The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Bindudham known as Binduwasni Mandir, is a Hindu Temple of the Maha Durga, Maha Lakshmi and Maha Saraswati in the form of Shaktipeeth. "Binduwasni Mandir" is at the top of the "Binduwasni hill". The main temple has a statue of the Hindu god Surya, he is seated in a Seven horsed Rath. In another part of Binduwasni hill, a large 35-foot statue of Hanuman stands, where people can see his sacred foot prints. Barharwa Junction railway station is only two kilometers away from Bindudham; this temple is situated at the top of Barharwa. Binduwasni hill belongs to Rajmahal hills formed at the time of Jurassic Period. Bindudham temple was an ancient temple, but with the elapse of time, it became unpopular. Swami Hariharanand Giri, popularly known as Pahari Baba, realised this ancient temple's importance, it is thanks to the work and direction of Pahari Baba that this Bindudham, Barharwa has again gained its great prosperity and heritage. Binduwasni Temple is related to the Story of'the story of Goddess Sati'.
Three sacred blood drops of Sati are placed in the form of Shakti Peeth. In metaphysical terms, Bindu is considered the point where creation begins and the many become the unity, it is described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state". Chetra Navratri Durga puja is the main puja festival in Bindudham temple; the Chetra Navratra festival falls in the Shukla Paksha, the first nine days of the month of Chaitra in the Hindu calendar. In this occasion of Chetra Navratra, a nine days Maha Yajna is organised. Fair devotees gather in large numbers on Ram-Navami at this temple during this festival. Along with the Chetra puja, Bindudham temple organises all Hindu worship occasions like Govardhan Puja, Rani Sati Pujan, Guru Purnima, Khatu Shyam Pujan etc. along with regional cultural activities. Tridevi Navratri Shakti Peethas Sati Bindu Sahebganj Tourism
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Deoghar district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India, Deoghar town is the administrative headquarters of this district. This district is known for the Baidyanath Jyotirlinga shrine; this district is part of Santhal Pargana division. Deoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of ‘Deoghar’ is abode of the Gods and Goddesses. Deoghar is known as “Baidyanath Dham”, “Baba Dham”, “B. Deoghar”; the district was formed on 1 June 1981 by separating Deoghar sub-division of the erstwhile Santhal Pargana district. Deoghar district is located in the western portion of Santhal paraganas, it is bounded by Banka and Jamui district in north, Dumka in east and Jamtara in south and Giridhih in west. The district extends from 24 0 03' and 23 0 38' N latitude and 86 0 28' and 87 0 04' E longitude and comprises 2481 km2 area, it has population 1,165,390 persons. The district contains several clusters of rocky hills covered with forest, but series of long ridges with intervening depressions.
Most of the rolling uplands are cultivated by highland crops. The average elevation of the district is 247 m above msl, However hill ranges like Phuljari and Degaria break the monotony of the landscape; the general slope of the district is from north west to south east. Geologically the district is covered by chhotanagpur granite gneiss of Archean age with paches of alluvium and shale of Gondawana formations. Important rivers flowing in the district are the Paltro etc.. These rivers gather a large number of tributaries which form the land scape full of Dons. Taluk Name State Deoghar,Madhupur, Sarsa Kushmaha, Tharidulampur, Charakmara, Devipur, Sarath, Mohanpur, babangaua,Ghorlash, Koridih, Gidhaiya, Jitjori etc; the district experience cool dry winters. Average annual rainfall is 1239 mm, mean summer maximum temperature is 43 °C and mean winter minimum temperature is 8 °C, it is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The district comprises two Sub Divisions: Deoghar Madhupur Blocks: The district comprises ten blocks: Deoghar, Madhupur, Palojori, Devipur, Margomunda and Sonaraithari.
There are 3 Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district: Madhupur and Deoghar. Madhupur and Deoghar are part of Godda Lok Sabha constituency, while Sarath is part of Dumka Lok Sabha constituency. Deoghar district consists of 10 Blocks; the following are the list of the Blocks in Deoghar district: Deoghar Block Mohanpur Sarwan Sarath Palojori Madhupur Karon Sonaraithari Devipur Margomunda, According to the 2011 census, Deoghar district has a population of 1,491,879 equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii. This gives it a ranking of 337th in India; the district has a population density of 602 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 28.02%. Deoghar has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 66.34%. The holy city which claims mythological origins houses the famous Baidyanath Dham temple and is the primary tourist attraction. 1. Baidyanath Dham The Baba Baidyanath Temple complex enshrines a Jyotirlinga, along with 12 other temples.
