The Maryland Senate, sometimes referred to as the Maryland State Senate, is the upper house of the General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Maryland. Composed of 47 senators elected from an equal number of constituent single-member districts, the Senate is responsible, along with the Maryland House of Delegates, for passage of laws in Maryland, for confirming executive appointments made by the Governor of Maryland, it evolved from the upper house of the colonial assembly created in 1650 when Maryland was a proprietary colony controlled by Cecilius Calvert. It consisted of the Governor and members of the Governor's appointed council. With slight variation, the body to meet in that form until 1776, when Maryland, now a state independent of British rule, passed a new constitution that created an electoral college to appoint members of the Senate; this electoral college was abolished in 1838 and members began to be directly elected from each county and Baltimore City. In 1972, because of a Supreme Court decision, the number of districts was increased to 47, the districts were balanced by population rather than being geographically determined.
To serve in the Maryland Senate, a person must be a citizen of Maryland 25 years of older. Elections for the 47 Senate seats are held every four years coincident with the federal election in which the President of the United States is not elected. Vacancies are filled through appointment by the Governor; the Senate meets for three months every year. It has been controlled by Democrats for a number of years. In the 2018 election, more than two-thirds of the Senate seats were won by Democrats. Senators elect a President to serve as presiding officer of the legislative body, as well as a President Pro Tempore; the President appoints chairs and membership of six standing committees, four legislative committees as well as the Executive Nominations and Rules Committees. When compared to other state legislatures in the United States, the Maryland Senate has one of the strongest presiding officers and some of the strongest committee chairs. Senators are organized into caucuses, including party- and demographically-based caucuses.
They are assisted in their work by paid staff of the non-partisan Department of Legislative Services and by partisan office staff. The origins of the Maryland Senate lie in the creation of an assembly during the early days of the Maryland colony; this assembly first met in 1637, making it the longest continuously operating legislative body in the United States. The assembly was unicameral, but in 1650, the Governor and his appointed council began serving as the upper house of a now bicameral legislature; these appointees had close political and economic ties to the proprietors of the Maryland colony, Cecilius Calvert and his descendants. Thus, the upper house in colonial times disagreed with the lower house, elected, tended to be more populist, pushed for greater legislative power in the colony; the upper house was abolished during the English Civil War, as Puritan governors attempted to consolidate control and prevent the return of any proprietary influence. It was again abolished by Governor Josias Fendall in 1660, who sought to create a colonial government based on an elected unicameral legislature like that of the Virginia colony.
The position of Governor was removed from the legislature in 1675, but for the following century, its function and powers remained the same. In 1776, following the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Maryland threw off proprietary control and established a new constitution. Under this new constitution, the upper house of the General Assembly first became known as the Maryland Senate; the new body consisted of fifteen Senators appointed to five-year terms by an electoral college. The college, made up of two electors from each county and one each from the cities of Baltimore and Annapolis, was limited in its selections only by the stipulation that nine Senators need be from the western shore and six from the eastern shore; the first election under the 1776 constitution took place in 1781, the system would not change again until 1838. In the interim, a number of problems had cropped up in the appointment process, the 1838 election saw the passage of a number of constitutional amendments that fundamentally changed how Senators were chosen.
The electoral college was abolished, terms were lengthened to six years with rotating elections such that a third of the senate would be elected every two years, a single Senator was chosen by direct election from each county and the City of Baltimore. The Senate no longer acted as the Governor's Council, although they would continue to confirm the Governor's appointments. Constitutional changes altered this new system in 1851, when terms were shortened to four years, 1864, when Baltimore City was given three Senate districts rather than one, but substantial change to the structure of the Senate did not come again until 1964. In 1964, the Supreme Court ruled in Reynolds v. Sims that state legislative seats must be apportioned on the principle of one man, one vote. A number of state legislatures, including Maryland, had systems based on geography rather than population, the court rules that this violated the 14th Amendment. Disproportionate population growth across Maryland since 1838 meant that the principle of one seat per county gave the voters of some counties, such as those on the eastern shore, disproportionate representation.
