Way Down East
Way Down East is a 1920 American silent romantic drama film directed by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish, it is one of four film adaptations of the melodramatic 19th century play Way Down East by Lottie Blair Parker. There were one sound version in 1935 starring Henry Fonda. Griffith's version is remembered for its exciting climax in which Lillian Gish's character is rescued from doom on an icy river; some sources, quoting newspaper ads of the time, say a sequence was filmed in an early color process Technicolor or Prizmacolor. The rich, typified by the handsome man-about-town Lennox, are exceptionally selfish and think only of their own pleasure. Anna is a poor country girl; when she becomes pregnant, he leaves her. She has the baby, named Trust Lennox, on her own; when the baby dies she wanders. David, Squire Bartlett's son, falls for her. Lennox shows up lusting for another local girl, Kate. Seeing Anna, he tries to get her to leave, but she refuses to go, although she promises to say nothing about his past.
Squire Bartlett learns of Anna's past from Martha, the town gossip. In his anger, he tosses Anna out into a snow storm. Before she goes, she fingers the father of her dead baby. Anna becomes lost in the raging storm. In the famous climax, the unconscious Anna floats on an ice floe down a river towards a waterfall, until rescued at the last moment by David, who marries her in the final scene. Subplots relate the romances and eventual marriages of some of the picaresque characters inhabiting the village. D. W. Griffith bought the film rights to the story a stage play by Lottie Blair Parker, elaborated by Joseph R. Grismer. Grismer's wife, the Welsh actress Phoebe Davies, became identified with the play beginning in 1897 and starred in over 4000 performances of it by 1909, making it one of the most popular plays in the United States. Davies had toured the play for well over ten years; the play was considered outdated by the time of its cinematic production in 1920. The play was an old-fashioned story that espoused Victorian ideals.
Although it was Griffith's most expensive film to date, it was one of his most commercially successful. Way Down East is the fourth highest grossing silent film in cinema history, taking in more than $4.5 million at the box office in 1920. SilentEra.com says. Clarine Seymour had appeared in four previous Griffith films, was hired to play Kate, the squire's niece. However, her role was given to Mary Hay, Seymour's footage reshot, when Seymour died after surgery; the famous ice floe sequence was filmed in Vermont. An actual waterfall was used, though it was only a few feet high — the long shot where a large drop is shown was filmed at Niagara Falls; the ice needed to be sawed or dynamited before filming could be done. During filming, a small fire had to be kept burning beneath the camera to keep the oil from freezing. At one point, Griffith was frostbitten on one side of his face. No stunt doubles were used at the time, so Gish and Barthelmess performed the stunts themselves. Gish's hair froze and she lost feeling in her hand from the cold.
It was her idea to put her hair in the water, an image which would become iconic. Her right hand would be somewhat impaired for the remainder of her life; the shot where the ice floes are filmed going over the waterfall was filmed out of season, so those ice floes are wooden. Cinematographically, the ice floe scene is an early example of parallel action. Similar to other Griffith productions, Way Down East was subjected to censorship by some American state film censor boards. For example, the Pennsylvania film board required over 60 cuts in the film, removing the mock marriage and honeymoon between Lennox and Anna as well as any hints of her pregnancy destroying the film's integral conflict; the resulting film may have surprised viewers in that state when a child appears shortly before its death. Other cuts removed scenes where society women smoked cigarettes and an intertitle with the euphemism "wild oats." The film earned $1 million in profit. When the film was screened in 1994 in Washington, D.
C. film critic Mark Adamo reviewed the film and wrote, "What's astounding about the film is not that the rickety conventions of 1890s stage melodrama dog its every frame. What's amazing is that so much of Gish's tough, intuitive performance in the film's middle section as she bears her illegitimate child, transcends time and technology. Amazing is Griffith's mighty striving, with his arty location shots, quirky close-ups and riskily staged set pieces, to forge a new and expressly cinematic style." Critic Paul Brenner wrote "Many of Griffith's features suffer from sententious moralizing, a sense of God speaking to the masses, outright racism. But Way Down East highlights the greatness of Griffith without having to sit through the Sermon on the Mount or the Ride of The Klan. In Way Down East, Griffith's psychotic nuttiness, for once, didn’t get in the way of a good film." Way Down East on IMDb Way Down East at the TCM Movie Database Way Down East at SilentEra.com Way Down East at The Greatest Films by Tim Dirks Way Down
Gardiner is a city in Kennebec County, United States. The population was 5,800 at the 2010 census. Popular with tourists, Gardiner is noted for old architecture. Gardiner is included in Maine micropolitan New England City and Town Area. Located at the head of navigation on the Kennebec River, Gardiner was founded as Gardinerstown Plantation in 1754 by Dr. Silvester Gardiner, a prominent Boston physician. Dr. Gardiner had made a fortune as a drug merchant, with one apothecary shop in Massachusetts and two in Connecticut, became a principal proprietor of the Kennebec Purchase within the old Plymouth Patent, he proved a tireless promoter for his development. Dr. Gardiner induced a gristmill builder, saw millwright, house carpenter and wheelwright to settle here. Houses, mills, a church and a blockhouse were built. Situated at the confluence of the Kennebec River and Cobbesseecontee Stream, which has falls that drop 130 feet, the location was recognized by him as ideal for water-powered mills. Gardinerstown, set off from Pittston in 1760, became center of the regional economy.
