Koetoi River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan
Matsue is the capital city of Shimane Prefecture, located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Matsue has an estimated population of 205,402 following the merger with Higashiizumo from Yatsuka District. Matsue is located at the northernmost point of Shimane Prefecture, between Lake Shinji and Nakaumi on the banks of the Ohashi River connecting the two lakes, though the city proper reaches the Sea of Japan coast. Matsue is the center of the Lake Shinji-Nakaumi metropolitan area, with a population of 600,000 is the second largest on the Sea of Japan coast after Niigata. Matsue is sometimes called the "water city" due to the prominence of the lakes and canals in the city-scape and scenery. Matsue is home to the Tokugawa-era Matsue Castle, one of the last surviving feudal castles in Japan; the present-day castle town of Matsue was established by Horio Yoshiharu, lord of the Matsue clan, when he built Matsue castle and planned the surrounding Castle town over a five-year period from 1607 to 1611. Matsue continued to be the seat of power in the Sanin Region for many years.
Matsue was first ruled by the Horio family. Horio Yoshiharu's son Tadauji died before his father, thus the province was inherited by his grandson Tadaharu. However, Tadaharu died childless; the Kyogoku were daimyō from Wakasa. Kyogoku Takatsugu served Hideyoshi. Takatsugu's son Tadataka married the 4th daughter of Hatsu, he served in the Battle of Osaka and took 300 heads. In 1634, he received the province of Izumo. During his rule he was instrumental in engineering projects that helped control the flow of the Hiikawa river. In 1637, Tadataka died childless and the domain passed to the Matsudaira. Naomasa was the third son of Hideyasu. Hideyasu, daimyō of Echizen, himself was the second son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, making Naomasa the grandson of the first Tokugawa Shōgun Ieyasu. Naomasa made a name for himself fighting in the Battle of Osaka at the age of 14, he was daimyō of Ono in Echizen and Matsumoto in Shinano before becoming the ruler of Izumo 1638. Unlike the previous rulers Naomasa had children and his heirs managed to keep Izumo for ten generations until the end of the Edo Bakufu.
Overall, ten Matsudaira Daimyō ruled from Matsue. The most famous after the first was Matsudaira Harusato, he revolutionized the administrative system of the Matsue clan, in financial difficulties and put it back on its feet. He promoted special foods like clams that were a delicacy in Matsue. Harusato was a great enthusiast of Tea Ceremony, his Tea Ceremony name was Fumai. He founded Unshyu, he has left the Meimei-An a famous tea house still operating in Matsue. Because his influence on wagashi, Japanese sweets for Tea Ceremony from Matsue are famous one called wakakusa; the city boasts Matsue Castle, the "black castle" or "plover castle". It is one of the 12 remaining original castles in Japan, it is the third tallest and the sixth oldest. The castle grounds include a winding path through mixed forests of bamboo and trees, many of which are old and identified by species. Surrounding the grounds and the castle park is the old moat, "horikawa". Author Lafcadio Hearn taught in Matsue from 1890-1891, his house is now a museum about his life, a popular tourist attraction in Matsue.
Throughout the city there are landmarks honouring Hearn. Other museums in the city include Tanabe Art Museum. Sada Jinja in Matsue is the home to Sada Shin Noh, a sacred dance comprising a series of purification rituals related to the changing of the rush mats within the shrine; the mats are held by dancers who offer them to deities to sit upon. Diverse dance forms are performed on a stage in the shrine accompanied by singing and drums; the performance art is transmitted from generation to generation by the community. In November 2011, Sada Shin Noh was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Other important shrines include Yaegaki Jinja, Kamosu Jinja, Miho Jinja, there are the ruins of Izumo Kokubunji, an Historic Site. April 1, 1889: the original city of Matsue was founded. March 31, 2005: the original city of Matsue absorbed the towns of Kashima, Shimane, Shinji and Yatsuka, the village of Yakumo, all from Yatsuka District, to create the new and expanded city of Matsue.
