Hinduism in East Timor
Hinduism is a minority faith in East Timor. All of them follow Balinese Hinduism Timor has no traditional Hindu population. Hindus are migrants from Bali who came during the Indonesian occupation. After the end of the occupation, most Hindus left the country. In 1992, before the independence of East Timor Hindus constituted 0.5% of the population. After the occupation,Hinduism decreased to less than 0.1% in East Timor. According to the 2011 census, there are 195 Hindus in East Timor. However, the 2015 Census showed a slight increase in the number of Hindus. According to that census, there were 271 Hindus in East Timor. Pura Girinatha is the largest Balinese Hindu temple in East Timor; the temple was built during the Occupation. Now the temple is quite run down, although some Balinese from Indonesia and the East Timorese government have started efforts to revitalize the temple; the Pongal celebration of the Tamil Hindus were celebrated in the Pura Giri Natha. Hinduism in Brunei Pura Girinatha Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Botswana
Hinduism is a minority religion practised by 0.3 % of the population of Botswana. The practice of Hinduism in Botswana is concentrated around Gaborone and Selebi-Phikwe; the community of Hindus began to form in the early 20th century with the beginning of immigration from India to Botswana. Most Hindus in Botswana are of Indian descent; the 2001 census of Botswana listed 3,000 Hindus. Members of Hindu community estimated that these figures understated their respective numbers; the 2011 census stated about 3353 Hindus in Botswana. Among these 3230 are non-migrants and 123 are migrants. Hinduism constituted 0.3% of the total population of Botswana in 2001 which remain constant in 2011 census. Hinduism constituted 0.1 % of the migrant population. As of January 2016, there are five Hindu temples in Botswana, including the Sai Temple and ISKCON Temple in Gaborone. With the growth of the community, a number of region-based community associations have sprung up. There is a Hindu temple in Gaborone, another in Selebi-Phikwe.
A gurudwara is been built in the capital city. Plans have been made for the construction of a Swaminarayan temple, a Sai Baba Centre, a Venkateswara Temple and an ISKCON Centre at various sites in Botswana; the following are the major Hindu temples in Botswana: ISKCON, Gaborone Shiva-Vishnu Temple, Selebi-Phikwe The Hindu Hall, Gaborone Sri Balaji Temple, Block 8, Gaborone The ISKCON Botswana temple is situated in Gaborone West Phase 2, opposite Baobab Primary School. It is a magnificent temple orange and maroon in colour that has attracted many people from all parts of the country to see its magnificent art work that can be seen on the outside and on the inside, it is the home of Sri Sri Balarama. The Hindu Hall in Gaborone is situated behind the "Caltex" filling station, located in the area adjacent to the "Maru-a-Pula Robots". All the major Hindu festivals are observed in this temple. At the entrance to the Hindu Hall, is located the'Navagraha Temple', with the deities of the 9 planets. Adjoining thereto, is the'Lord Shiva Temple' with a'Shiva Lingam' at the centre, surrounded on the sides by the idols of Lord Subrahmanya, Goddess Mother Parvati, Lord Ganesha.
On the inside of the wall of the Shiva Temple, there is a small cavern, which couches one idol of Lord Shiva, Mother Parvati, with Lord Baby Ganesh and Lord Baby Subrahmanya on their laps. There is a'Nandi' facing the Shiva Lingam. Inside there is a big hall. Upon the dais, there are idols of Lord Rama, Mother Sita and Lord Hanuman. There is an idol of Lord Shiva; the Botswana Hindu Charities Trust built the Sri Balaji Temple in Gaborone in the classical Dravidian architectural style. This Temple is one of its kind in the Southern African region and become a cultural attraction in Gaborone, after earning the people's admiration for the architectural and the sculptural beauty; the Temple has cost over Rs. 2 crores to build. The Temple has 10 sanctum sanctorums to house Lord Balaji and his consorts Sridevi and Bhudevi as the presiding deity, Lord Ganesha, Lord Anjaneya, Lord Shiva, Mata Vaishnodevi, Lord Ayyapa, Lord Muruga and the Navagrahas. All Mulavar Vigrahas and Utsav Murthies were imported from India.