Other counties those in suburban areas, were underrepresented. A special session of the legislature in 1965 changed the Senate to represent 16 districts and reapp
Maryland House of Delegates
The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the legislature of the State of Maryland. It consists of 141 delegates elected from 47 districts; the House of Delegates Chamber is in the Maryland State House on State Circle in Annapolis, the state capital. The State House houses the Maryland State Senate Chamber and the offices of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the State of Maryland; each delegate has offices in Annapolis, in the nearby Casper R. Taylor Jr. House Office Building; the Maryland House of Delegates originated as the Lower House of the General Assembly of the Province of Maryland in 1650, during the time when it was an English colony, when the Assembly became a bicameral body. The Lower House fought with the Upper House for political influence in the colony; the Upper House consisted of the Governor and his Council, all appointed by Lord Baltimore and Proprietor of the Province, thus tended to protect his interests in Maryland. Conversely, the Lower House tended to push for political change in the colony, claiming to be the true elected representatives of the people.
In this context, the Lower House continually fought for more power by asserting exclusive rights in certain legislative areas, such as levying taxes and originating money bills. This reflected similar attitudes in the other colonies on the East Coast of North America with the beginnings and growth of representative government during the 17th century, as each province's representatives agitated for more rights and respect from the Proprietors and the King and Parliament in London; the Governor had some measure of control over the Lower House in the late seventeenth century. Despite the fact that each county was entitled to elect four delegates, the governor selected only two of these to sit in the Lower House; this enabled the Governor to control the Lower House's membership. In 1689, the transfer of Maryland from a proprietary colony to a royal colony temporarily quieted the disputes between the Lower House and the Governor and Council. Appointed by the crown, the royal governors allowed the Lower House substantial latitude with its legislative agenda.
The first General Assembly under Royal Authority, in 1692, passed 85 acts in a single session. The Lower House acted to remove the Governor's influence over the election of delegates. Now, elected delegates could attend the session without the need for a special writ from the Governor. At the same time, standing or continuing committees were established; these eliminated the Lower House's reliance on ad hoc committees and created the first modern legislature in Maryland. During this period, the Lower House became known as the "House of Delegates"; the Maryland Constitution of 1776 formally established the modern House of Delegates. Representation was based on geography as the voters of each county elected four delegates, two each were elected from the towns of Annapolis and Baltimore; these delegates served one-year terms. Beginning with the 1838 elections, each county elected at least three and up to six delegates depending on its population. Baltimore City elected the same number of delegates as did the most populous county, but after 1840, the Town of Annapolis was considered part of Anne Arundel County.
Reapportionment was required after every federal census in an attempt to achieve equal representation. The current pattern for distribution of seats in the House of Delegates began with the legislative apportionment plan of 1972 and has been revised every ten years thereafter; the plan created 47 legislative districts, many of which cross county boundaries to delineate districts equal in population. Each legislative district sends three delegates for a total of 141 members of the House; some of the larger districts are divided into delegate sub-districts to provide local representation to areas not large enough to constitute an entire legislative district. The powers and functions of the Maryland House of Delegates are outlined in the Maryland Constitution. Along with the State Senate, the House has the power to approve laws, establish executive departments, levy taxes, propose state constitutional amendments. Both houses have the power to elect the state treasurer and to appoint a new Governor if the offices of Governor and Lieutenant Governor are vacant.
In addition, the House of Delegates has the sole power to impeach members of the executive branch, including the Governor. Once the House of Delegates has passed articles of impeachment, the person impeached stands trial before the State Senate; the House of Delegates utilizes a number of different organizational structures. Much of the work of drafting and reviewing bills is done by six standing committees: Appropriations, Economic Matters and Transportation, Health and Government Operations and Ways and Means; each of these committees is divided further into sub-committees by issue area. An additional continuing committee, Executive Nominations, has the responsibility for confirming appointments of the Governor. Delegates divide themselves into a variety of recognized work groups and Special Committees and geographic delegations; the two largest caucuses are those of the Republican Parties. Smaller caucuses might group Delegates by identity, such as the Women's Caucus, notably the first women's legislative caucus founded in the United States.
