Lauryn Noelle Hill is an American singer and rapper, known for being a member of Fugees and for her solo album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, which won many awards and broke several sales records. Raised in South Orange, New Jersey, Hill began singing with her music-oriented family during her childhood. In high school, Hill was approached by Pras Michel for a band he started, which his friend, Wyclef Jean, soon joined, they renamed themselves the Fugees and released the albums Blunted on Reality, the Grammy Award–winning The Score, which sold six million copies in the U. S. Hill rose to prominence with her African-American and Caribbean music influences, her rapping and singing, her rendition of the hit "Killing Me Softly", her tumultuous romantic relationship with Jean led to the split of the band in 1997, after which she began to focus on solo projects. The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill remains Hill's only solo studio album, it received critical acclaim, showcasing a representation of life and relationships and locating a contemporary voice within the neo soul genre.
The album debuted at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200 and has sold eight million copies there, it included the singles "Doo Wop", "Ex-Factor", "Everything Is Everything". At the 41st Grammy Awards, the record earned her five awards, including Album of the Year and Best New Artist. During this time she became a common sight on the cover of magazines. Soon afterward, Hill dropped out of the public eye, dissatisfied with the music industry and suffering with the pressures of fame, her last full-length recording, the new-material live album MTV Unplugged No. 2.0 divided critics and sold poorly compared to her first album and work with the Fugees. Hill's subsequent activity, which includes the release of a few songs and occasional festival appearances, has been sporadic, her behavior has sometimes caused audience dissatisfaction. Her music, as well as a series of public statements she has issued, have become critical to pop culture and societal institutions. Hill has six children. In 2012, she pleaded guilty to tax evasion for failure to pay federal income taxes and, in 2013, served a three-month prison sentence.
Lauryn Noelle Hill was born on May 26, 1975, in East Orange, New Jersey to English teacher Valerie Hill and computer and management consultant Mal Hill. She has one older brother named Malaney, her Baptist family moved to New York and Newark for short periods before settling in South Orange, New Jersey. Hill has said of her musically oriented family: "there were so many records, so much music being played. My mother played piano, my father sang, we were always surrounded in music." Her father sang at weddings. While growing up, Hill listened to Curtis Mayfield, Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin, Gladys Knight. In middle school, Lauryn Hill performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" before a basketball game. Due to its popularity, subsequent games featured a recording of her rendition. In 1988, Hill appeared, she sang her own version of the Smokey Robinson track "Who's Lovin' You", garnering an harsh reaction from the crowd. She persevered, though she cried off-stage. Hill attended Columbia High School, where she was a member of the track team, cheerleading squad and was a classmate of actor Zach Braff.
She took violin lessons, went to dance class, founded the school's gospel choir. Academically, she received primarily'A' grades. School officials recognized her as a leader among the student body. Recalling her education, Hill commented, "I had a love for—I don't know if it was for academics, more than it just was for achieving, period. If it was academics, if it was sports, if it was music, if it was dance, whatever it was, I was always driven to do a lot in whatever field or whatever area I was focusing on at the moment."While a freshman in high school, through mutual friends, Prakazrel "Pras" Michel approached Hill about a music group he was creating. Hill and Pras began under the name Tranzlator Crew, chosen because they wanted to rhyme in different languages. Another female vocalist was soon replaced by multi-instrumentalist Wyclef Jean; the group began performing in high school talent shows. Hill was only a singer, but learned to rap too. Hill said, "I remember doing my homework in the bathroom stalls of hip-hop clubs."While growing up, Hill took acting lessons in Manhattan.
She began her acting career in 1991, appearing with Jean in Club XII, MC Lyte's Off-Broadway hip-hop rendering of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. While the play was not a success, an agent noticed her; that year, Hill began appearing on the soap opera As the World Turns in a recurring role as troubled teenager Kira Johnson. She subsequently co-starred alongside Whoopi Goldberg in the 1993 release Sister Act 2: Back in the Habit, playing Rita Louise Watson, an inner-city Catholic school teenager with a surly, rebellious attitude. In it, she performed the songs "His Eye Is on the Sparrow" and "Joyful, Joyful". Director Bill Duke credited Hill with improvising a rap in a scene: "None of, scripted; that was all Laury
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe. Douglass wrote several autobiographies, he described his experiences as a slave in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a bestseller, was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War.
Douglass actively supported women's suffrage, held several public offices. Without his approval, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee of Victoria Woodhull, on the Equal Rights Party ticket. Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American, or recent immigrant, he was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, in the liberal values of the U. S. Constitution; when radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass' willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, Maryland. The plantation was between Cordova; the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14.
In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it."Douglass was of mixed race, which included Native American and African on his mother's side, as well as European. His father was "almost white," as shown by historian David W. Blight in his 2018 biography of Douglass, he said his mother. After escaping to the North years he took the surname Douglass, having dropped his two middle names, he wrote of his earliest times with his mother: The opinion was... whispered that my master was my father. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant... It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a early age.... I do not recollect seeing my mother by the light of day.... She would lie down with me, get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After this early separation from his mother, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey.
At the age of six, he was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. Douglass's mother died. After Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore, he felt himself lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were freemen, compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about twelve, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another". Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, by observing the writings of the men with whom he worked.
Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself how to write. He often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom." As Douglass began to read newspapers, political materials, books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator, an anthology that he discovered at about age twelve, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights; the book, first published in 1797, is a classroom reader, containing essays and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly Sunday school; as word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went unnoticed. While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated.
One Sunday they burst i
Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans enjoyed. With roots that dated back to the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection for all Americans. After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had been enslaved.
For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were deprived of civil rights under Jim Crow laws, subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal and local governments and communities had to respond to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country; the lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama. Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters; the Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, across the country young people were inspired to take action. From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations; the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community.
Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership. However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy. Before the American Civil War four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment that ended slavery. From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U. S. Army, U. S. Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts; some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage and suppressing black voters, assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to ge
Snap! are a German Eurodance group formed in 1989 by producers Michael Münzing and Luca Anzilotti. The act has been through a number of line-up changes over the years, their best known hits are "The Power" and "Rhythm Is a Dancer" both of which took the Number 1 spot in multiple countries. Luca Anzilotti and Michael Münzing started working together in 1985 in the group Off with Sven Väth, they recorded two albums, Organisation For Fun and Ask Yourself, a series of singles, including "Electrica Salsa", until 1990. The two created the side project 16 BIT in 1986 and had a big success with their first single "Where Are You?". In 1987, they released the album Inaxycvgtgb for BMG. Michael Münzing and Luca Anzilotti formed Snap! in 1989 under the aliases Benito Benites and John "Virgo" Garrett III, as they thought that the public had negative preconceived ideas of German music. Their first hit "The Power", fronted by rapper Turbo B. and American singer Penny Ford, peaked at No.2 in Germany in April 1990 and spent five weeks in that position going Gold for sales of 250,000 units.
The single topped the charts in the United Kingdom, picked up a Silver-award for sales of 200,000 units. In the U. S. it reached No.2 on the Billboard Hot 100, was certified Platinum for 1,000,000 units. Jackie Harris was used to mime Penny Ford's voice in the video "The Power" and left the group shortly after and Penny Ford became its full-time lead singer, recording the second single "Ooops Up", a re-working of "I Don't Believe You Want to Get Up and Dance", a 1980 hit by The Gap Band, with which Penny was a former backing singer; the song "Oops Up" was another No. 2 hit in Germany. The single entered the top-5 in the UK picking up another Silver-award, it was awarded a Gold certification in the U. S. Further hits followed with the oriental-sounding "Cult of Snap", which charted at No.3 in Germany and No.8 in the UK, "Mary Had a Little Boy", which charted at No.4 in Germany, again No.8 in the UK. Their first album World Power reached No.7 in Germany, No.10 in the UK and No.30 in the U. S; the album received Platinum in Germany, Gold in the UK and the U.
S. In 1991, after American singer, composer and dancer Thea Austin joined the line-up and helped to write "Rhythm Is a Dancer", planned to be the lead single from the second album but was pushed back to be the second single from the second album; the first single, "Colour of Love" managed to peak at No.9 at Snap!'s home of Germany, but did poorly in the UK peaking at No.54 only. "Rhythm Is a Dancer" was released as the second single in July 1992 which uses a sample from the song "Automan" by early-80s American electronic hip-hop band Newcleus, it went on to become their biggest hit yet. The single shot to No.1 in Germany, the UK, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium. In the U. S. it peaked at No.5 collecting another Gold for sales of 500,000 units. At home in Germany, the single went Platinum for 500,000 units, picked up a Gold in the UK for sales of 400,000 units; the third single "Exterminate" from the second album, which charted at No.3 in Germany and No.2 in the UK, was awarded with a Gold certification in Germany.
Despite that the second album, The Madman's Return did well in the charts, peaking at No.3 in Germany and entering a Top-10 in the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland, Turbo B decided to leave the project due to disagreements with the act's producers. The album went Gold in Germany and the UK, for sales of 250,000 units and 100,000 units respectively. Follow-up singles "Exterminate" and "Do You See the light?" Featured Niki Haris, a professional vocalist known for her long-time work with Madonna, on lead vocals. The producers, Münzing and Anzilotti recruited Washington, D. C.-born American singer Summer to front the act for the third album. Summer was born Paula Brown and had worked as a dancer in the TV series Fame and in the Spike Lee movie, School Daze. Snap! moved towards a progressive house sound and released their first single called "Welcome to Tomorrow" in September 1994. The single peaked at No.4 in Germany, No.6 in the UK and was followed by the album titled Welcome to Tomorrow. The second single "The First the Last Eternity" was a moderate hit in the UK, but managed to climb as high as No.7 in Germany.
Snap! Released two more singles from the album "World in My Hands" and "Rame", both of which experienced a moderate chart entries. In 1996 the group was disbanded releasing a greatest hits compilation called Snap! Attack: The Best of Snap!. The album included a new version of their first hit "The Power'96" and "Rhythm Is a Dancer'96". However, the act made a surprising return in 2000 with a track entitled "Gimme a Thrill", complete with a rap performed by Turbo B. and vocal from the band's newest singer Maxayn. It peaked only at No. 11 in the German Dance Charts. A new version of "Do You See the Light" remixed by Plaything was released in 2002; the following year, a remixed album, The Cult of Snap! was released and re-worked singles were issued. "Rhythm Is a Dancer 2003" peaked at No. 7 in Germany and No. 17 in the UK, while "The Power" charted moderately in Austria and Denmark. The act released a re-done version of "Oops Up!" which featured vocals by NG3 and managed to enter the Swedish Charts at No. 40 and the German top 100 singles chart at No.
69. Buoyed by the success of the remixes, Münzing and Anzilotti went back into the studio with male singer Damien Behanan known as Loc, released the single "Beauty Queen" in September 2005 through L
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire. King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama, he helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches; the following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing.
In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide. In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971. Hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, a county in Washington State was rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. was dedicated in 2011. King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's given name at birth was Michael King, his father was born Michael King, after a period of gradual transition on the elder King's part, he changed both his and his son's names in 1934; the senior King was inspired during a trip to Germany for that year's meeting of the Baptist World Alliance. While visiting sites associated with reformation leader, Martin Luther, attendees witnessed the rise of Nazism; the BWA conference issued a resolution condemning anti-Semitism, the senior King gained deepened appreciation for the power of Luther's protest.
The elder King would state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth, the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King Jr." in 1957. King's parents were both African-American, he had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather. King was a middle child, between older sister Christine King Farris and younger brother A. D. King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind, he enjoyed singing and music, his mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King became a member of the junior choir in his church. King said that his father whipped him until he was 15. King saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served.
When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home. When the boys were six, they started school: King had to attend a school for African Americans, the other boy went to one for whites. King lost his friend. King suffered from depression through much of his life. In his adolescent years, he felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, his neighbors had to endure in the segregated South. At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived. King was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly." However, he concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School.
He became k
Queen of Sheba
The Queen of Sheba is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for King Solomon; this tale has undergone extensive Jewish and Ethiopian elaborations, has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Orient. Modern historians identify Sheba with the South Arabian kingdom of Saba in present-day Yemen; the queen's existence has not been confirmed by historians. The Queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem "with a great retinue, with camels bearing spices, much gold, precious stones". "Never again came such an abundance of spices" as those she gave to Solomon. She came "to prove him with hard questions,", they exchanged gifts. The use of the term ḥiddot or'riddles', an Aramaic loanword whose shape points to a sound shift no earlier than the sixth century B. C. indicates a late origin for the text. Since there is no mention of the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, Martin Noth has held that the Book of Kings received a definitive redaction around 550 BC.
All modern scholars agree that Sheba was the South Arabian kingdom of Saba, centered around the oasis of Marib, in present-day Yemen. Sheba was quite well known in the classical world, its country was called Arabia Felix. Around the middle of the first millennium B. C. there were Sabaeans in the Horn of Africa, in the area that became the realm of Aksum. There are five places in the Bible where the writer distinguishes Sheba, i. e. the Yemenite Sabaeans, from Seba, i. e. the African Sabaeans. In Ps. 72:10 they are mentioned together: "the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts". This spelling differentiation, may be purely factitious; the alphabetic inscriptions from South Arabia furnish no evidence for women rulers, but Assyrian inscriptions mention Arab queens in the north. Queens are well attested in Arabia, though according to Kitchen, not after 690 B. C. Furthermore, Sabaean tribes knew the title of mqtwyt. Makada or Makueda, the personal name of the queen in Ethiopian legend, might be interpreted as a popular rendering of the title of mqtwyt.
This title may be derived from Ancient Egyptian m'kit "protectress, housewife". The queen's visit could have been a trade mission. Early South Arabian trade with Mesopotamia involving wood and spices transported by camels is attested in the early ninth century B. C. and may have begun as early as the tenth. The ancient Sabaic Awwām Temple, known in folklore as Maḥram Bilqīs, was excavated by archaeologists, but no trace of the Queen of Sheba has been discovered so far in the many inscriptions found there. Bible stories of the Queen of Sheba and the ships of Ophir served as a basis for legends about the Israelites traveling in the Queen of Sheba's entourage when she returned to her country to bring up her child by Solomon. Christian scriptures mention a "queen of the South", who "came from the uttermost parts of the earth", i.e. from the extremities of the known world, to hear the wisdom of Solomon. The mystical interpretation of the Canticles, felt of supplying a literal basis for the speculations of the allegorists, makes its first appearance in Origen, who wrote a voluminous commentary on the Canticles.
In his commentary, Origen identified the bride of the Canticles with the "queen of the South" of the Gospels, i. e. the Queen of Sheba, assumed to have been Ethiopian. Others have proposed either the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter, or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite; the former was the favorite opinion of the mystical interpreters to the end of the 18th century. The bride of the Canticles is assumed to have been black due to a passage in Cant. 1:5, which the Revised Standard Version translates as "I am dark, but comely", as does Jerome, while the New Revised Standard Version has "I am black and beautiful", as the Septuagint. One legend has it that the Queen of Sheba brought Solomon the same gifts that the Magi gave to Christ. During the Middle Ages, Christians sometimes identified the queen of Sheba with the sibyl Sabba. According to Josephus, the queen of Sheba was the queen of Egypt and Ethiopia, brought to Israel the first specimens of the balsam, which grew in the Holy Land in the historian's time.
Josephus represents Cambyses as conquering the capital of Aethiopia, changing its name from Seba to Meroe. Josephus affirms that the Queen of Sheba or Saba came from this region, that it bore the name of Saba before it was known by that of Meroe. There seems some affinity between the word Saba and the name or title of the kings of the Aethiopians, Sabaco; the Talmud insists that it was not a woman but a kingdom of Sheba that came to Jerusalem intended to discredit existing stories about the relations between Solomon and the Queen. Baba Bathra 15b: "Whoever says malkath Sheba means a woman is mistaken; this is explained to
Jeff Chang (journalist)
Jeff Chang is an American journalist and music critic on hip hop music and culture. His 2005 book, Can't Stop Won't Stop, which won the Before Columbus Foundation's American Book Award, chronicles the early hip hop scene, his writings have appeared in publications such as URB, The Bomb, San Francisco Chronicle, the Village Voice, the San Francisco Bay Guardian, Spin, The Nation, Mother Jones. Chang was the Executive Director of the Institute for Diversity in the Arts + Committee on Black Performing Arts at Stanford University. In June 2018, the Institute announced in a press release that Chang will leave to become the first vice president of Narrative and Culture at Race Forward. Chang is of Chinese and Hawaiian descent, he is a 1985 graduate of ʻIolani School, he was a founding member of the Solesides record label while a DJ at a UC Davis college radio station, the home to acts like DJ Shadow and Blackalicious before it was recreated as Quannum Projects without Chang's involvement. Chang's 2007 book, Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop, is an anthology of essays and interviews documenting the impact of hip hop beyond music and the "four elements".
According to its companion website, following the release of Total Chaos, Chang held a series of public panel discussions to further explore the subject. In Chang's 2014 book, entitled Who We Be: The Colorization of America, he moves away from hip hop to focus on "the cultural implications of the new American majority" and "the social history, the cultural influence—and the massive selling—of multiculturalism in America over the last thirty years". Jeff Chang is a native Hawaiian of Chinese descent, he was raised in Hawaii. He graduated from ‘lolani school there, got his bachelor's degree at University of California at Berkeley, went on to get his master's degree in Asian American studies from University of California at Los Angeles. Chang is the executive director of the IDA, Institute for Diversity in the Arts, at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While Chang works at Stanford, his professional career has always revolved around specializing in culture, the arts, music hip-hop. In 1993, Jeff Chang co-founded and ran the indie hip hop label SoleSides, now known as Quannum Projects.
He helped launch the careers of DJ Shadow, Lyrics Born, Lateef the Truth Speaker. Chang sustained the production of over a dozen records, including the "godfathers of gangsta rap" by the Watts Prophets; the anti-apartheid and the anti-racist movement at the University of California at Berkeley politicized Chang and he worked as a community laborer and student organizer. He worked as a lobbyist for the students of the California state University systems. Chang has lectured at dozens of colleges, universities and institutions in the US and around the world. Chang was an organizer of the inaugural National Hip-Hop Political Convention. Chang is a USA Ford Fellow in Literature, has won awards such as the North Star News Prize award, the UTNE Reader award, the St. Clair Drake Teaching Award at Stanford University in 2014 and the 50 Visionaries Changing Your Word award, he has cofounded the ColorLines movements as well. In 2005 he participated in a conversation with Tom Hayden, the social and political activist and director of the Peace and Justice Resource Center in Culver City, California, in the Mario Savio Memorial Lecture.
In 2007 Chang interviewed U. S. President Barack Obama, for the cover of Vibe magazine, he has written for The Nation, The New York Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, The Believer, Foreign Policy, n+1, Mother Jones, Salon and Buzzfeed, among others. In 2005, Picador published his first book, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop, which won the American Book Award and the Asian American Literary Award. Time stated of the book, "Obsessively researched, beautifully written, Chang’s book is the funky bootleg, B-side remix of the late 20th century American history." The Rolling Stone writer Robert Christgau wrote, "Nothing less than the finest rap history extant." And Vibe magazine's review stated, "When hip hop 101 becomes a requirement, Jeff Chang’s history of the turmoil that begat this beloved culture will be the go to textbook." In 2007, he edited the book Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop, a compilation of different artists' interviews and discussions. More Chang authored the book Who We Be: The Colorization of America.
Adam Mansbach said that "Who We Be is essential reading – not this season or this year, but until the audacity of post-racism kicks in. Which won’t be happening anytime soon." And Jelani Cobb stated, "With Who We Be Jeff Chang has emerged as a premier chronicler of the broad and unruly narrative of American culture." Official website Appearances on C-SPAN