The boondocks is an American expression that stems from the Tagalog word bundok. It originally referred to a rural area, but now it is often applied to an out-of-the-way city or town considered backward. It can designate a mountain, or a town in rural Hertfordshire. The expression was introduced to English by U. S. military personnel fighting in the Philippine–American War and it derives from the Tagalog word bundok, which means mountain. According to military historian Paul A. Kramer, the term originally had connotations of bewilderment and confusion, equivalent terms include the Spanish-derived probinsiya and the Cebuano term bukid. When used generally, the term refers to a rustic or uncivilized area, when referring to people, it acquires a derogatory connotation of a stereotype of unsophisticated and illiterate country people. The term has evolved into American slang used to refer to the countryside or any implicitly isolated rural/wilderness area, regardless of topography or vegetation. Similar slang or colloquial words are the sticks, the wops, the chodes, the backblocks, or Woop Woop in Australia and New Zealand, bundu in South Africa, and out in the tules in California.
The diminutive boonies can be heard in films about the Vietnam War such as Brian De Palmas Casualties of War used by American soldiers to designate areas of Vietnam. Down in the Boondocks is a 1965 hit Billy Joe Royal song written and it tells the story of a young man who laments that people put him down because he was born in the boondocks. He is in love with the mans daughter and vows to work slavishly until, one day, he can move from this old shack. Throughout the song, he asks that the Lord have mercy on the boy from down in the boondocks, podunk Hinterland Yokel Hillbilly Jíbaro Middle of nowhere Waikikamukau
History of colonialism
The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time. The Spanish and Portuguese empires were the first global empires because they were the first to stretch across different continents, the phrase the empire on which the sun never sets was first used for the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, France, the end of the 18th and early 19th century saw the first era of decolonization, when most of the European colonies in the Americas gained their independence from their respective metropoles. In 1999, Portugal gave up the last of Europes colonies in Asia, Macau, to China, European colonization of both Eastern and Western Hemispheres has its roots in Portuguese exploration. There were financial and religious motives behind this exploration, by finding the source of the lucrative spice trade, the Portuguese could reap its profits for themselves. The first foothold outside of Europe was gained with the conquest of Ceuta in 1415, Portuguese successes led to Spanish financing of a mission by Christopher Columbus in 1492 to explore an alternative route to Asia, by sailing west.
When Columbus eventually made landfall in the Caribbean Antilles he believed he had reached the coast of India, but had in fact discovered a new continent, the Americas. The two by now global empires, which had set out from opposing directions, had met on the other side of the world. During the 16th century the Portuguese continued to press both eastwards and westwards into the Oceans, the Roman Catholic Church played a large role in Spanish and Portuguese overseas activities. The Dominicans and Franciscans, notably Francis Xavier in Asia, due to the massive depletion of indigenous labour, plantation owners had to look elsewhere for manpower for these labour-intensive crops. From its very outset, Western colonialism was operated as a joint public-private venture, in May 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Kozhikode in Kerala, making them the first Europeans to sail to India. Rivalry among reigning European powers saw the entry of the Dutch, French, the kingdoms of India were gradually taken over by the Europeans and indirectly controlled by puppet rulers.
In 1600, Queen Elizabeth I accorded a charter, forming the East India Company to trade with India, the English landed in India in Surat in 1612. By the 19th century, they had assumed direct and indirect control over most of India, during the five decades following 1770, France and Portugal lost many of their possessions in the Americas. A standing army was formed by the United Colonies, and independence was declared by the Second Continental Congress on 4 July 1776, the Patriots fought the British in the American Revolutionary War. The tensions caused by this would lead to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the American War of Independence continued until 1783, when the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognised the sovereignty of the United States over the bounded by the British possessions to the North, Florida to the South. The Haitian Revolution, a revolt led by Toussaint LOuverture in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, established Haïti as a free, black republic
A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities.
In his book and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses.
Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia. Culturally, the Outback is deeply ingrained in Australian heritage, early European exploration of inland Australia was sporadic. More focus was on the more accessible and fertile coastal areas, the first party to successfully cross the Blue Mountains just outside Sydney was led by Gregory Blaxland in 1813,25 years after the colony was established. This contrasts with the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition in 1860–61 which was better funded. The Overland Telegraph line was constructed in the 1870s along the route identified by Stuart, mineral exploration continues as new mineral deposits are identified and developed. While the early explorers used horses to cross the outback, the first woman to make the riding a horse was Anna Hingley. The paucity of land use has led to the Outback being recognised globally as one of the largest remaining. The savanna of northern Australia are the largest, intact savanna regions in the world, in the south, the Great Western Woodlands, which occupy 16,000,000 hectares, an area larger than all of England, are the largest remaining temperate woodland left on Earth.
Reflecting the wide climatic and geological variation, the Outback contains a wealth of distinctive, the Australian Outback is full of very important well-adapted wildlife, although much of it may not be immediately visible to the casual observer. Many animals, such as red kangaroos and dingoes, hide in bushes to rest, birdlife is prolific, most often seen at waterholes at dawn and dusk. Huge flocks of budgerigars, cockatoos and galahs are often sighted, on bare ground or roads during the winter, various species of snakes and lizards bask in the sun, but they are rarely seen during the summer months. Feral animals such as camels thrive in central Australia, brought to Australia by pastoralists and explorers, feral horses known as brumbies are station horses that have run wild. Feral pigs, foxes and rabbits are other imported animals that degrade the environment, so time, the Outback is home to a diverse set of animal species, such as the kangaroo and dingo. The Dingo Fence was built to restrict dingo movements into agricultural areas towards the south east of the continent, the marginally fertile parts are primarily utilised as rangelands and have been traditionally used for sheep or cattle grazing, on cattle stations which are leased from the Federal Government.
While small areas of the outback consist of soils the majority has exceedingly infertile palaeosols. Riversleigh, in Queensland, is one of Australias most renowned fossil sites and was recorded as a World Heritage site in 1994, the 100 km2 area contains fossil remains of ancient mammals and reptiles of Oligocene and Miocene age. The largest industry across the Outback, in terms of the occupied, is pastoralism, in which cattle, sheep. Capitalizing on the lack of improvement and absence of fertiliser and pesticide use
She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics, as Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism. A research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959, Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition and she became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation, flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies and she narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in 1984. Thatcher was re-elected for a term in 1987. During this period her support for a Community Charge was widely unpopular and she resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership.
After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a peerage as Baroness Thatcher which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. After a series of strokes in 2002, she was advised to withdraw from public speaking. Despite this, she managed to pre-record a eulogy to Ronald Reagan prior to his death, in 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has described as one of the greatest and most influential politicians in British history. Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda Roberts on 13 October 1925, in Grantham and her father was Alfred Roberts, originally from Northamptonshire, and her mother was Beatrice Ethel from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops, Prior to the Second World War, in 1938 the Roberts family gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl escaping Nazi Germany. Thatcher was to describe this in her memoirs as among the significant events of her formative years, Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher, and brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.
He came from a Liberal family but stood as an Independent and he was Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement, her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals and walking. She was head girl in 1942–43, in her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at Somerville College, but she was initially rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew. Her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin, even while working on chemistry, she was already thinking towards law and politics
Chancellor of the Exchequer
The office is a British Cabinet-level position. The chancellor is responsible for all economic and financial matters, equivalent to the role of Secretary of the Treasury or Minister of Finance in other nations. The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State, the Chancellor of the Exchequer is now always Second Lord of the Treasury as one of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. Formerly, in cases when the Chancellorship was vacant, the Lord Chief Justice of the Kings Bench would act as Chancellor pro tempore, the last Lord Chief Justice to serve in this way was Lord Denman in 1834. The earliest surviving records which are the results of the audit, date from 1129–30 under King Henry I. The Chancellor controlled monetary policy as well as fiscal policy until 1997, the Chancellor has oversight of public spending across Government departments. The current Chancellor of the Exchequer is Philip Hammond and he is entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can.
The Chancellor has considerable control over other departments as it is the Treasury which sets Departmental Expenditure Limits, the amount of power this gives to an individual Chancellor depends on his personal forcefulness, his status within his party and his relationship with the Prime Minister. Gordon Brown, who became Chancellor when Labour came into Government in 1997, had a personal power base in the party. One part of the Chancellors key roles involves the framing of the annual year budget, as of 2017, the first is the Autumn Budget, known as Budget Day which forecasts government spending in the next financial year and announces new financial measures. The second is a Spring Statement, known as a mini-Budget, britains tax year has retained the old Julian end of year,24 March /5 April. From 1993, the Budget was in spring, preceded by an annual autumn statement. This was called Pre-Budget Report, the Autumn Statement usually took place in November or December. The 1997,2001,2002,2003,2006,2007,2008,2012 and 2016 Budgets were all delivered on a Wednesday, although the Bank of England is responsible for setting interest rates, the Chancellor plays an important part in the monetary policy structure.
He sets the target which the Bank must set interest rates to meet. Under the Bank of England Act 1998 the Chancellor has the power of appointment of four out of nine members of the Banks Monetary Policy Committee – the so-called external members. The Act provides that the Government has the power to give instructions to the Bank on interest rates for a period in extreme circumstances. This power has never officially used. At HM Treasury the Chancellor is supported by a team of four junior ministers
Secretary of State for Defence
Her Majestys Principal Secretary of State for Defence is an official within Her Majestys Government and head of the Ministry of Defence. The office is a British Cabinet level position, the post was created in 1964 as successor to the posts of Minister for Coordination of Defence and Minister of Defence. The position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence was a British Cabinet-level position established in 1936 to oversee, the position was established by Prime Minister Baldwin in response to criticism that Britains armed forces were understrength compared to those of Nazi Germany. Despite this, Baldwins choice of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip provoked widespread astonishment, a famous comment made in response to Inskips appointment was This is the most cynical appointment since Caligula made his horse a consul. In 1939 Inskip was succeeded by First Sea Lord Lord Chatfield, in April 1940 the position was formally wound up and the functions transferred to other Ministers. Colour key, Conservative none The post of Minister of Defence was responsible for co-ordination of defence, the post was a Cabinet level post and generally ranked above the three service ministers, some of whom, continued to serve in Cabinet.