The doors for the Maha Mandap and the Rajagopuram were imported from Kerala. The doors of Maha Mandap depict the scenes from Krishna Leela whereas the doors of Raja Gopuram depict the Dasa Avathars. Hinduism in Uganda Hinduism in Tanzania Hinduism in Botswana as reported in The Hindu Hindu Temples in Botswana Should Batswana embrace cremation as new culture? 7 August, 2001 Indian Associations in Botswana
Hinduism in Afghanistan
Hinduism in Afghanistan is practiced by a tiny minority of Afghans, believed to be about 1,000 individuals who live in Kabul and other major cities of the country. Before the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan, the Afghan people were multi-religious. Most Hindu temples were converted into mosques by the 11th century. There is no reliable information on when Hinduism began in Afghanistan but historians suggest that the territory south of the Hindu Kush was culturally connected with the Indus-Saraswati Civilization in ancient times. At the same time, many historians believe that Afghanistan was inhabited by ancient Arians followed by the Achaemenid before the arrival of Alexander the Great and his Greek army in 330 BC, it became part of the Seleucid Empire after the departure of Alexander three years later. In 305 BCE, the Seleucid Empire lost control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Indian Emperor "Sandrocottus" as result of the Seleucid-Mauryan War. Alexander took these away from the Arians and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus, upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.
When Chinese travelers, Song Yun and Xuanzang explored Afghanistan between the 5th and 7th centuries AD, they wrote numerous travelogues in which reliable information on Afghanistan was stored. They stated that Buddhism was practiced in different parts between the Amu Darya in the north and the Indus River. However, they did not mention much about Hinduism although Song Yun did state that the Hephthalite rulers did not recognize Buddhism but "preached pseudo gods and killed animals for their meat"; the Chinese monks were followers of Buddhism, it is possible that they had no interest in writing about other religions. In addition, traveling in the Afghanistan region was too risky due to bandits. Before the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan, the territory was a religious sediment of Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, it was inhabited by various peoples, including Persians, Khalaj and Afghans. South of the Hindu Kush was ruled by offspring of the southern-Hephthalite; the east was controlled by the Kabul Shahis.
The Zunbil and Kabul Shahis were connected by culture with the rest of the Indian subcontinent. The Zunbil kings worshipped a sun god by the name of Zun from. André Wink writes that "the cult of Zun was Hindu, not Buddhist or Zoroastrian." This shed light on history of Hinduism. In 653–654 AD, Abdur Rahman bin Samara along with 6,000 Arab Muslims penetrated the Zunbil territory and made their way to the shrine of Zun in Zamindawar, believed to be located about three miles south of Musa Qala in today's Helmand Province of Afghanistan; the General of the Arab army "broke of a hand of the idol and plucked out the rubies which were its eyes in order to persuade the Marzbān of Sīstān of the god's worthlessness."The Kabul Shahi ruled north of the Zunbil territory, which included Kabulistan and Gandahara. The Arabs were not able to rule for long; the Kabul Shahis decided to build a giant wall around the city to prevent more Arab invasions, this wall is still visible today. Willem Vogelsang in his 2002 book writes: "During the 8th and 9th centuries AD the eastern Terroritries of modern Afghanistan were still in the hands of Non-Muslim rulers.
