Joseph Herman Hirshhorn was an entrepreneur and art collector. Born in Mitau, the twelfth of thirteen children, Hirshhorn emigrated to the United States with his widowed mother at the age of six. Hirshhorn went to work as an office boy on Wall Street at age 14. Three years in 1916, he became a stockbroker and earned $168,000 that year. A shrewd investor, he sold off his Wall Street investments two months before the collapse of 1929, realizing $4 million in cash. Hirshhorn made his fortune in the oil business. In the 1930s, he focused much of his attention on gold and uranium mining prospects in Canada, establishing an office in Toronto in 1933. In the 1950s, he and geologist Franc Joubin were responsible for the "Big Z" uranium discovery in northeastern Ontario and the subsequent founding of the city of Elliot Lake. Hirshhorn Avenue, a residential street in that city, is named after him. By 1960, when he sold the last of his uranium stock, he had made over $100 million in cash from the uranium business.
From 1961 to 1976, Hirshhorn lived in a three-story Norman chateau in a 22-acre estate at the summit of Round Hill, a 550-foot rise in north-central Greenwich, with a view of the Manhattan skyline. When Hirshhorn began to make money, he began to buy both paintings and sculpture, he amassed a collection of paintings and sculptures from the 20th centuries. Applying himself to the study of art, he would question dealers and curators, visit artists in their studios, he made quick decisions on buying a piece. "If you've got to look at a picture a dozen times before you make up your mind", he once said, "there's something wrong with you or the picture". Hirshhorn graced his Greenwich mansion with paintings by Willem de Kooning, Raphael Soyer, Jackson Pollock, Larry Rivers, Thomas Eakins, the grounds outside with sculptures by Auguste Rodin, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Alberto Giacometti, Alexander Calder, Richard Bernstein, Henry Moore, he allowed many nonprofit groups to use tours of his sculpture garden for fundraising.
In 1966 Hirshhorn donated much of his collection, consisting of 6,000 paintings and sculptures from the 19th and 20h centuries, to the United States government, along with a $2 million endowment. The Smithsonian Institution established the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. in 1966 to hold the collection. At Hirshhorn's death in 1981, he willed an additional 6,000 works and a $5 million endowment to the museum, his business dealings in Canada were not without controversy. He was investigated by the Ontario Securities Commission, convicted twice of breaking Canadian foreign exchange laws, deported from Canada for illegal stock manipulation, fined for an illegal securities sale and illegally smuggling cash out of Canada. Hirshhorn's first wife was Jennie Berman, they were married in 1922 and separated in 1941. They had four children, daughters Robin Gertrude, Gene Harriet, Naomi Caryl, son Gordon, he was married to portraitist and book illustrator Lily Harmon from 1947–1956.
The couple adopted Amy and Jo Ann. Hirshhorn's third wife was named Brenda Hawley Heide. In 1964 he married Olga Hirshhorn, he remained married to her until his death in 1981 </ref>. Hyams, Barry, 1979,Hirshhorn, Medici from Brooklyn: A biography. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-12520-5 World History.org The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden at the Smithsonian Institution
Thomas Hirschhorn is a Swiss artist. He works in Paris. In the 1980s, Hirschhorn worked in Paris as a graphic artist, he was part of the group of Communist graphic designers called Grapus. These artists were concerned with politics and culture, displaying impromptu creations and posters on the street using the language of advertisement, he left Grapus to create the hypersaturated works he is known for today, using common materials such as cardboard, duct tape, plastic wrap. He has described his choice to use everyday materials in his work as "political" and that he only uses materials that are “universal, economic and don’t bear any plus-value”. Hirschorn's installations are site specific and outside the gallery, and/or interactive, he continues to offer messages in his work. He has said that he is interested in the “hard core of reality”, without illusions, has displayed a strong commitment to his work and role as an artist, he has described working and production as “necessary”, discounting anyone who encourages him to not work hard, says “I want to be overgiving in my work”.
Austrian author and Nobel laureate Elfriede Jelinek takes issue with the artist's views on Marxism. In a 2008 interview, the artist said. For his piece Cavemanman, he transformed a gallery space into a cave using wood and tape and put various philosophical and pop culture symbols throughout it. Gramsci Monument, named after the Italian thinker Antonio Gramsci, is the first project that Hirschhorn has built in the United States and the fourth and final such work in a series he began many years ago dedicated to his favorite philosophers, following a monument dedicated to Baruch Spinoza in Amsterdam in 1999, one to Gilles Deleuze in Avignon, France, in 2000 and a third to Georges Bataille in Kassel, Germany, in 2002. From the beginning, the monuments have been planned and constructed in housing projects occupied by the poor and working class, with their agreement and help, he presented a lecture as part of the "Image & Text: Writing Off The Page" lecture series through the Visiting Artists Program at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in Spring, 2006.
