Hindus in Bangladesh. However, some estimates show. Hindus in Bangladesh in the late 2000s were evenly distributed in all regions, with large concentrations in Gopalganj, Sylhet, Mymensingh, Jessore and parts of Chittagong Hill Tracts. In the capital city of Dhaka, Hindus are the second-largest religious community after the Muslims and the largest concentration of Hindus can be found in and around Shankhari Bazaar of the old city; the contributions of Hindus in arts, education and sports are far in excess of their numerical strength. In politics, they have traditionally supported the liberal and secular ideology of the Awami League and other left wing parties such as Communist Party of Bangladesh, Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal. However, barring the fundamentalist Islamist parties such as Jamaat-e-Islami, all the major political parties have fielded Hindu candidates. In the current Jatiyo Sangshad, out of 350 members, there are only 13 Hindus: most of them from the Awami League.
Hindu institutions and places of worship received assistance through the Bangladesh Hindu Kalyan Trust, sponsored by the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Government sponsored Bangladesh Television and Bangladesh Betar broadcast readings and interpretations of Hindu scriptures and prayers. Since the rise of more explicitly Islamist political formations in Bangladesh during the 1990s, many Hindus have been intimidated or attacked, substantial numbers are leaving the country to India. In present-day Bangladesh, Hindus became a minority only in mid-thirteenth century of the Gregorian Calendar. In 1941 the Hindus formed about 28% of the population, which declined to 22.05% in 1951, as rich and upper caste Hindus migrated to India after Partition of India in 1947. The wealthy Hindus who migrated lost their land and assets through the East Bengal Evacuee Act and the poor and middle-class Hindus that were left behind became targets of discrimination through new laws. At the outbreak of the 1965 India-Pakistan war, the Defense of Pakistan Ordinance and the Enemy Order II, through which the Hindus were labelled as the "enemy" and their property expropriated by the state.
Since it has dropped by about half. Through a combination of mass exodus and genocide in the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh
Hinduism in East Timor
Hinduism is a minority faith in East Timor. All of them follow Balinese Hinduism Timor has no traditional Hindu population. Hindus are migrants from Bali who came during the Indonesian occupation. After the end of the occupation, most Hindus left the country. In 1992, before the independence of East Timor Hindus constituted 0.5% of the population. After the occupation,Hinduism decreased to less than 0.1% in East Timor. According to the 2011 census, there are 195 Hindus in East Timor. However, the 2015 Census showed a slight increase in the number of Hindus. According to that census, there were 271 Hindus in East Timor. Pura Girinatha is the largest Balinese Hindu temple in East Timor; the temple was built during the Occupation. Now the temple is quite run down, although some Balinese from Indonesia and the East Timorese government have started efforts to revitalize the temple; the Pongal celebration of the Tamil Hindus were celebrated in the Pura Giri Natha. Hinduism in Brunei Pura Girinatha Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Pakistan
Hindus comprise 1.85% of Pakistan's population in one study but according to the Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population. Hinduism is the second largest religion in Pakistan after Islam; as of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth largest Hindu population in the world and PEW predicts that by 2050 Pakistan will have the fourth largest Hindu population in the world. However, around 5,000 Hindus migrate from Pakistan to India every year. According to Pew Research, the Hindu population will reach 5.6 million and Hindus will constitute 2% of the Pakistan population by 2050. After Pakistan gained independence from British India on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of West Pakistan's Hindus and Sikhs moved to India as refugees. According to Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population which puts the numbers of Hindus in Pakistan at 8 millionIn the 1998 Census the Hindu population was found to be 2,443,614. Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are concentrated in Sindh, where the majority of Hindu enclaves are found in Pakistan.
They speak a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Aer, Gera, Gurgula, Kabutra, Loarki, Sansi and Gujarati. Although small in numbers, Hinduism in Pakistan is not less complex than in other parts of the world. Many Hindus—especially in the rural areas—follow the teachings of local Sufi pīrs or adhere to the 14th-century saint Ramdevji, whose main temple is located in the Sindhi city of Thando Allah Yar. A growing number of urban Hindu youths in Pakistan associate themselves with ISKCON society. Other communities worship manifold Mother Goddesses as their family patrons. A different branch, the Nanakpanth, follows the teachings of the Guru Granth Sahib known as the holy book of the Sikhs; this diversity in rural Sindh thwarts classical definitions between Hinduism and Islam. One of the most important places of worship for Hindus in Pakistan today is the shrine of Hinglaj Mata in the province of Baluchistan. Hinglaj Yatra is the largest Hindu pilgrimage in the Pakistan; the Rig Veda, the oldest Hindu text, was believed to have been composed in the Punjab region of modern-day Pakistan on the banks of the Indus River around 1500 BCE.
