Sebastian Vettel is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in 2010,2011,2012 and 2013 with Red Bull Racing and he is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of four drivers to have won four or more drivers titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017. Vettel started his career in Formula One as a test driver for BMW Sauber and made his debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, in the season, he signed with Toro Rosso and stayed with the team into 2008. He became the youngest race winner at the time when he took victory at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, in his first year driving for Red Bull in 2009, Vettel finished the season as the youngest-ever World Drivers Championship runner-up. The following year he went on to become the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers Championship, in the same year he helped Red Bull win the teams first World Constructors Championship.
He followed up his first championship with three titles, becoming the youngest double and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons and wrapping up the titles early, after his winless 2014 season he returned to winning ways in his first Ferrari season, being the closest challenger to the dominant Mercedes cars and winning three races. He is currently in place among all time race winners. Vettel was born in Heppenheim, West Germany, to Norbert and he has one younger brother and two older sisters, Melanie, a dental technician, and Stefanie, a physiotherapist for disabled children. Vettel suggested in an interview that he was terrible at school, Vettel is a fan of The Beatles, collecting several records, including Abbey Road and his favourite song being Drive My Car. In an interview on Top Gear, Vettel stated that he was a fan of British comedy such as Little Britain, Vettel lives in Thurgovia, Switzerland amongst other racing drivers and is a fan of German football team Eintracht Frankfurt.
Vettel has described himself as competitive and impatient, Vettel appears in advertisements for Head & Shoulders. Vettel provided the voice of character Sebastian Schnell in the version of the movie Cars 2 dubbed for German-speaking audiences, Vettel is in a relationship with Hanna Prater, a childhood friend. In January 2014, Vettel became a father for the first time with the birth of his daughter, in September 2015, Vettel became a father for the second time with the birth of his second daughter, Matilda. In 2015, Forbes estimated that Vettels annual income was $33 million, on the Formula One circuit, Kimi Räikkönen, his Ferrari teammate for 2015 to 2017, is a close friend. Vettel shows to have a friendship with fellow drivers such as Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher, Nico Rosberg with whom he repeatedly showcases a close
Pascal Wehrlein is a German Formula One driver who is currently racing for Sauber. Holding dual nationality of Germany and Mauritius, he races under the German flag in Formula One and he had previously raced in the DTM, winning the title with the Mercedes-Benz team HWA AG in 2015. In 2014 Wehrlein became the youngest driver to win a DTM race at the age of 19, in February 2016 he began driving full-time for Manor, scoring his first championship point at the Austrian Grand Prix. 2010 saw his debut in the ADAC Formel Masters championship with ADAC Berlin-Brandenburg e. V, Wehrlein finished sixth in the championship with a win at Sachsenring and three other podiums. He remained in the series with the team for the next year, Wehrlein scored seven wins at Oschersleben, Zolder, Nürburgring and Lausitz on his way to the championship title. In 2012, Wehrlein stepped up to the Formula 3 Euro Series and he finished 2nd in the championship to Daniel Juncadella. Wehrlein made his debut in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2013 at the age of 18, in a career spanning three seasons Wehrlein managed to be one of the leading drivers in the field despite his youthful age.
In his debut season he achieved 3 points finishing 22nd in the championship and he achieved his first of two fastest laps in his career. In 2014 he switched teams to HWA where he became the youngest driver in the history to claim pole position. Besides his stand out victory at Lausitz, Wehrleins second best result of the season was a finish at Norisring. In 2015 DTM returned to running two races per weekend, resulting in 18 rounds in the 2015 championship. Due to the inconsistency of most teams and drivers Wehrlein won the title easily having scored in all rounds except for three and he achieved 5 podiums, one fastest lap and two wins. He is the first driver to win the championship having not claimed a pole position throughout his championship season while being the youngest ever DTM champion, in September 2014, it was announced that Wehrlein would act as a reserve driver for the Mercedes F1 Team. He took part in testing in Barcelona, driving for both Force India and Mercedes. In February 2016, it was announced that Wehrlein would make his F1 debut with Manor Racing and it is understood that Manor would receive access to Mercedes wind tunnel in exchange for hiring Wehrlein.