The wilderness toils of Dr. Gardiner would end, with the Revolution. Loyal to the Crown, he fled Boston in 1776, but his settlement lived on without him, in 1803 was incorporated as the town of Gardiner. From the early 19th century until the Civil War and trade were primary industries, it would become a city in 1849. Lumber, in vast quantities, passed through Gardiner. Tanneries and shoe factories prospered; the city became known worldwide for exporting ice. Each winter men cut large blocks from the Kennebec River covered the ice with sawdust in warehouses to keep it frozen into summer, it was loaded year-round on large vessels for shipment throughout world. Gardiner was noted for its pristine Kennebec ice, harvested at the furthest point upriver that deep-draft vessels could reach. In 1851, the city was connected by railroad. One of the first workable steam automobiles in America was built in Gardiner in 1858. Beginning in the 1860s, paper mills flourished, as did the commercial ice industry between the 1880s and 1920s.
By the 1960s, many mills declined and closed, sending Gardiner's economy plummeting. The former mill town is now a bedroom community for people who work in Augusta, the state's capital, as well as Bath Iron Works in Bath; some residents commute as far as the Portland area. The city is endowed with a great deal of antique architecture, much of it beautifully restored. In 1980, the entire downtown historic district became one of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Kennebec County, Maine. Gardiner is located at 44°12′21″N 69°47′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.57 square miles, of which 15.65 square miles is land and 0.92 square miles is water. Gardiner is drained by the Cobbesseeconte Kennebec River; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Gardiner has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,800 people, 2,487 households, 1,550 families residing in the city. The population density was 370.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,778 housing units at an average density of 177.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.4% White, 0.3% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 2,487 households of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.7% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 40.9 years. 21.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,198 people, 2,510 households, 1,603 families residing in the city. The population density was 395.6 people per square mile. There were 2,702 housing units at an average density of 172.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.90% White, 0.39% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 2,510 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
B. P. Schulberg
B. P. Schulberg was an American pioneer film producer and film studio executive. Born Percival Schulberg in Bridgeport, Connecticut, he took the name Benjamin from the boy in front of him when registering for school to avoid mockery for his British name. Schulberg was impressed with Edwin S. Porter's films and managed to get a job with the famous director as a scenario writer, he became a publicity manager at Famous Players-Lasky, but in the power struggle around the formation of United Artists ended up on the losing side and lost his job. The public learned that it was Schulberg's idea to bring together the "Big-4" before they were founded, he was one of the founding members of the Associated Motion Picture Advertisers. In 1919, at age 27, he built it around actress Katherine MacDonald. In 1923, his old school-mate and associate Jack Bachman convinced him to offer a New York starlet, 18-year-old Clara Bow, a three-month trial contract. Within days of her arrival, she was made part of the studio permanent stock.
On October 21, 1925, Schulberg's Preferred Pictures filed for bankruptcy, with debts of $820,774 and assets of just $1,420. Three days it was announced that Schulberg would join with Adolph Zukor and became associate producer of Paramount Pictures, bringing his organization, i.e. Clara Bow. Schulberg used his background in publicity to create some of the biggest phrases and slogans in film. For instance, he credited Mary Pickford as "America's Sweetheart," and made the slogans "Famous Players in Famous Plays" and "If it's a Paramount Picture, it's the best show in town."In an era when the film industry was filled with conservative studio executives, B. P. Schulberg was a "New Deal" liberal, described by Moving Pictures magazine as "a political liberal in the reactionary world of Mayer and Hearst." His wife Adeline Jaffe Schulberg founded a talent agency taken over by her brother, producer/talent agent Sam Jaffe. She spent little time with Hollywood society women, instead working for charities that supported progressive causes and promoting socialism.