The Asian-American and Pacific Islander caucus. Delegates may organize by issue or area of experience, such as the Veterans' Caucus. In addition, delegates from a certain county, smaller towns, or Ba
Maryland's 1st congressional district
Maryland's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Maryland. The district encompasses the entire Eastern Shore of Maryland, including Salisbury, as well as parts of Baltimore and Carroll counties; the district is represented by Republican Andy Harris, who defeated Democratic incumbent Frank M. Kratovil, Jr. in 2010. The district was the subject of a 2014 boycott following legislation Harris introduced nullifying a District of Columbia law de-criminalizing possession of marijuana. There are four living former members who represented the district; the most recent to die was Thomas Francis Johnson on February 1, 1988 Maryland's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts "List of Federal Representatives of the State of Maryland" – via Maryland Archives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad
The Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad was an American railroad company itself a result of merger of four small lines dating from the earliest days of American railroading in the late 1820s and early 1830s, that operated from 1836, until being bought by a larger regional line in 1881, with a merger into a longer Northeast Corridor railway in 1902. It built the first rail line south from Philadelphia into The South. Founded in 1831 as the Philadelphia and Delaware County Rail-Road Company, the PW&B had within six years changed its name and merged with three other state-chartered railroads in three Middle Atlantic states to create a single line between Philadelphia and Baltimore, Maryland. In 1881, the PW&B came under the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the larger one of two dominant rail.line companies in the Northeast United States. An 1895 historian of the PRR had this to say about the significance of the PW&B, which it had acquired and gained control of fourteen years before:"An important constituent of a great North and South line of transportation, it challenges ocean competition and carries on its rails not only statesmen and tourists but a valuable interchange of products between different lines of latitude.
As a military highway, it is of the greatest strategic importance to the national and commercial capitals – Washington and New York. It presents some of the best transportation facilities to the commerce of the cities after which it is named and could not be obliterated from the railroad map of the United States without materially disturbing its harmony." In 1902, the PW&B was merged into the PRR's owned and newly merged Philadelphia and Washington Railroad. The old P. W. & B. line is still in use today as part of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. Freight is handled by Norfolk Southern and by the Conrail system. On April 2, 1831, the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, seeking to improve transportation between Philadelphia and points south along the Atlantic coast and Eastern seaboard, chartered the Philadelphia and Delaware County Rail-Road Company; the legislature allotted $200,000 to build a rail line from America's largest city to the Delaware state line. In July 1835, surveyors began to look at possible routes, in October, they reported that the best option, a 17-mile line, would cost $233,000 to build.
Meanwhile, further south, across the Mason–Dixon line, the Delaware and Maryland legislatures were doing their part to create a rail link to Wilmington and Baltimore. On January 18, 1832, the State of Delaware chartered the Wilmington and Susquehanna Rail Road Company to build from Wilmington to the Maryland state line. On March 5, the State of Maryland chartered the Baltimore and Port Deposite Rail Road Company to build from Baltimore northeast to the western bank of the Susquehanna River. On March 12, the Delaware and Maryland Rail Road Company was chartered for $3,000,000 to build from Port Deposit or any other point on the Susquehanna's eastern river bank north to the Delaware line. In 1835, the W&S hired architect/surveyor William Strickland to make a preliminary survey to the southwest between Wilmington and North East, Maryland; that same year, the B&PD began operating trains between Baltimore harbor's "Basin" waterfront and its Canton industrial and residential neighborhood to the southeast.
But Matthew Newkirk, who had invested $50,000 in the B&PD, grew impatient. On Oct. 6, he wrote to the Company Board "demanding that Pres. Finley resign and be replaced by someone who will be more aggressive in collecting from delinquent subscribers and pushing project forward." As alternates, he suggests the noted lawyer and civic activist, John H. B. Latrobe, brother of Chief Engineer Benjamin H. Latrobe, II, or Roswell L. Colt. Six days Colt became railroad line president, but his term lasted just five weeks; the year 1836 saw several milestones. The P&DC opened its first segment of track. On July 4, the PW&B began building its bridge over the Schuylkill River, the most significant obstacle on its part of the route; the bridge would cross at Gray's Ferry Bridge, south of the city. Meanwhile, on April 18, the D&M merged with the W&S, forming the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad Company. Work proceeded in Maryland as well. By July 1837, there was continuous track from Baltimore to Wilmington, broken only by the wide Susquehanna River, which trains crossed by steam-powered ferryboats at Havre de Grace to Perryville.
On January 15, 1838, the PW&B opened service to Wilmington from Gray's Ferry a few miles south of Philadelphia's city limits. The disadvantages of tripartite ownership of the Philadelphia-Baltimore line having become obvious, the three remaining state-chartered railroads merged on February 12, 1838, to form the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad Company. Among the passengers that year was Frederick Douglass, a former Eastern Shore farm slave and Fells Point ships' caulker, who escaped his Baltimore owner by boarding a PB&W train at a Canton station or along the line in the vicinity, (further east of the future 1849-1850 historic President Street Station at President and Fleet
Old First Presbyterian Church (Wilmington, Delaware)
Old First Presbyterian Church of Wilmington is a historic Presbyterian church located on West Street on Brandywine Park Drive in Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware. Built in 1740, the one-story brick structure has a gambrel roof. Located on the east side of Wilmington's Market Street between 9th and 10th Streets, the building was used during the American Revolution by British troops as a prison and hospital during the occupation of Wilmington after the Battle of Brandywine, September 12, 1777, it remained a house of worship until 1840. A cemetery on the site was the final resting place of many noted Wilmingtonians, it was moved to its present site in 1916. In order to move it, it was dismantled and rebuilt with its re-dedication in 1918, it was given to the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Delaware to maintain and restore. They use it as their headquarters and have it open to the public on 2nd Sundays, April–October, 2-4pm, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America restored the interior to its original condition in 1981. Media related to Old First Presbyterian Church at Wikimedia Commons The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America: THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Historic American Buildings Survey No. DE-202, "Old First Presbyterian Church, South Park Drive at West Street, moved from Tenth & Market, New Castle County, DE", 3 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page
Elkton is a town in and the county seat of Cecil County, United States. The population was 15,443 at the 2010 census, it was called Head of Elk because it sits at the head of navigation on the Elk River, which flows into the nearby Chesapeake Bay. Elkton was once known as the Gretna Green of the East because of its popularity as a place for eloping couples to marry; the town was founded by Swedish mariners and fisherman from Fort Casimir who settled the area in 1694. They called their settlement Head of Elk; the town saw several actions during the American Revolutionary War. On Aug. 25, 1777, Sir William Howe's Anglo-German army landed on the Elk River and marched 11 miles north to Head of Elk. Howe soon advanced to the short and victorious campaign of the Brandywine, thence to capture Philadelphia. On March 8, 1781, the Marquis de Lafayette embarked his troops there to attempt a capture of Benedict Arnold. Returning on April 9, he began his overland march to Virginia. George Washington and Rochambeau with their combined forces stopped in Elkton on September 6–7, 1781, on their way to Yorktown.
In 1787, the town was incorporated as Elkton. By 1880, the population was 1,752; the landmark historic home, Holly Hall was built by James Sewall in the 1810s and became a regional seat for important dignitaries and local politics. When northern states began to pass more restrictive marriage laws in the early 20th century, Maryland did not; as a result, a number of Maryland towns near borders with other states became known as places to get married and without many restrictions, or "Gretna Greens". Elkton, being the northeasternmost county seat in Maryland, was popular, it was a notorious Gretna Green for years. While some of the marriages obtained in Elkton were of celebrities or celebrities-to-be, the overall tawdry flavor grew to be too much for the state. A 48-hour waiting period was imposed in 1938, but Elkton continued to be a place to marry, elope. In time, Las Vegas became the new "American Gretna Green," although hundreds of people are still married in Elkton each year. On December 8, 1963, Pan Am Flight 214 crashed near Elkton.
The crash was listed in the 2005 Guinness World Records as the "Worst Lightning Strike Death Toll." According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.61 square miles, of which, 8.35 square miles is land and 0.26 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Elkton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 15,443 people, 5,580 households, 3,673 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,849.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,944 housing units at an average density of 711.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 76.0% White, 15.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.9% of the population. There were 5,580 households of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 19.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families.
27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.21. The median age in the town was 32.8 years. 28% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,893 people, 4,446 households, 2,898 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,480.5 people per square mile. There were 4,743 housing units at an average density of 590.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.85% White, 9.64% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 2.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.97% of the population. There were 4,446 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families.
27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.13. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,171, the median income for a family was $44,348. Males had a median income of $36,495 versus $25,543 for females; the per capita income for the town wa