Hinduism in Bhutan
About 22.6% of the population of Bhutan are Hindus. It is followed by the ethnic Lhotshampa. In 2015, Hinduism became one of the national religions of the country; the Shaivite, Shakta, Ganapathi and Vedic schools are represented among Hindus. Hindu temples exist in southern Bhutan, Hindus practice their religion in small- to medium-sized groups; the main festival of bhutanese hindus is Dashain. It is the only recognized Hindu public holiday in Bhutan, it was recognized as a holiday in 2015 by the King of Bhutan,he celebrated Dashain with Hindus that year.. The first nine days of Dashain symbolize the battle which took place between the different manifestations of Durga and Mahishasura; the tenth day is the day when Durga defeated him. For other Hindus, this festival symbolizes the victory of Ram over Ravan as recounted in the Ramayana, they prepare Sel roti during Dashain. The Hindu Dharma Samudaya of Bhutan is the Hindu religious organization, established in 2009, it is registered with the Commission for Religious Organizations of Bhutan.
HDSB is dedicated to promote spiritual traditions and practices of Sanathan Dharma in Bhutan so to foster and strengthen human values. Its head office in the capital city, the organization is managed by a Board of Directors of volunteers comprising representatives from Hindu priests and other HDSB members who are elected at an annual general meeting. Etnic cleansing of Lhotshampas hindus carried out by King Jigme Singye Wangchuk of Bhutan during the 1990s. In the early 1990s, several thousands of Bhutanese residents in southern Bhutan were ethnically cleansed by the authorities under the provisions of the amended Citizenship Act of 1985, because they followed the Hindu religion and culture, had mixed Himalayan ethnicity, with one parent of Nepali origin. Nepal, like India, shares common Hindu and Buddhist traditions, but the majority population of Bhutan is Buddhist and the royal family has shown a pronounced sectarian bias towards its Hindu citizens who have been settled there for centuries.
After the purge of the 1990s began, the Bhutanese Hindus have been forced to live in refugee camps set up by the UN High Commission for Refugees in eastern Nepal in 1992. The government provided financial assistance for the construction of Buddhist temples and shrines and state funding for monks and monasteries. NGOs alleged that the government granted permission to build Hindu temples; the government argued that it was a matter of supply and demand, with demand for Buddhist temples far exceeding that for Hindu temples. The Government stated that it supported numerous Hindu temples in the south, where most Hindus reside, provided some scholarships for Hindus to study Sanskrit in India. Hindu Dharma Samudaya of Bhutan Freedom of religion in Bhutan
Hinduism in Sri Lanka
Hinduism has a long tradition and, the oldest religion in Sri Lanka. More than 2000 years civilization have proved so far from Hindu temples in Sri Lanka. Hindus make up 12.60% of the Sri Lankan population, are exclusively Tamils apart from small immigrant communities from India and Pakistan such as the Sindhis and Malayalees. In the 1915 census they made up 25% of the population, which included the indentured labourers the British had brought. Due to emigration, today they are still a sizeable minority. Hinduism is dominant in the Eastern provinces, where there are predominantly Tamil people. Hinduism is practised in the central regions as well as in the capital, Colombo. According to the government census of 2011, there are 2,554,606 Hindus in Sri Lanka constituting 12.6% of the country's population. During the Sri Lankan Civil War, many Tamils fled to other countries. There are Hindu temples abroad which were built by the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora to maintain their religion and culture; the majority of Sri Lankan Hindus follow the teaching of Shaiva Siddhanta.