She subsequently had a literary agency in New York. They were the parents of renowned novelist and screenwriter, Budd Schulberg, producer Stuart Schulberg, writer Sonya Schulberg O'Sullivan. In 1931, Paramount top-star Clara Bow left the studio, within a year Schulberg was "squeezed out" and went back to independent film-production. In 1937, Paramount stopped distributing his films and he remained out of the business until 1940 when he began producing for Columbia Pictures, he produced six films for Columbia in three years until he retired in 1943. In 1950, he unsuccessfully offered his services in the film trade papers. A comprehensive part of his life was recorded in Budd Schulberg's book "Moving Pictures, Memoirs of a Hollywood Prince". "I supported him for the last five-years of his life," his son Budd stated in 1981. B. P. Schulberg died at his home in Key Biscayne, Florida on February 25, 1957. For his contribution to the motion picture industry, B. P. Schulberg has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1500 Vine Street.
The Paramount studios' "Directors Building" was renamed the "Schulberg Building" in his honor. In 1913, he was married to Adeline Jaffe, Jewish; the Woman Conquers April Showers Maytime The Hero White Man The Triflers My Lady's Lips The Lawful Cheater Parisian Love Free to Love The Plastic Age Mantrap The Eagle of the Sea It Wedding Bills The Whirlwind of Youth Wings Special Delivery Underworld Swim Girl, Swim The Woman on Trial Beau Sabreur Red Hair The First Kiss The Love Doctor The Greene Murder Case The Virginian Dangerous Paradise Paramount on Parade co-producer No Limit Make Me a Star Million Dollar Legs Madame Butterfly Three-Cornered Moon Luxury Liner The Crime of the Century Pick-Up The Girl in 419 Jennie Gerhardt Her Bodyguard Good Dame Thirty Day Princess Little Miss Marker Kiss and Make-Up Behold My Wife! * She Couldn't Take It Crime and Punishment Meet Nero Wolfe Counterfeit Wedding Present A Doctor's Diary The Great Gambini She's No Lady Bedtime Story The Adventures of Martin Eden The Wife Takes a Flyer Flight Lieutenant City Without Men B. P. Schulberg on IMDb
Roscoe Conkling "Fatty" Arbuckle was an American silent film actor, comedian and screenwriter. Starting at the Selig Polyscope Company he moved to Keystone Studios, where he worked with Mabel Normand and Harold Lloyd, he discovered Buster Keaton and Bob Hope. Arbuckle was one of the most popular silent stars of the 1910s, soon became one of the highest paid actors in Hollywood, signing a contract in 1920 with Paramount Pictures for US$14,000.00. Between November 1921 and April 1922, Arbuckle was the defendant in three publicized trials for the rape and manslaughter of actress Virginia Rappe. Rappe had fallen ill at a party hosted by Arbuckle at the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco in September 1921. Arbuckle was accused by Rappe's acquaintance of accidentally killing Rappe. After the first two trials, which resulted in hung juries, Arbuckle was acquitted in the third trial and received a formal written statement of apology from the jury. Despite Arbuckle's acquittal, the scandal has overshadowed his legacy as a pioneering comedian.
Following the trials, his films were banned and he was publicly ostracized. Although the ban on his films was lifted within a year, Arbuckle only worked sparingly through the 1920s, he worked as a film director under the alias William Goodrich. He was able to return to acting, making short two-reel comedies in 1932 for Warner Bros, he died in his sleep of a heart attack in 1933 at age 46 on the same day he signed a contract with Warner Brothers to make a feature film. Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle was born on March 24, 1887, in Smith Center, one of nine children of Mary E. "Mollie" Gordon and William Goodrich Arbuckle. He weighed in excess of 13 lb at birth and, as both parents had slim builds, his father believed the child was not his, he named the baby after a politician whom he despised, Republican senator Roscoe Conkling of New York. The birth was traumatic for Mollie and resulted in chronic health problems that contributed to her death 12 years later; when Arbuckle was nearly two his family moved to California.
Roscoe had a "wonderful" singing voice and was agile. At the age of eight, with his mother's encouragement, he first performed on stage with Frank Bacon's company during their stopover in Santa Ana. Arbuckle enjoyed performing and continued on until his mother's death in 1899 when he was 12, his father, who had always treated him harshly, now refused to support him and Arbuckle got work doing odd jobs in a hotel. Arbuckle was in the habit of singing while he worked and was overheard by a customer, a professional singer; the customer invited him to perform in an amateur talent show. The show consisted of the audience judging acts by clapping or jeering with bad acts pulled off the stage by a shepherd's crook. Arbuckle sang and did some clowning around, but did not impress the audience, he saw the crook emerge from the wings and to avoid it somersaulted into the orchestra pit in obvious panic. The audience went wild, he not only won the competition but began a career in vaudeville. In 1904, Sid Grauman invited Arbuckle to sing in his new Unique Theater in San Francisco, beginning a long friendship between the two.
