Andlau is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region of northeastern France. The village owes its origin to Andlau Abbey, founded in 880 by Richardis, the empress of Charles the Fat. Andlau has been a wine-growing traveler destination since its earliest days; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Andlaviens or AndlaviennesThe commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Andlau is located some 40 km south by 20 km north of Selestat, it is a small town in the Canton of Barr located in the valley of the Andlau river in the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. The surroundings of Andlau town are the Vosges, including a summit, the Stosskopf, which attains a height of 700 metres; the surrounding communes include Mittelbergheim to the north-east, Eichhoffen to the east, Bernardvillé to the south, Le Hohwald to the north-west and Barr. The commune has an area of 23.69 km² and its highest point is towards the northern tip of Niederberg and rises to 807 metres.
Access to the commune is by the D62 road from Exit 13 on the A35 autoroute which goes west to the town. There is the D425 from just north of Eichhoffen going west to the village continuing west to Le Hohwald. West of the town the commune is forested with an extensive network of forest roads. East of the town there is a small area of farmland; the Andlau River: a small river which rises in the Vosges Mountains near the Champ du Feu, a mountain situated at the eastern end of the Ban-de-la-Roche. It flows from west to east through Andlau, Saint-Pierre, Zellwiller, Hindisheim and Fegersheim empties into the Ill downstream of Ill commune. Further upstream the waters of the Valff and the Kirneck used to power 60 mills and other factories until the 19th century, its course is about 45 km. Andelaha Andelelaha Andeloïa Andeloha Andelow Andeloa Andelow Andelach Andlau is a distortion of the word Andelaha from Andelaw or Andlaw. Andelaha could come from the original name of the river of which there are traces in old maps drawn in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Andlau River is 42.8 km long and flows from the Champ du Feu to the Ill and is the origin of the name of the town. On 30 July 1857 Andlau was called Andlau-au-Val to distinguish it from that of Andelot in Haute-Marne. At the beginning of the 20th century the name became Andlau; the village undoubtedly existed in Gallo-Roman times. The village developed around the abbey of nuns founded in 880 AD by Richarde de Souabe, daughter of the Count of Alsace, known as Erchangar. Sainte Richarde the wife of Emperor Charles the Fat, grandson of Louis the Pious; the abbey was placed in Saint-Sauveur following the rule of Saint Benedict and received the protection of the Pope. It was allowed to raise money until 1004, it subsequently received many privileges. The Emperor Charles IV, in confirming it in 1347, declared the abbey free of all charges and contributions and granted to the abbess Adelaide de Geroldseck, her successors, the title of Princess of the Empire; the exact date of its secularization is not known but it is believed that it took place between the 12th and 14th centuries.
In addition to the charter from Emperor Charles IV many other anterior and posterior diplomas were granted to the abbey to confirm the privileges it had obtained or to give it new ones. The recipients were required to demonstrate sixteen Quarters of nobility without misalliance and the most illustrious families of Alsace and Germany vied for the honour of admitting their girls, they were not subject to a vow and could, when they wished, return to their families and marry. This abbey received from its inception an illustration that contributed to its prosperity and its status, it is known that the Emperor Charles the Fat was too weak to govern the vast empire, reunited under him by the death of his two brothers left in the care of the Empress Richarde, his wife. She had to advise Bishop of Vercelli. Courtiers, jealous of the authority of the bishop and the confidence, accorded him by the Empress, long meditated his ruin and found a way to turn the heart of the weak monarch to jealousy which piety, the eminent qualities of his wife, twenty-five years of happy marriage were powerless to stop.
Liutward was expelled from the court and the repudiated Empress retired to the monastery of Andlau. The legend of Saint Richarde was that she suffered the ordeal of fire and, dressed in a shirt coated with wax, was set fire in four places, she was not burned by the flames which were miraculously extinguished. In any case it was in this monastery that the wife of Charles the Fat ended her days in prayer and good works, she found a source of consolation in letters in which she wrote with great distinction several beautiful poems which have been preserved until now where she writes of her resignation and the purity of her soul. She was buried in a side chapel of the Andlau church. A century and a half she was canonized by Pope Leo IX, in Alsace, his homeland, came to bless Andlau's new church built by the Abbess Mathilde, sister of Emperor Henry III; the first references to the house of Andlau are in the 12th century which makes this family one of the oldest lines in France. The Andlau line forms 0.5% of the French nobility and their origins date back to the late Middle Ages so are considered old nobility – distinguished nobility or ancient nobility.