Some hindus follow Shaktism. Sri Lanka is home to the five abodes of Shiva, which are known as Pancha Ishwarams, The holy places build by king Ravana. Sri Murugan is one of the most popular Hindu deities in Sri Lanka, he is not only venerated by the Hindu Tamils but by Buddhist Sinhalese and aboriginal Veddas. A significant Hindu religious figure in Sri Lankan modern history is Satguru Siva Yogaswami of Jaffna. One of the mystics of the 20th century, Yogaswami was the official satguru and counseling sage of Lanka's several million Tamil Hindu population; the Ramakrishna Mission is somewhat active in the Amparai and Batticaloa districts while the Shaiva Siddhanta school of philosophy of Shaivism sect of Hinduism is prevalent in the North of Sri Lanka. Yogaswami belonged to the Shaiva Siddhanta and he was 161st head of the Nandinatha Sampradaya; the next person in the line of succession after Yogaswami was Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. According to legend, Sri Lanka was formed when sage Narada persuaded the God of Wind and Air, Vayu, to humble his close friend, Mount Meru.
Vayu spent the next year blowing strong winds at the mountain, shielded by Garuda, a mythical bird. When Garuda took respite for a while, Vayu caused part of the apex of the mountain to fall into the sea, forming the island of Sri Lanka; the first major Hindu reference to Sri Lanka is found in the Ramayana. The Ramayana tells; the throne of Lanka was usurped by his half-brother Ravana. Ravana was killed by Rama the avatar of Vishnu; the Ramayana mentions a bridge between India and Sri Lanka, known as Rama's Bridge, constructed with rocks by Rama with the help of Hanuman and others. Many believers view the sand bar islands connecting Sri Lanka to India as the remains of the bridge as seen in satellite images. Archeological evidence is found to support worship of Lord Siva in parts of Sri Lanka, from pre-historic times, prior to the arrival of Prince Vijaya. Ravana was a devout follower of Lord Siva. Evidence states; the Nagas practiced an early form of Hinduism that serpents. This form of animistic Shaivism is common in other parts of India.
The Nagas who inhabited the Jaffna Peninsula were the ancestors of Sri Lankan Tamils. The Nagas started to assimilate to Tamil language and culture in the 3rd century BCE, lost their separate identity; the Nainativu Nagapooshani Amman Temple in Nainativu is believed to be one of the prominent 64 Shakti Peethams. Hinduism was the dominant religion in Sri Lanka before the arrival of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC. Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka by Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa; the Sinhalese embraced Tamils remain Hindus in Sri Lanka. However it was activity from across the Palk Strait that set the scene for Hinduism's survival in Sri Lanka. Shaivism was the dominant branch practiced by the Tamil peoples, thus most of the traditional Hindu temple architecture and philosophy of Sri Lanka drew from this particular strand of Hinduism. Thirugnanasambanthar mentioned the names of a number of Sri Lankan Hindu temples in his works; the arrival of European colonialists brought profound consequences to both Hindu and Buddhist communities.
In 1505, a Portuguese fleet, under the command of Captain–major Don Lourenço de Almeida, arrived off the coast of Sri Lanka. Deals were struck between rival native rulers and the Portuguese. Formal treaties between the two groups thereby heralded the entry of the alien forces in the political arena of Sri Lanka. Over time, the Europeans were able to take advantage of the fractured nature of Sri Lankan politics culminating in successful military wins against the rebellious natives, most notably against the Hindu Tamils in the North, whose leaders were made to swear allegiance to the king of Portugal in return for maintaining their distinct laws and customs. However, any so-called rulers had become puppets of their European overlords until in the end, further rebellion caused the Tamil Jaffna Kingdom to fall in the hands of the Portuguese in June 1619, when the incumbent ruler and his family were arrested and taken prisoner. According to the Portuguese administrative arrangements, the jurisdiction of Jaffna came directly under
Hinduism in Pakistan
Hindus comprise 1.85% of Pakistan's population in one study but according to the Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population. Hinduism is the second largest religion in Pakistan after Islam; as of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth largest Hindu population in the world and PEW predicts that by 2050 Pakistan will have the fourth largest Hindu population in the world. However, around 5,000 Hindus migrate from Pakistan to India every year. According to Pew Research, the Hindu population will reach 5.6 million and Hindus will constitute 2% of the Pakistan population by 2050. After Pakistan gained independence from British India on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of West Pakistan's Hindus and Sikhs moved to India as refugees. According to Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population which puts the numbers of Hindus in Pakistan at 8 millionIn the 1998 Census the Hindu population was found to be 2,443,614. Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are concentrated in Sindh, where the majority of Hindu enclaves are found in Pakistan.