He joined the Pantages Theatre Group touring the West Coast of the United States and in 1906 played the Orpheum Theater in Portland, Oregon, in a vaudeville troupe organized by Leon Errol. Arbuckle became the group took their show on tour. On August 6, 1908, Arbuckle married Minta Durfee, the daughter of Charles Warren Durfee and Flora Adkins. Durfee starred in many early comedy films with Arbuckle, they made a strange couple, as Minta was short and petite while Arbuckle tipped the scales at 300 lbs. Arbuckle joined the Morosco Burbank Stock vaudeville company and went on a tour of China and Japan returning in early 1909. Arbuckle began his film career with the Selig Polyscope Company in July 1909 when he appeared in Ben's Kid. Arbuckle appeared sporadically in Selig one-reelers until 1913, moved to Universal Pictures and became a star in producer-director Mack Sennett's Keystone Cops comedies Although his large size was undoubtedly part of his comedic appeal, Arbuckle was self-conscious about his weight and refused to use it to get "cheap" laughs.
For example, he would not allow himself to be stuck in a chair. Arbuckle was a talented singer. After famed operatic tenor Enrico Caruso heard him sing, he urged the comedian to "...give up this nonsense you do for a living, with training you could become the second greatest singer in the world." Despite his physical size, Arbuckle was remarkably acrobatic. Director Mack Sennett, when recounting his first meeting with Arbuckle, noted that he "skipped up the stairs as as Fred Astaire", his comedies are noted as rollicking and fast-paced, have many chase scenes, feature sight gags. Arbuckle was fond of the "pie in the face", a comedy cliché that has come to symbolize silent-film-era comedy itself; the earliest known pie thrown in film was in the June 1913 Keystone one-reeler A Noise from the Deep, starring Arbuckle and frequent screen partner Mabel Normand. In
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian diplomat, historian, humanist, writer and poet of the Renaissance period. He has been called the father of modern political science. For many years he was a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs, he wrote comedies, carnival songs, poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned by Italian scholars, he was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his best-known work The Prince in 1513. Machiavellianism is used as a negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and the killing of innocents, as being normal and effective in politics, he encouraged it in some situations. The book gained notoriety due to claims that it teaches "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power".
The term Machiavellian is associated with political deceit and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was a republican when writing The Prince, his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy. In one place, for example, he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus. Machiavelli was born in Florence, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife, Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli; the Machiavelli family is believed to be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany and to have produced thirteen Florentine Gonfalonieres of Justice, one of the offices of a group of nine citizens selected by drawing lots every two months and who formed the government, or Signoria. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502. Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states, people and cities fell from power as France and the Holy Roman Empire battled for regional influence and control.
Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri, who changed sides without warning, the rise and fall of many short-lived governments. Machiavelli was taught grammar and Latin, it is thought that he did not learn Greek though Florence was at the time one of the centers of Greek scholarship in Europe. In 1494 Florence restored the republic, expelling the Medici family that had ruled Florence for some sixty years. Shortly after the execution of Savonarola, Machiavelli was appointed to an office of the second chancery, a medieval writing office that put Machiavelli in charge of the production of official Florentine government documents. Shortly thereafter, he was made the secretary of the Dieci di Libertà e Pace. In the first decade of the sixteenth century, he carried out several diplomatic missions: most notably to the Papacy in Rome. Moreover, from 1502 to 1503, he witnessed the brutal reality of the state-building methods of Cesare Borgia and his father, Pope Alexander VI, who were engaged in the process of trying to bring a large part of Central Italy under their possession.
The pretext of defending Church interests was used as a partial justification by the Borgias. Other excursions to the court of Louis XII and the Spanish court influenced his writings such as The Prince. Between 1503 and 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia, he distrusted mercenaries and instead staffed his army with citizens, a policy, to be successful. Under his command, Florentine citizen-soldiers defeated Pisa in 1509. However, Machiavelli's success did not last. In August 1512 the Medici, backed by Pope Julius II, used Spanish troops to defeat the Florentines at Prato, but many historians have argued that it was due to Piero Soderini's unwillingness to compromise with the Medici, who were holding Prato under siege. In the wake of the siege, Soderini left in exile; the experience would, like Machiavelli's time in foreign courts and with the Borgia influence his political writings. After the Medici victory, the Florentine city-state and the republic were dissolved, Machiavelli was deprived of office in 1512.
In 1513 the Medici had him imprisoned. Despite having been subjected to torture, he was released after three weeks. Machiavelli retired to his estate at Sant'Andrea in Percussina, near San Casciano in Val di Pesa, devoted himself to studying and writing of the political treatises that earned his place in the intellectual development of political philosophy and political conduct. Despairing of the opportunity to remain directly involved in political matters, after a time, he began to participate in intellectual groups in Florence and wrote several plays that were both popular and known in his lifetime. Still, politics
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L