Being one of the most sacred temples in India, the Baidyanath Temple holds a spiritual high ground among other temples owing to its religious significance and its architecture. Located in Deoghar in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand in India, this large temple complex comprises the main temple of Baba Baidyanath, where the Jyotirlinga is installed, along with twenty-one other temples; the temple is mentioned in several ancient scriptures and continues to be mentioned in modern-day history books. The story of the origin of this Jyotirlinga goes back in the era of Lord Rama. According to popular Hindu beliefs, the demon Ravana, king of Lanka, worshipped Shiva at this site, where the temple is located. Ravana offered his ten heads one as a sacrifice to Lord Shiva. Pleased with this act, Shiva proceeded to descend to the Earth to cure Ravana, injured. Since Lord Shiva had acted as a doctor, he is referred to as'Vaidhya', it is from this aspect of Shiva that the temple derives its name.
2. Nandan Pahar Nandan Pahar is an amusement park built on top of a hill in the district of Deoghar in Jharkhand, India; the park attracts visitors from nearby localities from all age groups. Nandan Pahar consists of a garden, a pond, serves as an amusement or recreational park with several joy rides withing the green garden. There are theme houses at the park too; the Nandi temple, situated on the top of Nandan Pahar, is famous in the locality. Nandan Pahar is promoted by the Jharkhand State Tourism Development Corporation. 3. Tapovan Caves and Hills Located 10 km from Deoghar, this place has a temple of Shiva called Taponath Mahadeva and a number of caves are present there. In one of the caves, there is a Shiva lingam installed and it is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance. 4. Naulakha Mandir Situated 1.5 km from the main temple, this temple measures 146 ft high and is similar to the temple of Ramakrishna in Belur. It is dedicated to Radha-Krishna and since its construction cost Rs. 9 lakh, it is known as Naulakha temple.
5. Basukinath Temple Located in the Dumka district of Jharkhand on the Deoghar-Dumka state highway, Basukinath is a place of worship for Hindus. Pilgrims visit the temple each yea
Maluti is a small village near Shikaripara in Dumka District of Jharkhand, India. The place has 72 old temples, it was built under the Baj Basanta dynasty. The 72 temples are edifices to the kings of the Pala Dynasty, they portray various scenes from Hindu mythology including the Mahabharata. Maluti is known for the annual sacrifice of over 100 goats on Kali Puja, besides one buffalo and a sheep, though animal activist groups have strongly looked down at this activity. Today Maluti is endangered by insufficient management of the old temples, threatened by natural disasters. According to cencus of 2011. Total no of child is 163. Schedule Caste 363. No.of Schedule Tribe 52. Literacy 75.42%. Maluti village has higher literacy rate compared to Jharkhand. In 2011, literacy rate of Maluti village was 75.42 % compared to 66.41 % of Jharkhand. In Maluti Male literacy stands at 81.29 % while female literacy rate was 69.28 %. Maluti village came into limelight in fifteenth century as the capital of nankar raj.
The kingdom was awarded to one Basanta Roy of village Katigram by Sultan Alauddin Hussan Shah of Gaura. Son of a poor Brahmin Basanta managed to catch the pet hawk of the sultan and gave it back to the sultan. In lieu of the hawk, Basanta was given the kingdom. Hence, the king was called Raja Baj Basanta; the capital of Baj Basanta dynasty was in Damra. It was shifted to Maluti; the royal family was pious. Basanta became a king in lieu of a baj by the help of a Dandi Sanyasi of Sumeru Math, Kashi may be true to a great extent because the word Baj has been pre-fixed with the name of Basanta to commemorate the event; the name Baj Basanta is comparatively prominent because it can be found both in local history and government records. Swamiji, the head of Sumeru Math, was the preceptor of Basanta. Since the head of Sumeru Math, called Rajguru becomes the preceptor of descendants of king Baj Banata. Today Rajguru from Sumeru Math Varanasi spends sometime at Maluti every year. How Maluti — the capital of Baj Basanta dynasty — turn out to be a'temple city' is an interesting story.