Wehrlein scored his and Manors only point of the season at the Austrian Grand Prix with a tenth-place finish, on 16 January 2017, Wehrlein signed with Sauber. He was forced to miss the first test in Barcelona due to an injury he sustained while competing in the Race of Champions and he was replaced by Antonio Giovinazzi before returning for the second test at the same circuit. Despite being fit to take part in the Australian Grand Prix, on 3 April 2017, Sauber F1 announced Wehrlein will again be replaced by Giovinazzi for the 2017 Chinese Grand Prix
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
Super Formula Championship
Super Formula, formerly known as Formula Nippon, is a type of formula racing and the top level of single-seater racing in Japan. Formula Nippon evolved from the Japanese Formula 2000 series begun in 1973 by way of the Japanese Formula Two, for the most part, the Japanese racing series have closely followed their European counterparts in terms of technical regulations, but there have been some important exceptions. In Japan, though touring and sports car racing was popular through the 1960s. Even the Japanese Grand Prix lost its popularity after changing its format from touring/sports car racing to formula car racing in 1971, the series was created based on the European Formula Two Championship. But the JAF approved use of purpose built racing engines was different from the European F2 series which only allowed race engines based on production models. Due to this difference, the series did not fit in with the Formula Two regulations in those days, the series was renamed Formula 2000, not Formula Two.
The revised Formula Two regulation in 1976 removed the restriction about engines which had limited the use of engines based on production models. With this change the reasoning behind the name Formula 2000 disappeared and it led to the series being renamed the All-Japan Formula Two Championship from 1978. When European Formula Two ended in 1984, its Japanese counterpart did not follow suit immediately, the JAF considered starting a new Formula Two series from 1988. However, all entrants ran Formula 3000 cars in 1987, so, the 1987 Formula Two Championship was cancelled due to no entry of any cars for that format. Switching to the open Formula 3000 standard in 1987, the All-Japan Formula 3000 Championship started in 1988, once again and European regulations paralleled one another until 1996, when the International Formula 3000 series became a one-make format to lower costs. Thanks to the economy and Formula One-fad in Japan, the series had many entrants. It attracted many promising young drivers outside of Japan to compete in the series, the end of such phenomena led to the decline of the series.
In the mid-1990s, the Japanese Formula broke away, changing the form of the series to Formula Nippon, the new Japan Race Promotion, formed by Fuji Television, became the promoter with the recognition of the series by the JAF as the Authority Sport Nationale of Japan. In the 2000s, sports car racing became popular in Japan. The 2006 season got off to one of the strangest starts in motorsport history, because of heavy rain, the opener at Fuji was called off after two safety car laps, and Benoît Tréluyer was awarded the win with half points awarded. Until 2002, Formula Nippon was a formula, where a variety of chassis builders. Chassis were supplied by Lola, and G-Force, while Mugen-Honda supplied the vast majority of the engines
1998 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 199824 Hours of Le Mans was the 66th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 6 and 7 June 1998. 1998 saw a significant increase in manufacturer involvement and Mercedes-Benz remained, with upgraded cars in both GT1 and LMP. Toyota sent three of their new, extremely fast GT-One racing cars, while BMW, in association with WilliamsF1, nissan sent 4 of their new R390 GT1s. The United States was represented properly with a two car team from Panoz, with Ford powered Esperante GTR-1s, Porsche won the race as the faster cars from Mercedes, BMW and Toyota retired with mechanical difficulties and accident damage. The remaining Nissans and outdated McLarens were unable to match the pace of the upgraded 911 GT1s, following this race, Porsche went into a sabbatical, rumored to be part of a plan to allow Porsches partner Audi to develop their own sportscar without competition from within the alliance. Porsche would return to Le Mans in 2014, they would win the 2015 race. The GT2 class win by the Chrysler Viper GTS-R was the first GT class win for an American made car since the Shelby Daytona Coupe won in 1964.