They speak a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Aer, Gera, Gurgula, Kabutra, Loarki, Sansi and Gujarati. Although small in numbers, Hinduism in Pakistan is not less complex than in other parts of the world. Many Hindus—especially in the rural areas—follow the teachings of local Sufi pīrs or adhere to the 14th-century saint Ramdevji, whose main temple is located in the Sindhi city of Thando Allah Yar. A growing number of urban Hindu youths in Pakistan associate themselves with ISKCON society. Other communities worship manifold Mother Goddesses as their family patrons. A different branch, the Nanakpanth, follows the teachings of the Guru Granth Sahib known as the holy book of the Sikhs; this diversity in rural Sindh thwarts classical definitions between Hinduism and Islam. One of the most important places of worship for Hindus in Pakistan today is the shrine of Hinglaj Mata in the province of Baluchistan. Hinglaj Yatra is the largest Hindu pilgrimage in the Pakistan; the Rig Veda, the oldest Hindu text, was believed to have been composed in the Punjab region of modern-day Pakistan on the banks of the Indus River around 1500 BCE.
Various archaeological finds such as the swastika symbol, yogic postures, what appears to be like a "Pasupati" image, found on the seals of the people of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, point to early influences that may have shaped Hinduism. The religious beliefs and folklore of the Indus valley people have become a major part of the Hindu faith that evolved in this part of the South Asia; the Sindh kingdom and its rulers play an important role in the Indian epic story of the Mahabharata. In addition, a Hindu legend states that the Pakistani city of Lahore was first founded by Lava, while Kasur was founded by his twin Kusha, both of whom were the sons of Lord Rama of the Ramayana; the Gandhara kingdom of the northwest, the legendary Gandhara peoples, are a major part of Hindu literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Many Pakistani city names can be traced back to Sanskrit roots. After Pakistan gained independence from Britain on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of the country's Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India.
The 1998 census of Pakistan recorded less than 2.5 million Hindus. The overwhelming majority of Hindus in Pakistan are concentrated in Sindh province. In 1947, Hindus constituted 12.9% of the Pakistan, which made the Pakistan the second largest Hindu-population country after India. In the 1951 census, West Pakistan had 1.6% Hindu population, while East Pakistan had 22.05%. According to the 1998 Pakistan Census, Hindus constitute about 1.6 percent of the total population of Pakistan and about 6.6% in the Sindh province. The Pakistan Census separates Schedule Castes from the main body of Hindus who make up a further 0.25% of the national population. Based on the 1998 Census as well as stabilization of Pakistan's Hindu population since Pakistan would, have 3 million Hindus. According to the Election Commission of Pakistan, there are 1.49 million Hindu voters in the country. They are concentrated in Sindh where their number comes to over 1.39 million. As per the data from the Election Commission of Pakistan, as of 2018 there were a total of 1.77 million Hindu voters.
Hindu voters were 49 % of 46 % in Tharparkar. District with 2% or more Hindus per 1998 census, In other districts the population of Hindus is less than 1% or none. At the time of Pakistan's creation the'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India. However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be". After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, over 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan left for India, 6.5 million Muslims chose to migrate to Pakistan. The reasons for this exodus were the charged communal atmosphere in British Raj, deep distrust of each other, the brutality of violent mobs and the antagonism between the religious communities.