Instead of constructing palaces, the Rajas built temples. The dynasty was broken into parts but each taraf kept building temples, competing with the others. In the end, it turned out be a unique temple village. Inscriptions in Proto-Bengali on the temples show. In another opinion the name of the village Maluti comes from Mallahati of Malla Kings of Bankura, Vishnupur had suzerainty over this area; that point of time this area ruled by Malla kings of Bankura was Damin-i-koh This vast land was called Mallabhum. The village might have been named in those days by prefixing'Malla' in relevance with royal dynasty. Around 1857, Swami Bamdev, one of Bengal’s greatest spiritual leaders, came here to be a priest but failed because he couldn’t memorise Sanskrit mantras, he was made to cook food for the puja. During his 18-month stay in Maluti, Bamakhyapa used to spend most of his time at Mauliskshya temple. Here he was first blessed, he moved to Tarapith. His trident is still preserved at Maluti, but Maluti, may not be in this name, existed long before being the kingdom of the tax-exempted capital of Baj Basanta dynasty.
It was once revered as a great seat of learning. Mention of Maluti — known as Gupta Kashi in ancient times — is found as early as the Shunga dynasty, whose founder was Pushyamitra Shunga, it was at Maluti. Vajrayani Buddhists, followers of Tantrik rituals, settled here. So, Mauliksha Maa is the most ancient idol found in Maluti, it is said. And it is here; some historians say. Dandiswami of Varanasi's Sumeru Math still comes here once a year as part of the ritual that began with Adi Shankaracharya; some pre-historic stone tools found in the river bed of Chila confirm that Maluti used to be inhabited by our pre-historic fore-fathers, though the area was never excavated. The river Chila is flowing at the edge of the village and marks the boundary of Jharkhand and West Bengal; the river originated from Banspahari, a highland in the Dumka district and meet with Dwarka River in Bengal. Stone tools and primitive weapons are found on the river bed at different place; the stone-tools found in the area are hand-axes and blades.
Plenty of waste materials are found scattered everywhere on the river bed. These tools belonged to transit period from Early Stone Age to the Middle Stone Age; the working edge is still sharp. Neolithic or Chaleolithic specimens are not found in its vicinity as yet. According to archeologist Prof. Subrata Chakravorty of Visva-Bharati University, the tools belonged to Paleolithic period. Prof. Subrata Chakravorty divided the tools into two broader categories Acheulian and Middle Paleolithic; some Mesolithic artefacts are available in the site. Prof. Chakravorty detailed the Acheulian finds discovered from Chila, classification of such tools collected from the site and raw materials used to make those tools. Acheulian found at Maluti Sadarghaton Chila, the river that flows in Birbhum – Jharkhand border land. Acheulian finds discovered from three localities one of them fossilif
Santhal Pargana division
Santhal Pargana division constitutes one of the five district administration units known as the divisions of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Santhal Pargana derives its name from two words: "Santhal", a major tribe of India and "Pargana", a Persian word meaning "district." The word Santhal means Tripura in Hindi. Santhal Pargana is one of the commissionaries of Jharkhand, its headquarters is at Dumka. Presently, this administrative division comprises six districts: Godda, Dumka, Jamtara and Pakur. Santhal Parganas comprised a district of the same name, in undivided Bihar state, India. Earlier to that, in 1855, during British India, Santhal Parganas was created as a district, was a part of the Bengal Presidency; this region is mentioned as Kajangala in different ancient literatures specially in Buddhist literatures. It is mentioned that the Chinese monk-traveller Xuanzang travelled from Champa to Kajangala and proceeded to Pundravardhana in the 7th century AD, he says that the northern limit of its territory was not far from the Ganges.
The forests to the south had plenty of elephants. The people were straight forward and devoted to education. Santhal Pargana is main land of famous Santhal rebellion. On 30 June 1855, two Santal rebel leaders and Kanhu Murmu, mobilized ten thousand Santals and declared a rebellion against British colonists