Ablitas is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. From:INE Archiv ABLITAS in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ablitas Website
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Baztan is a municipality from the Chartered Community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is located 58 km from the capital of Navarre, it is the largest municipality in Navarre, with just over 8,000 inhabitants. The capital of the valley is Elizondo, includes 15 other villages, as follows: Amaiur-Maya Aniz Arraioz Almandoz Arizkun Azpilkueta Berroeta Elbete Erratzu Gartzain Irurita Lekaroz Erratzu Oronoz-Mugairi Ziga The territory of the Baztan valley extends over an area of 377 square km of which much is common land jointly owned by the residents of the Baztan valley and used as grazing ground for flocks of sheep and herds of semi-wild horses; the Baztan Valley borders with the French Basque regions of Lapurdi and Lower Navarre, accessed by the Izpegi Pass to the east of the valley and Dantxarinea to the north. This vicinity to France and its ties with its Basque neighbours has characterised the history of the Baztan people over the past centuries. In 2013, there were 7,974 people living in the Baztan Valley with 3489 people living in the capital of Elizondo.
The remaining population are spread out between the other 14 mountain villages. The Baztan Valley is sparsely populated with small-scale pastoral farming making use of the verdant pastures along the banks of the Baztan river. Orchards of apple, cherry and peach trees are common and more kiwis have been planted in the area; the mountain slopes are densely covered with oak, walnut and ash. The odd palm tree can sometimes be found in the grounds of the larger manor houses in the area and belies family links to the Americas where many Baztan people have emigrated since the 16th century. Around 1025 the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI William, gave part of the duchy to King Sancho III of Navarre. Sancho created a lordship for Ximen I Ochoaniz consisting of the Baztan Valley, his son Garcia Xemeniz became a viscount between 1055 and 1065, his grandson Ximen I Garciez donated land to the monastery of Leire in exchange for a pardon for assassinating his nephew. When his siblings assassinated King Sancho IV of Navarre in 1076, they colluded with the bishops of Bayonne.
The kings of Navarre were Ramiro I of Aragon and Navarre and his successor Sancho Ramirez, known as Sancho V of Navarre and Aragon. These Navarrese-Aragonese kings ruled the thinly-populated Aragon with less military strength than Alfonso VI of Castile, a nephew of Ramiro I of Aragon. Viscount Ximen II's daughter, married Fortun Enneconis de Los Cameros in 1085, they had Pedro I Fortunez, the following viscount. A son of Viscount Pedro II Pedriz of Baztan married around 1110 and had three sons: Sancho Pedriz de Baztan, Pedro Pedriz de Baztan and Ximen Pedriz de Baztan. At this time, the king of Navarre and Aragon was Sancho V Ramirez, his successor was his son by a second marriage to a French Nordic aristocrat, Félicia de Roucy: Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre. Alfonso besieged Bayonne for nearly a year in 1131 before conquering it, his successor was Garcia IV Ramirez. During the 1150s the fishing towns of the Gulf of Biscay between Bordeaux and Vigo, between the Duchy of Normandy and the new Iberian kingdom of Portugal, became trading hubs for iron, gold, glass and leather.
Garcia IV's grandson, Sancho VII of Navarre, was succeeded by the count of Champagne, Theobald I of Navarre. Theobald I of Navarre was succeeded by Theobald II of Navarre; the Navarrese crown passed to his youngest brother, Henry I of Navarre, who ruled for about three years. Joanna II of Navarre married Philip III of Navarre, killed in 1343, she died in 1349. France and Navarre were de facto independent kingdoms, their eldest son was Charles II of Navarre. His heir was King Charles III of Navarre, who ruled for about 38 years, his daughter was Queen Blanche I of Navarre, who ruled from 1425 to 1441. The Escors family, from Aquitaine, settled in the kingdom of Navarre in 1234 after the counts of Champagne inherited the throne; the family represented the kings of Navarre in governmental and military affairs from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcun, became Marqués de las Hormazas in 1767. Juan de Goyeneche y Gastón, became the treasurer and financial adviser to the queen consorts of Spain around 1680, provided war materiel to the Spanish Army for over 30 years.
His palace in Madrid is now the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Juan Francisco de Goyeneche Irigoyen was the Marqués de Ugena. Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche y Balzá, Conde de Saceda, received his title from King Felipe V on 17 December 1743. Miguel Gastón de Iriarte y Elizacoechea built the family palace in Baztan. Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa, was Royal Governor of Chile from 1772 to 1780 and Viceroy of Peru from 1780 to 1784. Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi y Aguirre, Conde de Lizárraga, was governor of the Philippines from 25 August 1709 until his death; the large detached farmhouses which characterise the Baztan valley are built in typical Basque style with solid wooden frames and eaves and wooden balconies decorated with geranium
Aezkoa Valley is an administrative unit of Navarre, Spain. It is formed by several smaller municipalities: Abaurregaina, Aria, Garraioa, Hiriberri and Orbara; the valley only around 800 live there regularly. Aezkoa valley encompasses the upper course of the Irati river, a territory full of oak and beech woods; the more mountainous fraction of it is known as the Irati Forest, that extends into Lower Navarre. It has two natural reverves: Mendilatz, in the Irati Forest, Truistuibartea; the upper Irati has a reservoir known as Irabia reservoir, in the midst of Irati Forest. Other points of interest are the ruins of the weapons' manufacture of Orbaizeta. Orbaizeta has a hospedage and used to have a camping but it is now out of business. There are several megalithic monuments in the mountains north of the valley, that are part of the Pyrenees. Best known, maybe because it's easy access, is the dolmen of Urkuilu mountain, it is known that, before the consolidation of the Kingdom of Navarre in the 9th century, there was a community in the valley, participant in the famous Battle of Roncevaux, not far away.
The lineage of Abaurrea is the oldest one. Aezkoans participated in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in 1212. King Sancho the Wise improved the chart of the valley in 1229. In 1443 Aezkoa gained the control of its mountain passages. In 1462 the Valley gained collective gentry rights for all its inhabitants. Since all kings gave oath to respect the chart of the valley until 1609. After Navarre was annexed by Castile, the valley suffered two persecutions for witchery. In 1525, soon after the consolidation of the Spanish conquest, 9 neighbours were burnt at the stake and many others died in prison or suffered tortures. In 1575 6 women of the valley were brought to Logroño accused of witchcraft, nothing was proven but 4 of them died because of the tortures. In 1774, the valley suffered, together with other areas of northern Navarre, a massive epidemic that killed all its cattle; the war of 1793-95 against France caused much destruction in the valley. It was in this period when the weapons' manufacture of Orbaizeta was built, employing more than 50 workers and being able to manufacture up to 3600 bombs per year.
This manufacture was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars in the 19th century. In the 20th century the most important phenomenon is the rural exodus, caused by the crisis of the cattle-herding sector, that reduced its population to only c.1000 inhabitants. The Basque sub-dialect of the vallye, known as Aezkera, belongs to the High Navarrese dialect but it has strong influence from Lower Navarrese and specially nearby subdialect of Salazar Valley, it used to be a Basque-speaking valley before the fascist coup of 1936, nowadays Basque-speakers are estimated to be around 40% of the inhabitants. Though the dialect is still alive, its situation is delicate; the vast majority of children go nowadays to Basque-speaking schools, helping to revive the traditional language of the valley. Aezkoa.net
Añorbe is a town and municipality located in the autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. AÑORBE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Bakaiku is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is an average 515 m above mean sea level. BAKAIKU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bakaiku, pueblos of Spain