Basilicata known by its ancient name Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, Calabria to the south. It has two coastlines: a 30-km stretch on the Tyrrhenian Sea between Campania and Calabria, a longer coastline along the Gulf of Taranto between Calabria and Apulia; the region can be thought of as the "instep" of Italy, with Calabria functioning as the "toe" and Apulia the "heel". The region covers about 10,000 km2 and in 2010 had a population under 600,000; the regional capital is Potenza. The region is divided into two provinces: Matera. Basilicata is an emerging tourist destination, thanks in particular to the city of Matera, whose historical quarter I Sassi became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993, has been designated European Capital of Culture 2019; the New York Times ranked Basilicata third in its list of "52 Places to Go in 2018", defining it "Italy’s best-kept secret". The name derives from "basilikos", which refers to the basileus, the Byzantine emperor, who ruled the region in the 9th–11th centuries.
Others argue that the name may refer to the Basilica of Acerenza which held judicial power in the Middle Ages. During the Greek and Roman Ages, Basilicata was known as Lucania, named after the tribes which populated the region in the Iron Age. Basilicata covers an extensive part of the southern Apennine Mountains between Ofanto in the north and the Pollino massif in the south, it is bordered on the east by a large part of the Bradano river depression, traversed by numerous streams and declines to the southeastern coastal plains on the Ionian Sea. The region has a short coastline to the southwest on the Tyrrhenian Sea side of the peninsula. Basilicata is the most mountainous region in the south of Italy, with 47% of its area of 9,992 km2 covered by mountains. Of the remaining area, 45% is hilly, 8% is made up of plains. Notable mountains and ranges include Monte Alpi, Monte Carmine, Dolomiti lucane, Monti Li Foj, Toppa Pizzuta and Monte Vulture. Geological features of the region include the volcanic Monte Vulture and the seismic faults in the Melfi and Potenza areas in the north and around Pollino in the south.
Much of the region was devastated in the 1857 Basilicata earthquake. More there was another major earthquake in 1980; the combination of the mountainous terrain combined with the rock and soil types makes landslides prevalent. While the lithological structure of the substratum and its chaotic tectonic deformation contribute to the cause of landslides, this problem is compounded by the lack of forested land; this area, similar to others in the Mediterranean region, while abundant with dense forests, was stripped and made barren during the time of Roman rule. The variable climate is influenced by three coastlines and the complexity of the region's physical features; the climate is continental in Mediterranean along the coasts. The first traces of human presence in Basilicata date to the late Paleolithic, with findings of Homo erectus. Late Cenozoic fossils, found at Venosa and other locations, include elephants and species now extinct such as a saber-toothed cat of the genus Machairodus. Examples of rock art from the Mesolithic have been discovered near Filiano.
From the fifth millennium, people stopped living in caves and built settlements of huts up to the rivers leading to the interior. In this period, anatomically modern humans lived by cultivating cereals and animal husbandry. Chalcolithic sites include the grottoes of Latronico and the funerary findings of the Cervaro grotto near Lagonegro; the first known stable market center of the Apennine culture on the sea, consisting of huts on the promontory of Capo la Timpa, near to Maratea, dates to the Bronze Age. The first indigenous Iron Age communities lived in large villages in plateaus located at the borders of the plains and the rivers, in places fitting their breeding and agricultural activities; such settlements include that of Anglona, located between the fertile valleys of Agri and Sinni, of Siris and, on the coast of the Ionian Sea, of Incoronata-San Teodoro. The first presence of Greek colonists, coming from the Greek islands and Anatolia, date from the late eighth century BC. There are no traces of survival of the 11th-8th century BC archaeological sites of the settlements: this was caused by the increasing presence of Greek colonies, which changed the balance of the trades.