On his appointment as Prime Minister in May 1940, Winston Churchill created for himself the new post of Minister of Defence, the post was created in response to previous criticism that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of World War II. Colour key, Conservative Labour Labour Co-op none The post of Secretary of State for Defence was created on 1 April 1964
Midwestern United States
It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Columbus, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States.
A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation.
The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave states
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.
However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party.
The Prime Minister acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the Sovereign
As social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000.
To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million people
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping originally referred to transport by sea, but is extended in American English to refer to transport by land or air as well, logistics, a term borrowed from the military environment, is fashionably used in the same sense. Land or ground shipping can be by train or by truck, ground transport is typically more affordable than air, but more expensive than sea especially in developing countries like India and Pakistan, where inland infrastructure is not efficient. Shipment of cargo by trucks, directly from the place to the destination, is known as a door to door shipment. Trucks and trains make deliveries to sea and air ports where cargo is moved in bulk, much shipping is done by actual ships. An individual nations fleet and the people that crew it are referred to as its merchant navy or merchant marine, merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide.
On rivers and canals, barges are used to carry bulk cargo. Cargo was transported by air in specialized cargo aircraft and in the compartments of passenger aircraft. Air freight is typically the fastest mode for long distance freight transport, intermodal freight transport refers to shipments that involve more than one mode. More specifically it refers to the use of intermodal shipping containers that are easily transferred between ship and truck. Common trading terms used in shipping goods internationally include, Free on board –the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location. For example, FOB JNPT means that the exporter delivers the goods to the Jawahar lal Nehru Port and this term declares that where the responsibility of shipper ends and that of buyer starts. The exporter is bound to deliver the goods at his cost, in this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic are borne by the importer. Most of the governments ask their exporters to trade on these terms to promote their exports worldwide such as India, many of the shipping carriers offer guarantees on their delivery times.
These are known as GSR guarantees or guaranteed service refunds, if the parcels are not delivered on time, carriage and freight, Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. For example, at CIF Los Angeles, the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles including the insurance of cargo and this states that responsibility of the shipper ends at the Los Angeles port. The term best way generally implies that the shipper will choose the carrier who offers the lowest rate for the shipment. In some cases, other factors, such as insurance or faster transit time will cause the shipper to choose an option other than the lowest bidder
He was a Member of Parliament for 40 years and was the last surviving member of the cabinet formed by Harold Wilson after the Labour Partys victory in the 1964 general election. A major figure in the party, he was defeated in bids for the party leadership. To the public at large, Healey became well known for his bushy eyebrows, Denis Winston Healey was born in Mottingham, but moved with his family to Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire when he was aged five. His parents were Winifred Mary and William Healey and his middle name was in honour of Winston Churchill. Healey was one of two siblings and his father was an engineer who worked his way up from humble origins, studying at night school and eventually becoming head of a trade school. His paternal grandfather was a tailor from Enniskillen in Northern Ireland, early Healey was educated at Bradford Grammar School. In 1936, he won a scholarship to Balliol College. He there became involved in Labour politics, although he was not active in the Oxford Union Society, while at Oxford, Healey joined the Communist Party in 1937 during the Great Purge, but left in 1940 after the Fall of France.
At Oxford, Healey met future Prime Minister Edward Heath, whom he succeeded as president of Balliol College Junior Common Room, Healey achieved a double first degree, awarded in 1940. After graduation, Healey served in the Second World War as a gunner in the Royal Artillery but was commissioned as a lieutenant in April 1941. He was made an MBE in 1945 and he left the service with the rank of major. He became secretary of the department of the Labour Party, becoming a foreign policy adviser to Labour leaders. He was an opponent of the Communist Party at home. From 1948 to 1960 he was a councillor for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and he was a member of the Fabian Society executive from 1954 until 1961. Healey met Hans von Herwarth, the ex soldier Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin, the conference included other leading British decisionmakers like Richard Crossman and the journalist Robin Day. Healey was elected to the House of Commons as MP for Leeds South East at a by-election in February 1952, following constituency boundary changes, he was elected for Leeds East at the 1955 general election, holding that seat until he retired as an MP in 1992.
He was a moderate on the right during the series of splits in the Labour Party in the 1950s and he was a supporter and friend of Hugh Gaitskell. He persuaded Gaitskell to temper his support for British military action in 1956 when the Suez Canal was seized by the Nasser regime in Egypt