The Muslims tended to regard them as Indians, although many of the local rulers were of Hunnic or Turkic descent. Yet, the Muslims were right in so far as the non Muslim population of Eastern Afghanistan was, culturally linked to the Indian sub-continent. Most of them were either Hindus or Buddhists." In 870 AD the Saffarids from Zaranj conquered most of Afghanistan, establishing Muslim governors throughout the land. It is reported that Muslims and non-Muslims still lived side by side before the arrival of the Ghaznavids in the 10th century."Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind." The first confirmed mention of a Hindu in Afghanistan appears in the 982 AD Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, where it speaks of a king in "Ninhar", who shows a public display of conversion to Islam though he had over 30 wives, which are described as "Muslim and Hindu" wives. These names were used as geographical terms. For example, Hindu has been used as a geographical term to describe someone, native from the region known as Hindustan, Afghan as someone, native from a region called Afghanistan.
Martin Ewans in his 2002 book writes: "Even a Hindu dynasty the Hindu Shahis, held Gandhara and the eastern borders. From the tenth century onwards as Persian language and culture continued to spread into Afghanistan, the focus of power shifted to Ghazni, where a Turkic dynasty, who started by ruling the town for the Samanid dynasty of Bokhara, proceeded to create an empire in their own right; the greatest of the Ghaznavids was Mahmud who ruled between 998 and 1030. He expelled the Hindus from Ghandhara, made no fewer than 17 raids into India, he encouraged mass conversions to Islam, in Pakistan as well as in Afghanistan."When Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni began crossing the Indus River into Hindustan in the 10th century, the Ghaznavid Muslims began bringing Hindu slaves to what is now Afghanistan. Al-Idirisi testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi king was performed at Kabul and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract.
The Ghaznavid m
Hinduism in the Philippines
Recent archaeological and other evidence suggests Hinduism has had some cultural, economic and religious influence in the Philippines. Among these is the 9th century Laguna Copperplate Inscription found in 1989, deciphered in 1992 to be Kavi script with Sanskrit words. There is some growth in the religion as of late, although most temples cater to the same communities. Actual adherents of Hinduism are limited to communities that include indigenous and native peoples, expatriate communities, as well as new converts. There are various ISKCON groups and popular Hindu personalities and groups such as Sathya Sai Baba, Paramahansa Yogananda that can be found. Hindu based practices like Yoga and meditation are popular; the Personal Representative on Earth of the Supreme Divine Person, Swāmī Mahāprabhu, has been residing in Quezon City since September 2011. There are notable archery ranges named after characters in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata called "Kodanda Archery Range" and "Gandiva Archery".
One source estimated the size of the Indian community in the Philippines in 2008 at 150,000 persons. Most of whom are christians. At present, however, it is limited to the immigrant Indian community, though traditional religious beliefs in most parts of the country have strong Hindu and Buddhist influences. Over the last three decades, a large number of civil servants and educated Indians working in large banks, Asian Development Bank and the BPO sector have migrated to Philippines Manila. Most of the Indian Filipinos and Indian expatriates are Hindu, Sikh or Muslims, but have assimilated into Filipino culture and some are Catholic; the community conducts philanthropic activities through bodies such as the Mahaveer foundation, The SEVA foundation and the Sathya Sai organization. Most Hindus congregate for socio-cultural and religious activities at the Hindu Temple, the Indian Sikh Temple, the Radha Soami Satsang Beas center; the late "priest" of the Hindu Temple, Giani Joginder Singh Sethi, was active in interfaith affairs, accepted visits by school students, organised the first major translation of Guru Nanak's Jap Ji into Filipino, translated by Usha Ramchandani and edited by Samuel Salter.
There are two Hindu temples in Saya Aur Devi Mandir Temple. The archipelagos of Southeast Asia were under the influence of Hindu Odisha and Indonesian traders through the ports of Malay-Indonesian islands. Indian religions an amalgamated version of Hindu-Buddhist arrived in Philippines archipelago in the 1st millennium, through the Indonesian kingdom of Srivijaya followed by Majapahit. Archeological evidence suggesting exchange of ancient spiritual ideas from India to the Philippines includes the 1.79 kilogram, 21 carat gold Hindu goddess Agusan, found in Mindanao in 1917 after a storm and flood exposed its location. The statue now sits in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, is dated from the period 13th to early 14th centuries. A study of this image was made by Dr. F. D. K. Bosch, of Batavia, in 1920, who came to the conclusion that it was made by local workmen in Mindanao, copying a Ngandjuk image of the early Madjapahit period – except that the local artist overlooked the distinguishing attributes held in the hand.