The nobles of Andlau may have given their name to the town. According to some sources, the Andlau family
La Petite-Pierre is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Lützelstein castle was built by Count Hugo, the son of Hugh, Count of Blieskastel, it was claimed by the Bishop of Strasbourg in 1223, but the count defended it. After Count Friedrich died without a male successor, the county was subject to a protracted inheritance dispute between his uncle, Frederick Burkhard, his sister, married to John of Leiningen. Both John and the sons of Burkhard died within a short time and without heirs, so the entire county was passed to the Electoral Palatinate in 1462. During the partition of the House of Wittelsbach territories in 1533, Lützelstein county was passed to the Palatinate-Zweibrücken. Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken gave it to Ruprecht, Count Palatine of his uncle. George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz attempted to develop his Alsatian territories as the focus of his state, which led to him building the city of Pfalzburg in 1570 and populating it with Protestant refugees from the Duchy of Lorraine.
The project was so grand and unaffordable that in 1583 he was forced to sell the city and half the County of Lützelstein to Lorraine. After the death of George John I, Anna Maria of Sweden ruled the county as regent. After the division of Palatinate-Veldenz in 1598, the County of Lützelstein was passed to John Augustus, Count Palatine of Lützelstein. John Augustus himself died without issue in 1611 and was succeeded by his younger brother Count Palatine George John II of Guttenberg, who renamed the united state Palatinate-Lützelstein-Guttenberg; as he himself left no surviving children upon his death in 1654, his territory fell back to Palatinate-Veldenz. After Leopold Louis, Count Palatine of Veldenz died without issue, the county was returned to Palatinate-Zweibrücken in 1694. However, Palatinate rule of Lützelstein after 1680 was nominal due to French occupation of it. After the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick, Lützelstein was nominally ruled by Zweibrücken as a French fief, but was de facto ruled by the Kingdom of France.
Vauban, the French marshall, expanded its fortress. The fortress was again expanded in 1815 but was demolished in 1872 by Germans, it was formally annexed by France with the Palatinate-Zweibrücken and was part of the Bas-Rhin department in 1801. Thereafter it has shared the fate of Alsace since 1801. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Altwiller is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Altwillerois or Altwilleroises Altwiller is located some 20 km south of Sarreguemines on the German border and some 50 km north-east of Nancy; the commune is accessed by the D23 road running east from Vibersviller to the village continuing east to Harskirchen. The D153 road runs through the southern portion of the commune as it runs from the D39 road in the south-west north-east to Harskirchen; the western and northern borders of the commune are the borders between the Bas-Rhin and Moselle departments. As well as Altwiller village there is the hamlet of Chateau Bonnefontaine in the south of the commune; the Canal des Houllietes de la Satre passes along the southern border of the commune. The Rose stream passes near the village flowing west from Moselle to the Albe river forming the northern border of the commune; the northern part of the commune is farmland while the southern part is forested.
Fragments of vases and other Gallo-Roman pieces have been found at Bonnefontaine. The site is located on the salt route. In addition to the two annexes of Neuweyershof and the Bonnefontaine domain the village had in its vicinity a hamlet called Honkesen-Huntzen which has now disappeared. Altwiller was deserted in the 15th century and rebuilt a little in 1559 by Huguenots from Lorraine, it was destroyed again in 1635 by the Croatians became the property of Sarrewerden of Nassau-Saarbrücken with the capital of the Bailiwick of Harskirchen. The village returned to France in 1793. List of Successive Mayors of Altwiller In 2009, the commune had 422 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has many buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Protestant Church.
There are several items in the church that are registered as historical objects: The Organ The Furniture in the Church A Communion Ewer A Baptismal Ewer The Protestant Presbytery The Lutheran Presbytery The Cemetery at RD 23. The movable items in the cemetery are registered as historical objects. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Altwiller on the old National Geographic Institute website Altwiller on Lion1906 Altwiller on Google Maps Altwiller on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aiweiller on the 1750 Cassini Map Altwiller on the INSEE website INSEE
Belmont is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Aschbach is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aschbachoises. Aschbach is located some 13 km south by south-east of Wissembourg and 8 km east of Soultz-sous-Forêts. Access to the commune is by the D245 road from Stundwiller in the south passing through the village and continuing north to Seebach. With exception of a small band of forest on the western border the commune is farmland; the Seebach river forms the eastern border of the commune as it flows south to join the Seltzbach at Buhl. An unnamed stream rises in the centre of the commune and flows south-east through the village to join the Seebach on the south-eastern border. In the 14th century Aschbach was the property of the Diocese of Speyer. Under the Ancien Régime Aschbach and Oberroedern formed the Superior Court with their church at Stundwiller; these three villages were merged in 1974 but Aschbach was separated again in 1988. According to the cadastral plan of 1839 there were buildings built close together and other places which were marshlands.