In ancient historical times the region was known as Lucania, named for the Lucani, an Oscan-speaking population from central Italy. Their name might be derived from Greek leukos meaning lykos, or Latin lucus. Or more Lucania, as much as the Lucius forename derives from the Latin word Lux, meaning "light", is a cognate of name Lucas. Another etymology proposed is a derivation from Etruscan Lauchum meaning "king", which however was transferred into Latin as Lucumo. Starting from the late eighth century BC, the Greeks established a settlement first at Siris, founded by fugitives from Colophon. With the foundation of Metaponto from Achaean colonists, they started the conquest of the whole Ionian coast. There were indigenous Oenotrian foundations on the coast, which exploited the nearby presence of Greek settlements, such as Velia and Pyxous, for their maritime trades
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy
Compsa was an ancient city of the Hirpini, near the sources of the Aufidus, on the boundary of Lucania and not far from that of Apulia, on a ridge 609 m above sea level. It recaptured two years later, it was occupied by Sulla in 89 BC, was the scene of the death of Titus Annius Milo in 48 BC. Most modern sources, for example Hülsen in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopädie, refer Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Civili and Pliny's Naturalis Historiæ to this place, supposing the ancient manuscripts to be corrupt; the usual identification of the site of Milo's death with Cassano allo Ionio on the Gulf of Taranto must therefore be rejected. In imperial times, as inscriptions show, it was a municipium, but it lay far from any of the main highways; the ruins of the ancient city were studied again, when they reappeared after the destruction of the modern town in the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Compsa". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Cambridge University Press
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Aeclanum was an ancient town of Samnium, southern Italy, about 25 km east-southeast of Beneventum, on the Via Appia. It lies near the modern Mirabella Eclano. Aeclanum was on a promontory defended, to some extent, by a steep slope on the south side down to the river Calore, while the north side lay open towards the crest of the ridge that carried what under the Roman Empire became the Via Appia; this led through Lacus Ampsanctus to Venusia. Another route to Apulia, the Via Aurelia Aeclanensis diverged here, leading through modern Ariano to Herdoniae; the road from Aeclanum to Abellinum may follow an ancient line. Today there are ruins of an aqueduct, baths and an amphitheatre. Excavation has revealed a long history of pre-Roman settlement. Aeclanum became the chief town of the Hirpini. Sulla captured it in 89 BC by setting on fire the wooden breastwork by which it was defended, sacked it, it recovered, new fortifications were erected, it became a municipium. Hadrian, who repaired the Via Appia from Beneventum to this point, made it a colonia.
With the Lombard invasion of Italy it was annexed to the Duchy of Benevento, but was captured and destroyed by Byzantine Empire under Constans II in 663 and never recovered, being reduced to a small hamlet known as Quintodecimo, a name that referred to its distance of 15 miles from Benevento. Aeclanum became a Christian episcopal see, whose best known bishop was Julian of Eclanum, consecrated by Pope Innocent I in about 417, he refused to sign the condemnation of Pelagianism issued by Pope Innocent's successor, Pope Zosimus, carried on a war of writings against Augustine of Hippo. It has been thought that the diocese was united to that of Frequentium as early as the 5th century, but there is mention of Quintodecimo as a suffragan see of Benevento in 969 and 1058. From 1059 it was definitively united with Frequentium. No longer a residential bishopric, Aeclanum is today listed by the Catholic Church. Aeclanum Aeclanum
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman and one of the canonical figures of Roman history. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman, he was awarded the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command, Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle. In 81 BC, after his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator, inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before, used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman Constitution, meant to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes.
Sulla's ascension was marked by political purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after. Sulla's decision to seize power – enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome – permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. Sulla's life was habitually included in the ancient biographical collections of leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans published by Marcus Terentius Varro. In Plutarch's Parallel Lives Sulla is paired with the Spartan strategist Lysander. In older sources, his name may be found as Sylla; this is a Hellenism, like sylva for classical Latin silva, reinforced by the fact that two major ancient sources and Appian, wrote in Greek, call him Σύλλα. Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla, was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth.
Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth amongst Rome’s comics, lute-players, dancers. He retained an attachment to the debauched nature of his youth until the end of his life, it seems certain. Sallust declares him well-read and intelligent, he was fluent in Greek, a sign of education in Rome; the means by which Sulla attained the fortune which would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics, the Cursus honorum, are not clear, although Plutarch refers to two inheritances. The Jugurthine War had started in 112 BC when Jugurtha, grandson of Massinissa of Numidia, claimed the entire kingdom of Numidia in defiance of Roman decrees that divided it between several members of the royal family. Rome declared war on Jugurtha in 111 BC, but for five years Roman legions under Quintus Caecilius Metellus were unsuccessful. Gaius Marius, a lieutenant of Metellus, saw an opportunity to usurp his commander and fed rumors of incompetence and delay to the publicani in the region; these machinations caused calls for Metellus's removal.
Marius took over the campaign while Sulla was nominated quaestor to him. Under Marius, the Roman forces followed a similar plan as under Metellus and defeated the Numidians in 106 BC, thanks in large part to Sulla's initiative in capturing the Numidian king, he had persuaded Jugurtha's father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania, to betray Jugurtha who had fled to Mauretania for refuge. It was a dangerous operation from the first, with King Bocchus weighing up the advantages of handing Jugurtha over to Sulla or Sulla over to Jugurtha; the publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sulla's political career. A gilded equestrian statue of Sulla donated by King Bocchus was erected in the Forum to commemorate his accomplishment. Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, Marius took credit for this feat. In 104 BC, the migrating Germanic-Celtic alliance headed by the Cimbri and the Teutones seemed to be heading for Italy; as Marius was the best general Rome had, the Senate allowed him to lead the campaign against them.
Sulla served on Marius' staff as tribunus militum during the first half of this campaign. With those of his colleague, proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Marius' forces faced the enemy tribes at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Sulla had by this time transferred to the army of Catulus to serve as his legatus, is credited as being the prime mover in the defeat of the tribes. Victorious at Vercellae and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the co-commanding generals. Returning to Rome, Sulla was Praetor urbanus for 97 BC. In c. 95 BC he was appointed pro consule to the province of Cilicia. While in the East, Sulla was the first Roman magistrate to meet a Parthian ambassador, by taking the seat between the Parthian ambassador and the ambassador from Cappadocia he unintentionally, slighted the Parthian
The Volturno is a river in south-central Italy. It rises in the Abruzzese central Apennines of Samnium near Castel San Vincenzo and flows southeast as far as its junction with the Calore River near Caiazzo and runs south as far as Venafro, turns southwest, past Capua, to enter the Tyrrhenian Sea in Castel Volturno, northwest of Naples; the river is 175 kilometres long. After a course of some 120 kilometres it receives, about 8 kilometres east of Caiazzo, the Calore River; the united stream now flows west-southwest past Capua, where the Via Appia and Latina joined just to the north of the bridge over it, so through the Campanian plain, with many windings, into the sea. The direct length of the lower course is about 50 kilometres, so that the whole is longer than that of the Liri-Garigliano, its basin far larger; the river has always had a considerable military importance, the colony of Volturnum was founded in 194 BC at its mouth on the south bank by the Romans. A fort had been placed there during the Roman siege of Capua to serve, with Puteoli, for the provisioning of the army.
Augustus placed a colony of veterans here. The Via Domitiana from Sinuessa to Puteoli crossed the river at this point, some remains of the bridge are visible; the river was navigable as far as Capua. In 554, the Byzantine general Narses defeated a Frankish-Alamannic army near this river, during the Gothic War. Following the invasion of southern Italy by revolutionary forces led by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, Francis II of the Two Sicilies fled from Naples and took up a defensive position on the south bank of the Volturno, near S. Maria di Capua Vetere; the Piedmontese troops and those of Garibaldi inflicted on the Neapolitan forces at the battle of the Volturno, on 1 and 2 October, a defeat which led to the fall of Capua. The Volturno gave its name to the Volturno Line, a German defensive position in Italy during World War II. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Volturno". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.
Purcell, N. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 433211". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list