It had some connection with the Javanese miners who are known to have been mining gold in the Agusan-Surigao area in the middle or late 14th century. The image is that of a Sivaite goddess, fits in well with the name "Butuan". Juan Francisco suggests that the golden Agusan statue may be a representation of goddess Sakti of the Siva-Buddha tradition found in Java, in which the religious aspect of Shiva is integrated with those found in Buddhism of Java and Sumatra; the Rajahnate of Butuan, in present-day Agusan del Norte and Butuan City, used Hinduism as its main religion along with indigenous Lumad nature-worships. A Hindu Tamil King of the Rajahnate of Cebu was recorded. Another gold artifact, from the Tabon Caves in the island of Palawan, is an image of Garuda, the bird, the mount of Vishnu; the discovery of sophisticated Hindu imagery and gold artifacts in Tabon Caves has been linked to those found from Oc Eo, in the Mekong Delta in Southern Vietnam. These archaeological evidence suggests an active trade of many specialized goods and gold between India and Philippines and coastal regions of Vietnam and China.
Golden jewelry found so far include rings, some surmounted by images of Nandi – the sacred bull, linked chains, inscribed gold sheets, gold plaques decorated with repoussé images of Hindu deities. In 1989, a laborer working in a sand mine at the mouth of Lumbang River near Laguna de Bay found a copper plate in Barangay Wawa, Lumban; this discovery, is now known as the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by scholars. It is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, dated to be from the 9th century AD, was deciphered in 1992 by Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma; the copperplate inscription suggests economic and cultural links between the Tagalog people of Philippines with the Javanese Medang Kingdom, the Srivijaya empire, the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of India. Hinduism in the country declined when Islam was introduced by traders from Arabia, followed by Christianity from Spain; this is an act
Hinduism in Nepal
Hinduism is the largest religion of Nepal. In the 2011 census 81.3 percent of the Nepalese people identified themselves as Hindus, although observers note that many of the people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could, with as much justification, be called Buddhists. According to 2011 census, the Hindu population in Nepal is estimated to be around 22.1 million which accounts 81.3% of country's population. The national calendar of Nepal, Vikram Samvat, is a solar Hindu calendar the same to that widespread in North India as a religious calendar, is based on Hindu units of time; the geographical distribution of religious groups revealed a preponderance of Hindus, accounting for at least 87 percent of the population in every region. Among Tibeto-Burman-speaking communities in Nepal, those most influenced by Hinduism are the Magars and Rai peoples. Historians and local traditions say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu during prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" means the place protected by the sage Ne.
He performed religious ceremonies at the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers. According to legend he selected a pious cowherd to be the first of the many kings of the Gopala Dynasty; these rulers are said to have ruled Nepal for over 500 years. He selected Bhuktaman to be the first king in the line of the Gopal Dynasty; the Silncan Gopal dynasty ruled for 621 years. Yakshya Gupta was the last king of this dynasty. According to Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have practiced penance at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught his doctrines there too. According to various historical sources though the presence of varna and caste had been known as an element in the social structure of the Kathmandu Valley since the Licchavi period, majority of the residents of the Nepal Valley were for the first time codified into a written code only in the 14th century in the Nepalarastrasastra by the Maithil–origin king Jayasthithi Malla.