That over 1 million people lost their lives in the bloody violence of 1947 should attest to the fear and hate that filled the hearts of millions of Hindus and Sikhs who left ancestral homes hastily after independence. Many Hindus who attained great success in India, like Bollywood film stars and
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history. As the Indic scripts were introduced from India, people of Southeast Asia entered the historical period by producing their earliest inscriptions around the 1st to 5th century CE. Hindu civilization transformed and shaped the social construct and statehood of Southeast Asian regional polity. Through the formation of Indianized kingdoms, small indigenous polities led by petty chieftain were transformed into major kingdoms and empires led by a maharaja with statecraft concept akin to those in India, it gave birth to the former Champa civilisation in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Empire in Indochina, Langkasuka Kingdom and Old Kedah in the Malay Peninsula, the Sriwijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Medang Kingdom and the Majapahit Empire based in Java and parts of the Philippine archipelago. The civilisation of India influenced the languages, written tradition, calendars, beliefs system and artistic aspects of these peoples and nations.
Indian scholars wrote about the Dwipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita, it was hence referred to in Indian by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Southeast Asia was frequented by traders from eastern India Kalinga, as well as from the kingdoms of South India; the Indianised Tarumanagara kingdom was established in West Java around 400s, produced among the earliest inscriptions in Indonesian history. There was a marked Buddhist influence starting about 425 in the region. Around the 6th century, Kalingga Indianized kingdom was established in norther coast of Central Java; the kingdom name was derived from Kalinga east coast of India. These Southeast Asian seafaring peoples engaged in extensive trade with China. Which attracted the attention of the Mongols and Japanese, as well as Islamic traders, who reached the Aceh area of Sumatra in the 12th century.
Examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Chola dynasty. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Chola rule is remembered in Malaysia today as many princes there have names ending with Cholan or Chulan,one such being Raja Chulan, the Raja of Perak; the Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. Some scholars have pointed out that the legends of Ikshvaku and Sumati may have their origin in the Southeast-Asian myth of the birth of humanity from a bitter gourd; the legend of Sumati, the wife of King Sagar, tells that she produced offspring with the aid of a bitter gourd. Today, vibrant Hindu communities remain in Malaysia, Thailand, Medan city of Indonesia and the Philippines due to the presence of Indians, such as Tamil people, who migrated from the Indian sub-continent to Southeast Asia in past centuries.
One notably Southeast Asian aspect of Tamil Hinduism is the festival of Thaipusam, while other Hindu religious festivals such as Diwali are well-observed by Hindus in the region. In Thailand and Cambodia and Khmer people practised Hindu rituals and traditions along with their Buddhist faith, Hindu gods such as Brahma are still revered. In Indonesia, it is not only people of Indian descent. Other than the Balinese, a small enclave of Javanese Hindu minorities are can be found in Java, such as around Tengger mountain ranges near Bromo and Semeru volcanoes, Karanganyar Regency in Central Java, near Prambanan, Yogyakarta. Hinduism is found among the Cham minority in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia: just like the Javanese, the majority of them are Muslims but a minority are Hindu. In other parts of Indonesia, the term Hindu Dharma is loosely used as umbrella category to identify native spiritual beliefs and indigenous religions such as Hindu Kaharingan professed by Dayak of Kalimantan; the resurgence of Hinduism in Indonesia is occurring in all parts of the country.
In the early 1970s, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980. In an unpublished report in 1999, the National Indonesian Bureau of Statistics admitted that around 100,000 people had converted or'reconverted' from Islam to Hinduism over the previous two decades; the Ministry of Religious Affairs, as of 2007 estimates there to be at least 10 million Hindus in Indonesia. The growth of Hinduism has been driven by the famous Javanese prophesies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, now support Megawati Sukarnoputri; this return to the'religion of Majapahit' is a matter of nationalist pride. Next to Indonesian Balinese, the Balamon Cham are the only surviving native Hindus in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam there are 160,000 members of the Cham ethnic minority, majority of them adheres Hinduism while some are Muslims.