Pole Position - #35 AMG-Mercedes -3,35.544 Fastest Lap - #28 Toyota Motorsport -3,41.809 Distance -4783.78 km Average Speed -199.324 km/h Highest Trap Speed — Toyota GT-One -345 km/h
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Aguri Suzuki is a Japanese former racing driver. He participated in 88 Formula One Grands Prix, and his most notable achievement in racing was 3rd place at the 1990 Japanese Grand Prix. Suzuki became involved in ownership, with interests firstly in the Japanese Formula Nippon Championship. Most notably however, he was the owner of the Super Aguri F1 team and he went on to form Team Aguri, which raced in Formula E from 2014 to 2016. Suzuki began racing karts in 1972, at the age of 12, in 1978 he won the Japanese kart championship and in 1979 made his debut in the Japanese Formula Three championship. He continued in karting and in 1981 was again Japanese Kart Champion, in 1983 he finished second in the All-Japan F3 series, driving a Hayashi-Toyota. He turned to touring car racing and, driving for the Nissan factory team won the Japanese title in 1986, the same year he made his debut in Japanese F2 and drove in the Le Mans 24 Hours. In 1987 he finished runner-up in the Japanese F3000 series, winning one race, in 1988, driving a March-Yamaha he won the title with three wins.
In 1988, Suzuki raced in European F3000 with Footwork, before he debuted in Formula One on October 30 at his home race, replacing the ill Yannick Dalmas in the Larrousse-Lola. Zakspeed, who were using Yamaha engines, hired Suzuki for 1989, for 1990 and 1991, he drove again for Larrousse. Three sixth-places were dwarfed by 3rd place at Suzuka – the first ever podium for an Asian driver in F1 – which turned him into a local hero and he set the second fastest lap, and observers began to think seriously about a Japanese contender in the series. The 1990 season would prove the pinnacle of Suzukis racing career, in 1992 and 1993, he was at Footwork alongside Michele Alboreto and Derek Warwick, but both usually outperformed him. He shared a Ligier with Martin Brundle in 1995, but only scored one point in his races, Suzuka had been inextricably linked to Suzukis F1 career and irony played its part in ensuring that was where it ended. A massive crash in practice caused an injury which saw him miss the race.
In F1, Suzuki achieved one podium and scored a total of eight championship points, at the time he retired, he was the second most successful Japanese driver ever in F1 after Satoru Nakajima, but Takuma Sato and Kamui Kobayashi has since passed them both. He moved on to JGTC and remained involved in Japanese driver development and they race a Honda HSV-10 GT in the GT500 class. From 2006 Suzuki ran the Super Aguri F1 Formula One team with the backing of Honda and he managed to put together his new team in just four and half months from his initial announcement on 1 November 2005. The team made its debut at the Bahrain Grand Prix on 12 March 2006, on 6 May 2008, after competing in the opening four races of the season, the team withdrew from Formula One due to financial problems
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
The FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the premier class of motorcycle road racing, held since 1949. Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are available for purchase by the general public nor able to be ridden legally on public roads. The championship is divided into three classes, MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3. All three classes use four-stroke engines, in 2010 the 250cc class was replaced by the new Moto2600 cc four-stroke class. After that, MotoGP gave the four-strokes a 490cc advantage over the two-strokes, a 2 stroke engine produces power with every rotation of the crank, where as the 4 stroke engine produces power every fourth rotation. In theory, a 500cc 2stroke produces the power as a 1000cc 4 stroke. Carburation vs fuel injection, engine mapping, power/torque curves, practice showed the 4 strokes generating 10 to 15 more Hp and turning in much faster lap times their 2 stroke counterparts. 4 stroke engines would be the choice for years to come. Moto2 and 3 are four-stroke only, a FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949.
The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members and these four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50 cc,80 cc,125 cc,250 cc,350 cc, and 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders, in the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes.
In 1969, the FIM — citing high development costs for non-works teams — brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears, by this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. The 50 cc class was replaced by an 80 cc class, the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish, the 350 cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from world events in the 1990s, reducing the field to 125s, 250s
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed