Thucydides was an Athenian historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of impartiality and evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the deities, as outlined in his introduction to his work, he has been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as mediated by and constructed upon the emotions of fear and self-interest. His text is still studied at military colleges worldwide; the Melian dialogue is regarded as a seminal work of international relations theory, while his version of Pericles' Funeral Oration is studied by political theorists and students of the classics. More Thucydides developed an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plagues and civil war.
In spite of his stature as a historian, modern historians know little about Thucydides's life. The most reliable information comes from his own History of the Peloponnesian War, which expounds his nationality and native locality. Thucydides says that he fought in the war, contracted the plague, was exiled by the democracy, he may have been involved in quelling the Samian Revolt. Thucydides identifies himself as an Athenian, telling us that his father's name was Olorus and that he was from the Athenian deme of Halimous, he survived the Plague of Athens, which killed many other Athenians. He records that he owned gold mines at Scapte Hyle, a coastal area in Thrace, opposite the island of Thasos; because of his influence in the Thracian region, Thucydides wrote, he was sent as a strategos to Thasos in 424 BC. During the winter of 424–423 BC, the Spartan general Brasidas attacked Amphipolis, a half-day's sail west from Thasos on the Thracian coast, sparking the Battle of Amphipolis. Eucles, the Athenian commander at Amphipolis, sent to Thucydides for help.
Brasidas, aware the presence of Thucydides on Thasos and his influence with the people of Amphipolis, afraid of help arriving by sea, acted to offer moderate terms to the Amphipolitans for their surrender, which they accepted. Thus, when Thucydides arrived, Amphipolis was under Spartan control. Amphipolis was of considerable strategic importance, news of its fall caused great consternation in Athens, it was blamed on Thucydides, although he claimed that it was not his fault and that he had been unable to reach it in time. Because of his failure to save Amphipolis, he was exiled: I lived through the whole of it, being of an age to comprehend events, giving my attention to them in order to know the exact truth about them, it was my fate to be an exile from my country for twenty years after my command at Amphipolis. Using his status as an exile from Athens to travel among the Peloponnesian allies, he was able to view the war from the perspective of both sides. Thucydides claimed that he began writing his history as soon as the war broke out, because he thought it would be one of the greatest wars waged among the Greeks in terms of scale:Thucydides, an Athenian, wrote the history of the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, beginning at the moment that it broke out, believing that it would be a great war, more worthy of relation than any that had preceded it.
This is all that Thucydides wrote about his own life, but a few other facts are available from reliable contemporary sources. Herodotus wrote that the name Olorus, Thucydides's father's name, was connected with Thrace and Thracian royalty. Thucydides was connected through family to the Athenian statesman and general Miltiades and his son Cimon, leaders of the old aristocracy supplanted by the Radical Democrats. Cimon's maternal grandfather's name was Olorus, making the connection quite likely. Another Thucydides lived before the historian and was linked with Thrace, making a family connection between them likely as well. Combining all the fragmentary evidence available, it seems that his family had owned a large estate in Thrace, one that contained gold mines, which allowed the family considerable and lasting affluence; the security and continued prosperity of the wealthy estate must have necessitated formal ties with local kings or chieftains, which explains the adoption of the distinctly Thracian royal name Óloros into the family.
Once exiled, Thucydides took permanent residence in the estate and, given his ample income from the gold mines, he was able to dedicate himself to full-time history writing and research, including many fact-finding trips. In essence, he was a well-connected gentleman of considerable resources who, after involuntarily retiring from the political and military spheres, decided to fund his own historical investigations; the remaining evidence for Thucydides' life comes from and rather less reliable ancient sources. According to Pausanias, someone named Oenobius had a law passed allowing Thucydides to return to Athens shortly after the city's surrender and the end of the war in 404 BC. Pausanias goes on to say that Thucydides was murdered on his way back to Athens, placing his tomb near the Melite gate. Many doubt this
Lemnos is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Lemnos regional unit, part of the North Aegean region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Myrina. At 477.583 square kilometres, it is the 8th-largest island of Greece. Lemnos is flat, but the west, the northwest part, is rough and mountainous; the highest point is Mount Skopia at the altitude of 430 m. The chief towns are Myrina, on the western coast, Moudros on the eastern shore of a large bay in the middle of the island. Myrina possesses a good harbour, in the process of being upgraded through construction of a west-facing sea wall, it is the seat of all trade carried on with the mainland. The hillsides afford pasture for sheep, Lemnos has a strong husbandry tradition, being famous for its Kalathaki Limnou, a cheese made from sheep and goat milk and melipasto cheese, for its yogurt. Fruit and vegetables that grow on the island include almonds, melons, tomatoes and olives.
The main crops are wheat, sesame. Lemnos produces honey, but, as is the case with most products of a local nature in Greece, the produced quantities are little more than sufficient for the local market. Muscat grapes are grown and are used to produce an unusual table wine, dry yet has a strong Muscat flavor. Since 1985 the variety and quality of Lemnos wines have increased greatly; the climate in Lemnos is Mediterranean. Winters are mild, but there will be a snowfall occasionally. Strong winds are a feature of the island in August and in winter time, hence its nickname "the wind-ridden one"; the temperature is 2 to 5 degrees Celsius less than in Athens in summertime. For ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, who—as he tells himself in Iliad I.590ff—fell on Lemnos when Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus. There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad, or by Thetis, there with a Thracian nymph Cabiro he fathered a tribe called the Kaberoi. Sacred initiatory rites dedicated to them were performed in the island.
Its ancient capital was named Hephaistia in the god's honour. Hephaestus' forge, located on Lemnos, as well as the name Aethaleia, sometimes applied to it, points to its volcanic character, it is said that fire blazed forth from Mosychlos, one of its mountains. The ancient geographer Pausanias relates that a small island called Chryse, off the Lemnian coast, was swallowed up by the sea. All volcanic action is now extinct; the earliest inhabitants are said to have been a Thracian tribe, whom the Greeks called Sintians, "robbers". The name Lemnos is said by Hecataeus to have been applied in the form of a title to Cybele among the Thracians; the worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, where it had spread from Asia Minor at a early period. Hypsipyle and Myrina are Amazon names. According to the epitome of the Bibliotheke traditionally attributed to Apollodorus, when Dionysus found Ariadne abandoned on Naxos, he brought her to Lemnos and there fathered Thoas, Staphylus and Peparethus. Pliny the Elder in his Natural History speaks of a remarkable labyrinth in Lemnos, which has not been identified in modern times.
According to a Hellenic legend, the women were all deserted by their husbands for Thracian women, in revenge they murdered every man on the island. From this barbarous act, the expression Lemnian deeds became proverbial among the Hellenes. According to Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica the Argonauts landing soon after found only women in the island, ruled by Hypsipyle, daughter of the old king Thoas. From the Argonauts and the Lemnian women were descended the race called Minyans, whose king Euneus, son of Jason and Hypsipyle, sent wine and provisions to the Achaeans at Troy. According to Greek historians, the Minyans were expelled by a Pelasgian tribe who came from Attica; the historical element underlying these traditions is that the original Thracian people were brought into communication with the Greeks as navigation began to unite the scattered islands of the Aegean. In another legend, Philoctetes was left on Lemnos by the Greeks on their way to Troy. According to Sophocles, he lived beside Mount Hermaeus, which Aeschylus makes one of the beacon points to flash the news of Troy's downfall home to Argos.
The ruins of the oldest human settlement in the Aegean Islands found so far have been unearthed in archaeological excavations on Lemnos by a team of Greek and American archaeologists at the Ouriakos site on the Louri coast of Fyssini in Moudros municipality. The excavation began in early June 2009 and the finds brought to light, consisting of high quality stone tools, are from the Epipaleolithic Period, indicating a settlement of hunters and gatherers and fishermen of the 12th millennium BC. A rectangular building with a double row of stepped seats on the long sides, at the southwest side of the hill of Poliochne, dates back to the Early Bronze Age
Hipparchus (son of Peisistratos)
Hipparchus or Hipparch was a member of the ruling class of Athens. He was one of the sons of Peisistratos, he was a tyrant of the city of Athens from 528/7 BC until his assassination by the tyrannicides and Aristogeiton in 514 BC. Hipparchus was said by some Greek authors to have been the tyrant of Athens, along with his brother Hippias, after Peisistratos died, in about 528/7 BC; the word tyrant means "one who takes power by force", as opposed to a ruler who inherited a monarchy or was chosen in some way. It carried no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, according to Thucydides, Hippias was the only'tyrant'. Both Hipparchus and Hippias enjoyed the popular support of the people. Hipparchus was a patron of the arts. In 514 BC Hipparchus was assassinated by the tyrannicides and Aristogeiton; this was a personal dispute, according to Herodotus and Thucydides. Hipparchus had fallen in love with Harmodius, the lover of Aristogeiton. Not only did Harmodius reject him, but humiliated him by telling Aristogeiton of his advances.
Hipparchus invited Harmodius' sister to participate in the Panathenaic Festival as kanephoros only to publicly disqualify her on the grounds that she was not a virgin. Harmodius and Aristogeiton organized a revolt for the Panathenaic Games but they panicked and attacked too early. Although they killed Hipparchus, Harmodius was killed by his bodyguard and Aristogeiton was arrested and killed. According to Thucydides, Hippias ordered the Greeks to lay down their ceremonial arms and had them searched, arresting any found with concealed weapons; this was denied by Aristotle, who said that this story was created by the democratic government in order to impress upon the people how much of a tyrant Hippias was. Aristotle mentions that Aristogeiton was tortured in order to give the names of the conspirators in the plot. Enraged that Hippias hadn't killed him, Aristogeiton offered more names to Hippias in exchange for his hand in pledge; when Hippias put his hand on Aristogeiton's, Aristogeiton berated him for giving his hand to his brother's murderer — at which point Hippias stabbed Aristogeiton in rage.
After the assassination of his brother, Hippias is said to have become a bitter and cruel tyrant, was overthrown a few years in 510 BC by the Spartan king Cleomenes I. Some modern scholars ascribe the tradition that Hipparchus was himself a cruel tyrant to the cult of Harmodius and Aristogeiton established after the downfall of the tyranny. Hipparchus is the namesake and topic of discussion in one of Plato's shorter dialogues, in which Socrates and an unnamed companion attempt to define philokerdes. Hipparchus Inscription at demonax.info
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Themistocles was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of non-aristocratic politicians who rose to prominence in the early years of the Athenian democracy; as a politician, Themistocles was a populist, having the support of lower-class Athenians, being at odds with the Athenian nobility. Elected archon in 493 BC, he convinced the polis to increase the naval power of Athens, a recurring theme in his political career. During the first Persian invasion of Greece he fought at the Battle of Marathon and was one of the ten Athenian strategoi in that battle. In the years after Marathon, in the run-up to the second Persian invasion of 480–479 BC, Themistocles became the most prominent politician in Athens, he continued to advocate for a strong Athenian Navy, in 483 BC he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet of 200 triremes. During the second invasion, he commanded the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480 BC. Due to his subterfuge, the Allies lured the Persian fleet into the Straits of Salamis, the decisive Greek victory there was the turning point of the war.
The invasion was conclusively repulsed the following year after the Persian defeat at the land Battle of Plataea. After the conflict ended, Themistocles continued his pre-eminence among Athenian politicians. However, he aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering the re-fortification of Athens, his perceived arrogance began to alienate him from the Athenians. In 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised, went into exile in Argos; the Spartans now saw an opportunity to destroy Themistocles, implicated him in the alleged treasonous plot of 478 BC of their own general Pausanias. Themistocles thus fled from Greece. Alexander I of Macedon temporarily gave him sanctuary at Pydna before he traveled to Asia Minor, where he entered the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes I, he was made governor of Magnesia, lived there for the rest of his life. Themistocles died in 459 BC of natural causes, his reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian cause. Themistocles can still reasonably be thought of as "the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Greece" from the Persian threat, as Plutarch describes him.
His naval policies would have a lasting impact on Athens as well, since maritime power became the cornerstone of the Athenian Empire and golden age. Thucydides assessed Themistocles as "a man. Themistocles was born in the Attic deme of Phrearrhioi around 524 BC, the son of Neocles, who was, in the words of Plutarch "no conspicuous man", his mother is more obscure. Like many contemporaries, little is known of his early years; some authors report that he was unruly as a child and was disowned by his father. Plutarch considers this to be false. Plutarch indicates that, on account of his mother's background, Themistocles was considered something of an outsider. However, in an early example of his cunning, Themistocles persuaded "well-born" children to exercise with him in Cynosarges, thus breaking down the distinction between "alien and legitimate". Plutarch further reports that Themistocles was preoccupied as a child, with preparing for public life, his teacher is said to have told him: "My boy, you will be nothing insignificant, but something great, either for good or evil."