Jayasthithi Malla, with the aid of five Kānyakubja and Maithil Brahmins whom he invited from the Indian plains, divided the population of the valley into each of four major classes —Brahmin, Vaishya, Shudra—derived from the ancient Hindu text Manusmriti and based on individual's occupational roles. The four classes varna encompassed a total of 64 castes jat within it, with the Shudras being further divided into 36 sub-castes. After the Gorkhali conquest of Kathmandu valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah expelled the Christian Capuchin missionaries from Patan and revisioned Nepal as Asal Hindustan; the Tagadharis, thread wearing Hindus of higher categorization, enjoyed the privileged status in the Nepalese capital and more access to the central power after the Gorkhali King Prithvi Narayan's conquest of Kathmandu valley. Since Hinduisation became the significant policy of the Kingdom of Nepal; the Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854.
It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal. The law comprised Prāyaścitta and Ācāra, it was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as the non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers. The pennant is an important Hindu flag, help atop Hindu temples, it is believed that Lord Vishnu had organized the Nepali people and given them their flag, with the sun and moon as emblems on it. In a Hindu Purana, it is written that it was Lord Shiva who handed the flag to Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu to Lord Indra, for the purpose for battling demons. Matatirtha Aunsi Buddha Jayanti Ghanta Karna Chaturdasi Janai Purnima, Rakshya Bandhan, Khumbeshwor Mela Patan Gaijatra Shree Krishna Janmastami Gokarna Aunsi Teej Ko Darkhane Din Indrajatra Dashain Holidays Tihar Holidays Chhath Public Holidays Maghe Sankranti Shree Panchami Maha Shiva Ratri Fagun Purnima Ghode Jatra Shree Ram Nawami Bagh Jatra Bhairav Kumari Jatra Chaite Dasain Gaura Parva Gunla Guru Purnima Rato Macchendranath Jatra Mani Rimdu Mata-yaa Neel Barahi Pyakhan Rath Yatra Sita Vivaha Panchami Tamu Dhee Tansen Jatra Taya Macha Yomari punhi However, there has traditionally been a great deal of intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.
Many of the people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could in some senses be called Buddhists. Hindus long have worshipped at Buddhist Buddhists at Hindu temples; the reason for this is that both Hinduism and Buddhism have common roots, over most of their history have not been seen as separate communions, but rather rival tendencies within a shared religious tradition. Because of such dual faith practices, the differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been subtle and academic in nature. There are many temples where both Buddhists can enter and worship; the figures are based on the Census 2011 of Nepal. NEG denotes newly listed ethnic group; as seen from the 2001 and 2011 Census data, the percentage of Hindus has gone up by 0.72%, from 80.62% to 81.34%. However, the overall trend re
Hinduism in Sri Lanka
Hinduism has a long tradition and, the oldest religion in Sri Lanka. More than 2000 years civilization have proved so far from Hindu temples in Sri Lanka. Hindus make up 12.60% of the Sri Lankan population, are exclusively Tamils apart from small immigrant communities from India and Pakistan such as the Sindhis and Malayalees. In the 1915 census they made up 25% of the population, which included the indentured labourers the British had brought. Due to emigration, today they are still a sizeable minority. Hinduism is dominant in the Eastern provinces, where there are predominantly Tamil people. Hinduism is practised in the central regions as well as in the capital, Colombo. According to the government census of 2011, there are 2,554,606 Hindus in Sri Lanka constituting 12.6% of the country's population. During the Sri Lankan Civil War, many Tamils fled to other countries. There are Hindu temples abroad which were built by the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora to maintain their religion and culture; the majority of Sri Lankan Hindus follow the teaching of Shaiva Siddhanta.