The school was built in 1833, an oratory at a place called Kreutzfeld dates to 1864, the church was built in 1871. The village suffered terrible damage in the Second World War and reconstruction gave the village a new look with a larger and more open built-up area; the presbytery was built in 1950. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 667 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Aschbach has four registrations as historical monuments; these are: Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception Farmhouse at 19 Grand Rue House and Farms The Village The Church of the Immaculate Conception has many items which are registered as historical objects. These are: 2 Monstrances Monstrance Cross: Christ on the cross Painting: Saint Joseph with the child Jesus 10 Statues of Saints Pulpit, 2 Confessionals, Baptismal fonts 3 Altars, 3 Tabernacles, 3 Retables, church stall, half-height panelling Furniture in the Church Wayside cross: Christ on the cross at Hohlacker Inside the Church Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Aschbach, Bas-Rhin on Lion1906 Aschbach on the National Geographical Institute website Aschbach on Google Maps Aschbach on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Asbach on the 1750 Cassini Map Aschbach on the INSEE website INSEE
Saverne is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It is situated on the Rhine-Marne canal at the foot of a pass over the Vosges Mountains, 45 km N. W. of Strasbourg. In 2006, Saverne had a total population of 11,907, its metropolitan area, of 17,482. Saverne (Tres Tabernae Cesaris was an important place in the time of the Roman Empire, after being destroyed by the Alamanni, was rebuilt by the emperor Julian. During the German Peasants' War the town was occupied, in 1525, by the insurgents, who were driven out in their turn by Duke Anton of Lorraine, it suffered much from the ravages of the Thirty Years' War, but the episcopal palace destroyed, was subsequently rebuilt, in 1852 was converted by Louis Napoleon into a place of residence for widows of knights of the Legion of Honour. Saverne was conquered by Imperial Germany after the Franco-Prussian War, it was returned to French control after World War I. In 1913, the city was the theater of the infamous "Saverne Affair".
This event gave rise to the term Zabernism, meaning abuse of military authority, or unwarranted aggression. The emblem of the town is a unicorn. Legend has it, it is more that a narwhal's tooth was discovered and mistaken for a unicorn's horn. However, it gave its name to the Karlsbräu brewery making it, its principal building, the Rohan Castle, is the former residence of the bishops of Strasbourg, rebuilt by Cardinal de Rohan in 1779, it was used by the Germans as barracks. It now houses the city museum with its large archeological collection of Roman and Celtic artifacts, a hostel, a small arts and crafts museum as well as the collection of 20th century and ethnological art donated by feminist journalist and politician Louise Weiss. Other sights include the 15th century former castle and the adjacent 15th century Roman Catholic parish church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Nativité with fine stained glass and sculptures. In the vicinity are the ruined castles of Haut-Barr, Grand Geroldseck and Greifenstein.
Hence a beautiful road, immortalized by Goethe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, leads across the Vosges to Pfalzburg. The mountain pass contains a vast botanical garden, the Jardin botanique du col de Saverne. Saverne is known for its famous Rose Garden, locally known as La roseraie, it is the host of the International Contest of New Roses every year. The Garden itself blesses visitors with over 550 varieties of roses. An old semaphore tower, relief of the former Landau to Paris semaphore line, can be seen in the vicinity, it was one of the 50 stations built by the first French Empire on this line, the second of this kind in France. Paul Acker, author of popular novels Émile Blessig -politician Jacques-Frédéric and François Joseph Français and mathematicians of the revolutionary era Robert Heitz, politician and art critic and French resistance Louis François Marie Auguste Knoepffler, timber merchant, Mayor of Saverne and a member of the Landtag Loïc Lambour, artist photographer Venerable Francis Libermann, the son of the Chief Rabbi of Saverne.
He converted to Catholicism in 1826 and became known as "The Second Founder of The Holy Ghost Fathers". Erich Mercker and speed skater Franz Xaver Murschhauser and organist Gérard Oberlé, writer and bibliographer Georges Reeb, mathematician Dieprand von Richthofen, President of the Senate to the Court of the Reich and anti-Semitic policy Adrien Zeller, French politician Neighboring communes: Altenheim - Dettwiller - Eckartswiller - Ernolsheim-lès-Saverne - Friedolsheim – Furchhausen – Gottenhouse – Gottesheim – Haegen – Hattmatt – Landersheim – Lupstein– Maennolsheim – Monswiller – Ottersthal – Otterswiller – Printzheim – Reinhardsmunster – Saessolsheim – Saint-Jean-Saverne – Steinbourg – Thal-Marmoutier – Waldolwisheim – Westhouse-Marmoutier – Wolschheim - Marmoutier Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Official website