Themistocles left three sons by Archippe, daughter to Lysander of Alopece: Archeptolis and Cleophantus. Plato the philosopher mentions Cleophantus as a most excellent horseman, but otherwise insignificant person, and Themistocles had two sons older than these three and Diocles. Neocles died when he was young by the bite of a horse, Diocles was adopted by his grandfather, Lysander. Themistocles had many daughters, of whom Mnesiptolema, whom he had by a second marriage, was wife to Archeptolis, her brother by another mother, became priestess of Cybele. After the death of Themistocles, his nephew, went to Magnesia, married, with her brothers' consent, another daughter and took charge of her sister Asia, the youngest of all ten children. Themistocles grew up in a period of upheaval in Athens; the tyrant Peisistratos had died in 527 BC, passing power to his sons and Hippias. Hipparchus was murdered in 514 BC, in response to this, Hippias became paranoid and started to rely on foreign mercenaries to keep a hold on power.
The head of the powerful, but exiled Alcmaeonid family, began to scheme to overthrow Hippias and return to Athens. In 510 BC, he persuaded the Spartan king Cleomenes I to launch a full-scale attack on Athens, which succeeded in overthrowing Hippias. However, in the aftermath, the other noble families of Athens rejected Cleisthenes, electing Isagoras as archon, with the support of Cleomenes. On a personal level, Cleisthenes wanted to return to Athens.
The Ionian Revolt, associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants and Aristagoras; the cities of Ionia had been conquered by Persia around 540 BC, thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Persian satrap in Sardis. In 499 BC, the tyrant of Miletus, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position; the mission was a debacle, sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great. In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, burnt Sardis. However, on their return journey to Ionia, they were followed by Persian troops, decisively beaten at the Battle of Ephesus.
This campaign was the only offensive action by the Ionians. The Persians responded in 497 BC with a three pronged attack aimed at recapturing the outlying areas of the rebellion, but the spread of the revolt to Caria meant that the largest army, under Daurises, relocated there. While campaigning in Caria, this army was annihilated in an ambush at the Battle of Pedasus; this resulted in a stalemate for the rest of 496 BC and 495 BC. By 494 BC the Persian army and navy had regrouped, they made straight for the epicentre of the rebellion at Miletus; the Ionian fleet sought to defend Miletus by sea, but was decisively beaten at the Battle of Lade, after the defection of the Samians. Miletus was besieged and its population was brought under Persian rule; this double defeat ended the revolt, the Carians surrendered to the Persians as a result. The Persians spent 493 BC reducing the cities along the west coast that still held out against them, before imposing a peace settlement on Ionia, considered to be both just and fair.
The Ionian Revolt constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Persian Empire, as such represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. Although Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, Darius vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the myriad city states of Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, according to Herodotus, Darius decided to conquer the whole of Greece. In 492 BC, the first Persian invasion of Greece, the next phase of the Greco-Persian Wars, began as a direct consequence of the Ionian Revolt; the only primary source for the Ionian Revolt is the Greek historian Herodotus. Herodotus, called the'Father of History', was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, he wrote his'Enquiries' around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been recent history. Herodotus's approach was novel, at least from the point of view of Western society, he does seem to have invented'history' as we know it.
As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally."Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides. Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off, therefore felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as philobarbaros and for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though he remained read. However, since the 19th century his reputation has been rehabilitated by the age of democracy and some archaeological finds which have confirmed his version of events.
The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details should be viewed with skepticism. There are still many historians who believe Herodotus' account has an anti-Persian bias and that much of his story was embellished for dramatic effect. In the dark age that followed the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, significant numbers of Greeks emigrated to Asia Minor and settled there; these settlers were from three tribal groups: the Aeolians and Ionians. The Ionians had settled along the coasts of Lydia and Caria, founding the twelve cities which made up Ionia; these cities were Miletus and Priene in Caria. Although the Ionian cities were independent from each other, they acknowledged their shared heritage, had a common temple and meeting place, the Panionion, they thus formed a'cultural league', to which they would admit no other cities, or other tribal Ionians. The cities of Ionia had remained independent until they were conquered by the famous Lydian king Croesus, i