Various archaeological finds such as the swastika symbol, yogic postures, what appears to be like a "Pasupati" image, found on the seals of the people of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, point to early influences that may have shaped Hinduism. The religious beliefs and folklore of the Indus valley people have become a major part of the Hindu faith that evolved in this part of the South Asia; the Sindh kingdom and its rulers play an important role in the Indian epic story of the Mahabharata. In addition, a Hindu legend states that the Pakistani city of Lahore was first founded by Lava, while Kasur was founded by his twin Kusha, both of whom were the sons of Lord Rama of the Ramayana; the Gandhara kingdom of the northwest, the legendary Gandhara peoples, are a major part of Hindu literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Many Pakistani city names can be traced back to Sanskrit roots. After Pakistan gained independence from Britain on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of the country's Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India.
The 1998 census of Pakistan recorded less than 2.5 million Hindus. The overwhelming majority of Hindus in Pakistan are concentrated in Sindh province. In 1947, Hindus constituted 12.9% of the Pakistan, which made the Pakistan the second largest Hindu-population country after India. In the 1951 census, West Pakistan had 1.6% Hindu population, while East Pakistan had 22.05%. According to the 1998 Pakistan Census, Hindus constitute about 1.6 percent of the total population of Pakistan and about 6.6% in the Sindh province. The Pakistan Census separates Schedule Castes from the main body of Hindus who make up a further 0.25% of the national population. Based on the 1998 Census as well as stabilization of Pakistan's Hindu population since Pakistan would, have 3 million Hindus. According to the Election Commission of Pakistan, there are 1.49 million Hindu voters in the country. They are concentrated in Sindh where their number comes to over 1.39 million. As per the data from the Election Commission of Pakistan, as of 2018 there were a total of 1.77 million Hindu voters.
Hindu voters were 49 % of 46 % in Tharparkar. District with 2% or more Hindus per 1998 census, In other districts the population of Hindus is less than 1% or none. At the time of Pakistan's creation the'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India. However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be". After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, over 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan left for India, 6.5 million Muslims chose to migrate to Pakistan. The reasons for this exodus were the charged communal atmosphere in British Raj, deep distrust of each other, the brutality of violent mobs and the antagonism between the religious communities.
That over 1 million people lost their lives in the bloody violence of 1947 should attest to the fear and hate that filled the hearts of millions of Hindus and Sikhs who left ancestral homes hastily after independence. Many Hindus who attained great success in India, like Bollywood film stars and
Hinduism in Japan
Hinduism, unlike the related Buddhism, is a minority religion in Japan. So, Hinduism has played a somewhat significant role in Japanese culture. Though Hinduism is a little-practiced religion in Japan, it has still had a significant, but indirect role in the formation of Japanese culture; this is because many Buddhist beliefs and traditions spread to Japan from China via Korean peninsula in the 6th Century. One indication of this is the Japanese "Seven Gods of Fortune", of which four originated as Hindu deities: Benzaitensama, Bishamon and Kichijōten. Along with Benzaitennyo/Sarasvati and Kisshoutennyo/Laxmi and completing the nipponization of the three Hindu Tridevi goddesses, the Hindu goddess Mahakali is nipponized as the Japanese goddess Daikokutennyo, though she is only counted among Japan's Seven Luck Deities when she is regarded as the feminine manifestation of her male counterpart Daikokuten. Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light, which has a section devoted to her.
She is mentioned in the Lotus Sutra. In Japan, the lokapālas take the Buddhist form of the Four Heavenly Kings; the Sutra of Golden Light became one of the most important sutras in Japan because of its fundamental message, which teaches that the Four Heavenly Kings protect the ruler who governs his country in the proper manner. The Hindu god of death, Yama, is known in his Buddhist form as Enma. Garuda, the mount of Vishnu, is known as an enormous, fire-breathing creature in Japan, it has the face or beak of an eagle. Tennin originated from the apsaras; the Hindu Ganesha is displayed more than Buddha in a temple in Tokyo. Other examples of Hindu influence on Japan include the belief of "six schools" or "six doctrines" as well as use of Yoga and pagodas. Many of the facets of Hindu culture which have influenced Japan have influenced Chinese culture. People have written books on the worship of Hindu gods in Japan. Today, it is claimed Japan encourages a deeper study of Hindu Gods. Hinduism is practised by the Indian migrants.
As of 2016, there are 30,048 Indians in Japan. Most of them are Hindus. Hindu gods are still revered by many Japanese in Shingon Buddhism. There are few Hindu temples in Japan as follows: Shirdi Sai Baba Tokyo Temple ISKCON New Gaya Benzaitensama Shrine Ganesha Temple, Asakusa Buddhist Tenbu deities List of Hindu temples all over the world Religion in Japan Did you know that at least 20 Hindu deities are worshiped in Japan? Hindu gods forgotten in India revered in Japan, By Krishnendu Bandyopadhyay, TNN, Jan 11, 2016, Times of India Hare Krishna temple in Japan Hindus in Japan Vedanta Society of Japan Ancient Japanese carving of Lord Krishna Playing a Flute, Japan A Tribute to Hinduism: India and China A Tribute to Hinduism: Suvarnabhumi, Greater India Hinduism in Japan The "Six Schools" Japan File: India Nippon Shakti Hindu Influence on Japan Japan's Hindu linkages still alive
Hinduism in the West Indies
Hinduism is the leading single religion of the Indo-Caribbean communities of the West Indies. Hindus are well represented in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, where they constituted 25 percent of the total population, as of 1995. Smaller groups of Indo-Caribbeans live elsewhere in the Caribbean Puerto Rico, Barbados, St Lucia, Cayman Islands and Bahamas; the total Hindu population of Anguilla is 58 as of the 2011 Census. This represents 0.42% of the population and is an increase of 13 from the previous count of 45. Hinduism is the 7th fastest growing religion by percent and the 9th fastest by absolute change. Hindus contributed 0.61% of the total population gain. The percentage of Hindus in Antigua and Barbuda as of the 2011 Census is or 379 adherents; this represented growth of more than 40% from the 2001 Census, which showed that there were 157 active followers. This growth made the number of Hindus Salvation Army and Islam; the population is made up of Indian immigrants, who alone make up over 1.1% of the total population.
Most Hindus are from the category of Indian/East Indian, which makes up less than 5%. According to the 2010 Census, there were a total of 428 Hindus living in the Bahamas, making up 0.12% of the total population. The 2010 census showed that more than half of Hindus in the Bahamas are younger than age 34. Today, Barbados has 2,000 Indians living in the country, they came as immigrants from Guyana. Because of the huge Indian population, Hinduism became one of the growing religions of Barbados; the 2000 Census showed the number of Hindus in Barbados to be at 840, which accounted for 0.34% of the total population. The 2010 Census showed that the number of Hindus rose by 215 people to be at 1,055; this increased Hinduism's share of the total Barbados population from 0.34% in 2000 to 0.46% in 2010. Most of the Hindus in Bermuda are of South Indian/Tamil descent; the population of Hindu's in Bermuda is 0.2% Hinduism is a minority religion in the Cayman Islands and is one the smallest religions. Although it is unknown as to when Hinduism was introduced to the Cayman Islands.
There is no Hindu temple located in the Cayman Islands, but there is at least one home, set aside for the purpose of worship. There were only 98 Hindus in the Caymans according to the 2000 census. In the 2008 census,the number of Hindus increased to 510; the 2010 Census showed the number of Hindus decreasing to 454. Hindus who live in Cuba accounted for 0.2% of the population in 2010. A non-negligible amount of Hindus live accounting for under 0.1 % of the population. According to the 2000 census and the National Census Report 2001, there were 156 Hindus in Grenada accounting 0.15% of the total population. Hinduism is a minority religion in Guadeloupe, followed by a small fraction of Indo-Guadeloupeans. According to a statistics data, Hinduism is practised by 0.5% of the people in Guadeloupe. Hinduism is followed in the Martinique by a small fraction of Indo-Martiniquais; as of 2007,Hinduism constitute 0.3% of the population of Martinique. But according to other sources it is as high as 5%. Jamaica was once home to 25,000 Hindus until the mid 20th century.
However, most of them converted to Christianity. In the last few decades, the population of Hindus in Jamaica decreased steeply. In the 1970s, 5,000 identified themselves as Hindus. Since the Hindu population of Jamaica has risen and it has become the second largest religion in Jamaica. Diwali, the festival of lights, is celebrated in Jamaica every year. There were 1,453 Hindus in Jamaica according to the 2001 census; the 2011 Census showed that the number of Hindus in Jamaica increased by 383 people to be at 1,836 adherents. Hinduism's share of the total Jamaican population increased from 0.06% in 2001 to 0.07% of the population in 2011. According to the 2001 census there were 31 Hindus in Montserrat, accounting for 0.8% of the total population and forming the 4th largest religious entity. Hindu males numbered 20 and made up 1.0% of the total number of males in the 2001 Census, with 11 Hindu females making up 0.6% of the female total. As of 2006, there were 3,482 Hindus in Puerto Rico making 0.09% of the population according to Religious Intelligence.
Hindus made up 0.8 % of the total population of Saint Nevis according to the 2001 census. This included 138 females, which made a total of 371 people. Hinduism is the second largest religion in St. Kitts-Nevis after Christianity and the 3rd fastest growing religion. Most of the Indian community in Saint Lucia have converted to Christianity. Only 325 people were reported as Hindus in the 2001 census; the 2010 Census showed the percentage total of Hindus had increased to 0.3%. Most of them were recent immigrants. Of the original East Indian community, only 1-2% retains Hinduism; the 2000 census reported 83 Hindus in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines making up 0.08% of the total population. The 2000 Census showed that Hindus in St Vincent-Grenadines were overwhelmingly male, with only 77 females for every 100 males on average; the 2000 Census showed a youthful Hindu population, with less than 1.5% of Hindus being classified as "elder". Hinduism is a minority but significant religion in Trinidad and Tobago, making up over 18% in the 2011 census, the second largest religion in the islands.
Hinduism has had a presence for 170 years. There are 240