August 1, 2011: the town of Higashiizumo was merged into Matsue. Matsue has a humid subtropical climate with warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, is somewhat heavier in June and September. Traditional festivals are still pursued, for the Matsue Dou drum parade, it is held annually on the third Sunday of October. It was a New Year's festival but has changed purpose over the years. Shimane University Shimane Prefectural Women's College Matsue College of Technology Kei Nishikori, tennis player, was born in Matsue. New Orleans, United States, 1990 /1994 Jilin City, China, 1995 /1999 Dublin, Ireland Chinju City, South Gyeongsang, South Korea, 1999 Hangzhou, China, 1994 /2003 Yinchuan, China, 1994 /2004 Onomichi, Hiroshima, 1994 Takarazuka, Hyōgo Suzu, Ishikawa Matsue City official website Official tourism page Matsue at Japan Guide
Hokkaido known as Ezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, its only ordinance-designated city. About 43 km north of Hokkaido lies Russia. To its east and north-east are the disputed Kuril Islands; the Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 AD, is said to be the first mention of Hokkaido in recorded history. According to the text, Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the Mishihase and Emishi. One of the places Hirafu went to was called Watarishima, believed to be present-day Hokkaido. However, many theories exist in relation to the details of this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common belief that the Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people. During the Nara and Heian periods, people in Hokkaido conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central government.
From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo. Hokkaido subsequently became known as Ezogashima; the Ezo relied upon hunting and fishing and obtained rice and iron through trade with the Japanese. During the Muromachi period, the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula; as more people moved to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader and defeated the opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the Matsumae-han, granted exclusive trading rights with the Ainu in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods; the Matsumae family's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the Edo period in 1868; the Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the context of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval military leaders in northern Honshū maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the imperial court and its proxies, the Kamakura Shogunate and Ashikaga Shogunate.
Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within medieval institutional order, taking shogunal titles, while in other times they assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese identity. In fact, many of the feudal strongmen were descended from Emishi military leaders, assimilated into Japanese society; the Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese people, whereas the Emishi of northern Honshu were a distinctive group related to the Ainu. The Emishi were conquered and integrated into the Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th century, as result began to lose their distinctive culture and ethnicity as they became minorities. By the time the Matsumae clan ruled over the Ainu most of the Emishi were ethnically mixed and physically closer to Japanese than they were to Ainu; this dovetails nicely with the "transformation" theory that native Jōmon peoples changed with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku rather than the "replacement" theory which posits that one population was replaced by another.
There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against the feudal rule. The last large-scale resistance was Shakushain's Revolt in 1669–1672. In 1789, a smaller movement, the Menashi–Kunashir rebellion, was crushed. After that rebellion, the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred to distinguished groups, the Matsumae were unequivocally Japanese. In 1799–1821 and 1855–1858, the Edo Shogunate took direct control over Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from Russia. Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa Shogunate realized there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi; the Shogunate made the plight of the Ainu easier, but did not change the overall form of rule. Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island, but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under control of Hakodate Prefectural Government.
When establishing the Development Commission, the Meiji Government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; the primary purpose of the development commission was to secure Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East beyond Vladivostok. Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture, his first step was to journey to the United States and recruit Horace Capron, President Grant's Commissioner of Agriculture. From 1871 to 1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876, William S. Clark arrived to found an agricultural college in Sapporo. Although he only remained a year, Clark left a lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity
The Toyohira River is a river in Hokkaidō prefecture, Japan. It is 72.5 km in length and has drainage area of 894.7 km². It is a tributary of the Ishikari River, it supplies water to Sapporo city, the capital of Hokkaidō built on the alluvial fan formed by the river. Jōzankei is a popular attraction with onsen along the upper Toyohira. From the mountain Oizaridake, the Toyohira River flows northwards into Lake Jōzan; the Hōheikyō Dam created the lake. The river runs through the gorge. After exiting the gorge it is joined by several more rivers before turning East. Two smaller dams block the course of the Toyohira; the river flows east through the middle of the Toyohira Ward of Sapporo. As it leaves the urban area it forms the border between Sapporo and Ebetsu before emptying into the Ishikari River; the Ainu knew this river as Sapporo Pet. Toyopira was the name of a crossing point of the Sapporo River; until the 19th century, the lower course of the Sapporo River had been the same as the Fushiko River of today, emptying into the Ishikari River directly to the north.