Some hindus follow Shaktism. Sri Lanka is home to the five abodes of Shiva, which are known as Pancha Ishwarams, The holy places build by king Ravana. Sri Murugan is one of the most popular Hindu deities in Sri Lanka, he is not only venerated by the Hindu Tamils but by Buddhist Sinhalese and aboriginal Veddas. A significant Hindu religious figure in Sri Lankan modern history is Satguru Siva Yogaswami of Jaffna. One of the mystics of the 20th century, Yogaswami was the official satguru and counseling sage of Lanka's several million Tamil Hindu population; the Ramakrishna Mission is somewhat active in the Amparai and Batticaloa districts while the Shaiva Siddhanta school of philosophy of Shaivism sect of Hinduism is prevalent in the North of Sri Lanka. Yogaswami belonged to the Shaiva Siddhanta and he was 161st head of the Nandinatha Sampradaya; the next person in the line of succession after Yogaswami was Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. According to legend, Sri Lanka was formed when sage Narada persuaded the God of Wind and Air, Vayu, to humble his close friend, Mount Meru.
Vayu spent the next year blowing strong winds at the mountain, shielded by Garuda, a mythical bird. When Garuda took respite for a while, Vayu caused part of the apex of the mountain to fall into the sea, forming the island of Sri Lanka; the first major Hindu reference to Sri Lanka is found in the Ramayana. The Ramayana tells; the throne of Lanka was usurped by his half-brother Ravana. Ravana was killed by Rama the avatar of Vishnu; the Ramayana mentions a bridge between India and Sri Lanka, known as Rama's Bridge, constructed with rocks by Rama with the help of Hanuman and others. Many believers view the sand bar islands connecting Sri Lanka to India as the remains of the bridge as seen in satellite images. Archeological evidence is found to support worship of Lord Siva in parts of Sri Lanka, from pre-historic times, prior to the arrival of Prince Vijaya. Ravana was a devout follower of Lord Siva. Evidence states; the Nagas practiced an early form of Hinduism that serpents. This form of animistic Shaivism is common in other parts of India.
The Nagas who inhabited the Jaffna Peninsula were the ancestors of Sri Lankan Tamils. The Nagas started to assimilate to Tamil language and culture in the 3rd century BCE, lost their separate identity; the Nainativu Nagapooshani Amman Temple in Nainativu is believed to be one of the prominent 64 Shakti Peethams. Hinduism was the dominant religion in Sri Lanka before the arrival of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC. Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka by Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa; the Sinhalese embraced Tamils remain Hindus in Sri Lanka. However it was activity from across the Palk Strait that set the scene for Hinduism's survival in Sri Lanka. Shaivism was the dominant branch practiced by the Tamil peoples, thus most of the traditional Hindu temple architecture and philosophy of Sri Lanka drew from this particular strand of Hinduism. Thirugnanasambanthar mentioned the names of a number of Sri Lankan Hindu temples in his works; the arrival of European colonialists brought profound consequences to both Hindu and Buddhist communities.
In 1505, a Portuguese fleet, under the command of Captain–major Don Lourenço de Almeida, arrived off the coast of Sri Lanka. Deals were struck between rival native rulers and the Portuguese. Formal treaties between the two groups thereby heralded the entry of the alien forces in the political arena of Sri Lanka. Over time, the Europeans were able to take advantage of the fractured nature of Sri Lankan politics culminating in successful military wins against the rebellious natives, most notably against the Hindu Tamils in the North, whose leaders were made to swear allegiance to the king of Portugal in return for maintaining their distinct laws and customs. However, any so-called rulers had become puppets of their European overlords until in the end, further rebellion caused the Tamil Jaffna Kingdom to fall in the hands of the Portuguese in June 1619, when the incumbent ruler and his family were arrested and taken prisoner. According to the Portuguese administrative arrangements, the jurisdiction of Jaffna came directly under
Hinduism in Mauritius
2018 500,000. - 20.4% Hinduism in Mauritius began when Indians from diverse religious groups were brought as indentured labor to colonial French and in much larger numbers to British plantations in Mauritius and neighboring islands of the Indian Ocean. The migrants came from what are now the Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Hinduism is the largest religion in Mauritius, with over 670,000 adherents, representing 48.5% of the total 1.3 million population of the country according to the 2011 census made by Statistics Mauritius. This makes the Mauritius islands in the Indian Ocean as the country having highest percentage of Hindus in Africa and third highest percentage of Hindus in the world after Nepal and India; the European colonial powers banned slave capture and trading in the first half of the 19th century, with the British Empire banning it in the early decades. However, the demand kept rising for low cost, high intensity labor in colonial plantations of sugarcane, cotton and other cash crops.