Hinduism in the Maldives
Hinduism in the Maldives describes the practice of the Hindu religion in the Maldives archipelago. Hinduism fit between the earlier Vajrayana Buddhism and the subsequent transition to Islam. Archaeological remains survive from the 8th or 9th century CE portraying Hindu deities such as Shiva and the sage Agastya. Maldivian folklore contains legends about the sage Vashishta, known locally as Oditan Kalēge, a mighty sorcerer. Oditan Kalēge's wife is the beautiful Dōgi Aihā who possesses a fiery temperament and is as powerful a sorceress as her husband, her name is derived from the Sanskrit word Yogini. It is not known; the importance of the Arabs as traders in the Indian Ocean by the 12th century may explain why this king acted. He adopted the Muslim title and name of Sultan Muhammad al Adil, initiating a series of six Islamic dynasties consisting of 84 sultans and sultanas that lasted until 1932, when the sultanate became elective. According to Merinid traveller Ibn Batuta, the person responsible for this conversion was Muslim visitor Abu al Barakat from Morocco.
However, a more reliable Maldivian tradition says that he was a Persian saint from Tabriz called Yusuf Shamsuddin. He is referred to as Tabrizugefaanu, his venerated tomb stands on the grounds of the Friday Mosque, or Hukuru miski, in Malé. Built in 1656, this is the oldest mosque in the Maldives. Among Maldivian folklore in which the spirit and sorcery theme are not essential, the most significant is "Don Hiyalā and Alifulhu"; this story about two good-looking lovers is a much changed, Maldivian version of the Rāmāyana. Despite the apparent dissimilarities, the common sequential structure linking the elements of the Maldivian story with the Indian epic is evident; this is hardly unexpected, for all South and Southeast Asian countries have local Rāmayāna variations and the Maldives is part of South Asian culture. An estimated 9,000 Indian citizens reside according to 2000 census figures; the Indian Diaspora is composed of doctors, engineers, accountants and other professionals. They have helped the country to develop its human resources.
The group includes skilled and unskilled personnel such as technicians, tailors and laborers. One Maldivian citizen is of Indian origin. Both and commercially, south coast Indians from Kerala, were in close and regular contact with the Maldives; these contacts did not metamorphose into a composite socio-cultural group owing to the exclusive Islamic identity of the Maldives and its people. No Maldivians are Hindus; the state religion is Sunni Islam and conversion is not allowed. Maldivian customs laws prohibit import of any idol for the purpose of worship. Hindus in the Maldives are predominantly of Malayali origin. Hindi songs are popular in the Maldives older ones from Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, Pankaj Udhas and Manhar Udhas. Most popular Maldivian songs are based on Hindi songs. Popular local dances are North Indian dances Kathak; the local dance of Maldives is called bodu beru carried out by men, with a bodu beru keeping the beat. History of the Maldives Maldivian folklore Music of the Maldives Asian Variations in Ramayana.
Edited by K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar. Sahitya Akademi. Delhi. Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. Barcelona, ISBN 84-7254-801-5 Doń Hiyala āi Alifulu. Abdullah Sādigu, Mulī. Novelty Press. Malé. Maldives History – original records and translations
Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Indonesia is practised by 1.7% of the total population, by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census. Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. Hinduism came to Indonesia in the 1st-century through traders, sailors and priests. A syncretic fusion of pre-existing Javanese culture and Hindu ideas, that from the 6th-century synthesized Buddhist ideas as well, evolved as the Indonesian version of Hinduism; these ideas continued to develop during the Majapahit empires. About 1400 CE, these kingdoms were attacked from coast-based Muslim armies, thereafter Hinduism vanished from many of the islands of Indonesia. In 2010, there were an estimated total of over 4 million Hindus in Indonesia according to Indonesian census; the Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia disputed the census methodology, estimated 18 million Hindus lived in Indonesia in 2005. In 2010, the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia estimated that about 10 million Hindus lived on Indonesian islands, in contrast to the Indonesian official decadal census of over 4 million.
The Bali island in Indonesia has a Hindu majority and the largest number of Hindus living in Indonesia. The natives of Indonesian Archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs common to the Austronesian people. Native Indonesians revered ancestral spirits; this unseen spiritual entity that has supernatural power is identified by ancient Javanese and Balinese as "hyang" that can mean either divine or ancestral. In modern Indonesian, "hyang" tends to be associated with God. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; the Javanese prose work Tantu Pagelaran of the 14th century, a collection of ancient tales and crafts of Indonesia, extensively uses Sanskrit words, Indian deity names and religious concepts.
Ancient Chandis excavated in Java and western Indonesian islands, as well as ancient inscriptions such as the 8th century Canggal inscription discovered in Indonesia, confirm widespread adoption of Shiva lingam iconography, his companion goddess Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and other Hindu deities by about the middle to late 1st millennium AD. Ancient Chinese records of Fa Hien on his return voyage from Ceylon to China in 414 AD mention two schools of Hinduism in Java, while Chinese documents from 8th century refer to the Hindu kingdom of King Sanjaya as Holing, calling it "exceedingly wealthy," and that it coexisted peacefully with Buddhist people and Sailendra ruler in Kedu Plain of the Java island; the two major theories for the arrival of Hinduism in Indonesia include that South Indian sea traders brought Hinduism with them, second being that Indonesian royalty welcomed Indian religions and culture, it is they who first adopted these spiritual ideas followed by the masses. Indonesian islands adopted both Hindu and Buddhist ideas, fusing them with pre-existing native folk religion and Animist beliefs.
In the 4th century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, Holing in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Excavations between 1950 and 2005 at the Cibuaya and Batujaya sites, suggests that Tarumanagara revered deity Wisnu of Hinduism. Ancient Hindu kingdoms of Java built many square temples, named rivers on the island as Gomati and Ganges, completed major irrigation and infrastructure projects. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms were Mataram, famous for the construction of one of the world's largest Hindu temple complexes - the Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Hinduism along with Buddhism spread across the archipelago. Numerous sastras and sutras of Hinduism were translated into the Javanese language, expressed in art form. Rishi Agastya, for example, is described as the principal figure in the 11th century Javanese text Agastya parva; the Hindu-Buddhist ideas reached the peak of their influence in the 14th century.
The last and largest among the Hindu-Buddhist Javanese empires, influenced the Indonesian archipelago. Sunni Muslim traders of the Shafi'i fiqh, as well as Sufi Muslim traders from India and Yemen brought Islam to Indonesia; the earliest known mention of a small Islamic community midst the Hindus of Indonesia is credited to Marco Polo, about 1297 AD, whom he referred to as a new community of Moorish traders in Perlak. Over 15th and 16th centuries, a Muslim campaign led by Sultans attacked Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities in the Indonesian archipelago, with each Sultan trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious Islamic Sultanates emerged in north Sumatra, south Sumatra and central Java, in southern Borneo; these Sultanates declared Islam as their state religion and pursued war against each other as well as the Hindus and other non-Muslim infidels. Hindu, Buddhist and Animist communities in these Indonesian Sultanates bought peace by agreeing to pay jizya tax to the Muslim ruler, while others began adopting Islam to escape the jizya tax.
For example, jizya was imposed on unbelievers
Hinduism in Kenya
Hinduism is a minority faith in Kenya,constituting 0.14% of the population of Kenya. Kenya is the only African Country after Mauritius and South Africa to recognise Hinduism. Hinduism become recognised in Kenya,only by the activities of Hindu Council of Kenya. Unlike north and northeast African countries which do not allow construction of Hindu temples or open practice of Hinduism, Kenya allows religious freedom to practice Hinduism; the Hindu temples in Kenya are of north and west Indian architectural style. Hinduism in Kenya comes from coastal trade routes between between Gujarat and Odisha in India and East Africa; the influence of Hinduism in Kenya began in early 1st millennium AD when there was trade between East Africa and Indian subcontinent. Archaeological evidence of small Hindu settlements have been found in Zanzibar and coastal parts of Kenya, Swahili coast and Madagascar. Many words in Swahili language have their etymological roots in Indian languages associated with Hinduism; the origin of the Kenyan Gujarati dates back to the late 1800s, when British colonialists brought laborers from India to build the Uganda–Kenya railway.
Many of the laborers, rather than travel back to the Indian subcontinent settled in Kenya, brought with them a host of hopefuls willing to start afresh. One percent of Kenyan population practiced Hinduism as reported by IRF, but according to the 2009 Census,there are 53,393 Hindus in Kenya,who constitute 0.14% of the population. According to the Pew Research Center estimates there were 60,000 Hindus in Kenya in 2010, or less than 0.25% of the total Kenyan population. Today, the Gujarati community in Kenya is estimated at over ninety thousand, is dispersed throughout the country. Despite varying degrees of acculturation, most have retained their strong Gujarati ties. HSS and ISKCON are the main contributors to the society in large by organizing public events and introducing many welfare programs such as the food relief programs and other services which has attracted many Kenyans and created a good reputation of the Hindu community at large. Pushtimarg Vaishnav Sangh and Brahma Kumaris are active in Kenya.
There are more than 40 Hindu Temples in Kenya. A few well known are: Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi Shree Kutch Satsang Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Eldoret Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kerugoya Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nakuru Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kisumu Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Mombasa BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Mombasa BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nakuru BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Eldoret BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kisumu Shree Jalaram Mandir, Nairobi Shree Jalaram Mandir, Nakuru Hanuman Mandir, Naivasha Shree Sanatan Dharma Sabha Temple, Nairobi Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swami Temple, Nairobi Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Nairobi Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Kisumu Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Mombasa Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Ganjoni Shree Vallabh Dham, Nairobi Sri Ram Mandir, Nairobi Sri Ayyapa Swami Temple, Nairobi Ambaji Temple, Nairobi Shiv Mandir, Nairobi Ng'ombe Ishwar Mahadev Mandir, Mombasa Hindu Council of Kenya is an umbrella body of Hindus in Kenya.
The Council is recognized by the Government. Until a few years back, the Hindus were described in the voter’s register as'Non-Muslims'. Due to the efforts of the Council, they are now described as'Hindus'; the Council has been busy in preparing books for Hindu religious education. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness known as Gaudiya Vaishnavism or "The Hare Krishna Movement" has established 4 Temples in Kenya till date. With all efforts and hard work, they preach the glories of Lord Sri Radha Krishna, love of godhead, the message of Bhagavad-Gītā as It Is and other Vedic scriptures. Organize wonderful festivals such as Krishna Janmashtami, Rama Navami, Gaura-purnima, Narasimha Chaturdashi and many; the most famous is the Jagannath Ratha-Yatra known as the "Festival of Chariots" which attracts over 5000 Kenyans to dance and sing the holy names of Lord Sri Jagannath. Hare Krishna Food for Life is the world's largest vegetarian non-profit food relief organization, its efforts span the globe, including Kenya.
Volunteers in Kenya provide up to 20,000 free meals daily. Food For Life reaches out to all in need, including. Food for Life project is a modern-day revival of the ancient Vedic culture of hospitality with its belief in the equality of all beings; the popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for Krishna Devotees comes from the vedic mantra that devotees sing aloud or Chant on Tulsi-mala. This mantra, known as the Maha Mantra comes from the ancient Vedic Scriptures; the Maha Mantra: Always Chant and be Happy! HSS is part of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. HSS is known to have started in 14 November 1947 in Nairobi, since it has developed and has its centers in different cities like Mombasa, Eldoret and Meru, its main aims have been known to preserve and promote Hindu ideals and values and encourages in maintaining Hindu cultural identity in harmony with the prevailing diversity in the world. Since its main moto is to "Serve the Society" it carries out many humanitarian activities such as Feeding the needy, provides Wheel Chairs and Artificial Limbs to amputees, organizes medical camps for free medical services and for blood donation, is f