After a flood, the river made a new course to the east. The Ainu called the remains of this old lower course of the Sapporo River Fushiko Sapporo or Old Sapporo; when the Japanese colonized the area, they used Ainu place names. They named the new capital city after the river Sapporo and named the Sapporo River after the crossing point Toyohira; the old lower course of the Fushiko Sapporo was named Fushiko River. The Toyohira Bridge was built at the crossing point named Toyopira by the Ainu. Anano River Makomanai River
Makomanai River is a tributary of the Toyohira River in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It has a watershed of 37 square kilometres. Flowing from Bankei Pond in the mountains, the Makomanai River's upper course is called Bankei River, too, its middle course flows through a narrow valley about 200 metres wide in the Tokiwa area. Running north, it merges with the Toyohira River at Makomanai area; the Toyohira River flows through the Sapporo city's center. Makomanai means rear river in the Ainu language. Edwin Dun, an Oyatoi gaikokujin, began development of Makomanai in the 1870s with a pioneer stock farm; the valley of Tokiwa remained undeveloped for a long time. Flood control projects were begun in the half of 20th century. Now a residential zone exists along the northern half of Tokiwa along National Route 453. Houses cover the surrounding hilltops around Makomanai. At the confluence with the Toyohira River is Makomanai Park. Cherry salmon spawn in the park every year. Sapporo-shi Kyōiku Iinkai edited Oyatoi Gaikokujin, Hokkaidō Shinbunsha, Sapporo, 1981.
札幌市教育委員会編『お雇い外国人』、さっぽろ文庫第19巻、北海道新聞社、1981年。 Sapporo-shi Kyōiku Iinkai edited Kawa no Fuukei, Hokkaidō Shinbunsha, Sapporo, 1988. 札幌市教育委員会編『川の風景』、さっぽろ文庫第44巻、北海道新聞社、1988年。 OKADA Asuka,'Makomanai-Gawa ni okeru Chisui Jigyō', 1999 or 2000. 岡田明日香「真駒内川における治水事業」、1999年か2000年。
The Zenibako River runs from Otaru, Hokkaidō, Hokkaidō, Japan and ends in the Sea of Japan. It is a Normal Class River of the Zenibako River System under Japanese River Law; the Zenibako River originates north of Mount Okuteine, near the border with Sapporo City. It runs through mountain woods and meets the Zenibako-tōge River as it emerges from the Zenibako Mountain Pass. Katsuraoka-machi is situated around the left bank of its middle course; the river turns eastward where it passes under the Sasson Expressway and National Route 5. It runs through the urban area of Zenibako, turns north enters the Ishikari Bay 200 meters southwest of Zenibako Station; the course lower than Route 5 was consolidated with concrete after the 1962 flood. Biochemical oxygen demand of the water in 2004 was 0.1 mg/L. Water of the upper stream is utilized by the Zenibako Purification Plant in Katsuraoka-machi for the east part of Otaru City's water service. Water hardness of Zenibako is 29 mg/L. - Sasson Expressway Zenibako Bridge - Japan National Route 5 Naka-no-hashi or Naka-no Bridge Sawa-no-hashi or Sawa-no Bridge Zenibako Shimo-no-hashi or Zenibako Shimo-no Bridge - Hakodate Main Line Zenibako Bridge - Hokkaidō Prefectural Highway 225, Otaru-Ishikari Line
Anano River is a river located in the Minami-ku Ishiyama area of southern Sapporo in Hokkaidō, Japan. It classified as class A river, it is 9.4 km long and has a catchment area of 8.9 km2. The Sapporo River Work Office built a sand control dam on the Anano River with a sand-retarding basin