The British Empire substituted the slave labor supplies from Africa with indentured labor supplies from India. The indentured people brought from India included Hindus, but included Muslims and Christians, they were subject to indenture, a long-established form of contract which bound them to forced labour for a fixed term. The first ships carrying indentured labourers from India left in 1836. Sugarcane, a crop, native to India, does not grow in the cold latitudes such as those found in Europe, but grows in tropical latitudes, were grown in large colonial tropical plantations to meet the growing European and American demand, it is these sugarcane and other tropical cash crop plantations that brought the indentured Hindus and other migrants from India to Mauritius, other island countries such as Fiji, Trinidad, Martinique and others. The Hindus, non-Hindus, who accepted indentured labor contracts and were brought to Mauritius, faced difficult conditions in India. Poverty in colonial India, starvation and severe periodic famines in British Raj were rampant during the colonial rule.
Millions of Indians died from mass starvation during the 19th-century British India. The extreme circumstances broke families and triggered migrations. By 1839, Mauritius had 25,000 Indians working in slave-like conditions in its colonial plantations, but these were predominantly males since colonial labor laws prevented women and children from accompanying the males. In the 1840s a severe shortage of cheap labor in British plantation colonies led to systematic shipment of large number of indentured laborers to Mauritius, both men and women from the ports of Calcutta and Madras. According to Michael Mann – a professor of Sociology, the Hindus and non-Hindus of India who arrived in Mauritius were a small percentage of the over 30 million indentured Indian workers shipped around the colonial world between the 18th and early 20th century. By the time Mauritius gained independence from the British Empire, a majority of its population were from Indian heritage. According to Patrick Eisenlohr, about 70% of Mauritius' total population is of Indian origin.
Those who identify themselves as Hindus constitute about 48% of the total population, or about 69% of those of Indian origin. The major languages spoken by Hindus in Mauritius, at home and in commerce, are Creole, Bhojpuri and Hindi; the politically active Hindus, states Eisenholr, have attempted to preserve Hindi by calling it their "mother tongue" and "ancestral language", as well as an assurance against the colonial discrimination they faced, but most Hindus use Creole in their daily lives – a syncretic language of Indians and Africans that has developed on the island. The island nation carries many Bhojpuri-language television programs on Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation, the channel controlled by the Mauritius government. Hindus in Mauritius that use Bhojpuri include the rural south and north-central region near La Nicolière; these settlements are of Hindus from Gangetic plains regions of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh, their language is a modified form – a koiné in linguistic studies – of the original Bhojpuri.
As per the 2011 Census, Hindus constituted for 48.54% of the total population of Mauritius. Excluding the island of Rodrigues, Hindus were 50.15% of the population. In the island of Rodrigues, Hindus are 0.84% of the population. According to Oddvar Hollup and other scholars, Hindus that settled in Mauritius did not observe caste system and intercaste restrictions have been unimportant in Mauritius. Most scholars, states Hollup, observe that this may be because "the economic and political conditions in the host societies where indentured Indian laborers were introduced had conditions that were not conducive to the maintenance of caste", that caste was not a principle of social organization as all Indian laborers were "doing the same kind of work and sharing the same living conditions". One of the biggest Hindu festivals on the island is Maha Shivaratri. During this annual Hindu celebration, which takes place in the months of February and March, four to nine days of ceremony and fasting lead up to an all-night vigil of Shiva worship.
Other important Hindu festivals in Mauritius include: Thaipusam, honoring the South Indian god Muruga. It is observed by Tamil Hindus. Ganesh Chaturthi, a festival occurring on a public holiday assigned to the extensive Marathi-spe