Hirschhorn's work has been the subject of numerous solo exhibitions including the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. In the summer of 2009, his work Cavemanman was recreated for the exhibition Walking in my Mind at London's Hayward Gallery. Hirschhorn's works are held in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, the Walker Art Center, the Tate. Hirschhorn received the Marcel Duchamp Prize, the Joseph Beuys Prize in 2004 and the Meret Oppenheim Prize in 2018. In June 2011, Hirschhorn represented Switzerland at the Venice Biennale. Thomas Hirschhorn is represented by New York. "It’s in the suburbs that there is vitality, depression, utopia, craziness, destruction, young people, fights to be fought, disagreements and dreams. It's in the suburbs. It’s in the suburbs that today’s reality can be grasped, it’s in the suburbs that the pulse of vitality hurts""Terms such as obscene are used swiftly in order to protect people from exposure to the truth." "I'm interested in the'too much,' doing too much, giving too much, putting too much of an effort into something.
Wastefulness as a tool or weapon." "I do not want to oblige viewers to become interactive with what I do. I want to give of myself to such a degree that viewers confronted with the work can take part and become involved, but not as actors." "This is something essential to art: reception is never its goal. What counts. Reflection is an activity." Artist's web-site Thomas Hirschhorn at Stephen Friedman Gallery 2008 Life on Mars, the 2008 Carnegie International 2007-08 "Thomas Hirshhorn at Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal" Haidu, Rachel, "The imaginary space of the wishful other: Thomas Hirschhorn’s Cardboard Utopias." Vector e-zine, January 2006. 2006 "Someone Cares," in Fillip 2001 "Thomas Hirshhorn at Stalingrad Station", Sculpture magazine Artist's short biography, "Thomas Hirschhorn". SIKART dictionary and database. TateShots at the Venice Biennale 2011: Thomas Hirschhorn at the Swiss Pavilion The artist talks about his contribution to the Venice Biennale, 2011-06-08 Thomas Hirschhorn by Museo Cantonale d’Arte Lugano
Hirschhorn is a small town in the Bergstraße district of Hesse, is known as "The Pearl of the Neckar valley”. Hirschhorn is a climatic health resort situated in the Geo-Naturpark Bergstraße-Odenwald. Hirschhorn is situated at a horseshoe bend of the River Neckar 19 km east of Heidelberg; the Neckar has dug its way through the wooded hills of the Odenwald here. Hirschhorn stretches along the right bank of the Neckar, i.e. north of the river. Ersheim, Hirschhorn's oldest part, has the distinction, however, of being the only bit of Hesse south of the Neckar. In Hirschhorn, two northern tributaries, the Ulfenbach and the Finkenbach, join to become the Laxbach before flowing into the Neckar. In the north, Hirschhorn borders on the villages of Heddesbach and Brombach, on the parish of Rothenberg; the town of Eberbach is in the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis and therefore in Baden-Württemberg. South of Hirschhorn there is the parish of Schoenbrunn. Apart from the town itself, the following villages belong to Hirschhorn: Langenthal Unter-Hainbrunn Hessisch-Igelsbach The first document in which the settlement of Ersheim is mentioned is the Lorsch codex in an endowment dated 773.
This settlement, which in 1023 under the name of Erasam belonged to the property of a monastery affiliated to Lorsch, St Michael's on Heiligenberg near Heidelberg, was one of the oldest in the Neckar valley. Whereas the whole of the surrounding area came into the possession of the diocese of Worms in the 11th century, Ersheim together with the nearby village of Ramsau downriver on the right bank remained an exclave of Lorsch. From here several villages were founded in forest clearings from the 12th century onward, among them Weidenau, Unter-Hainbrunn and Krautlach, but they were abandoned again afterwards; the actual town of Hirschhorn southwest of Ersheim on the right bank of the Neckar derives its name from its founders, the Lords of Hirschhorn, whose coat of arms shows a stag's antler. The first Lord of Hirschhorn was a son of a knight of Steinach. Hirschhorn Castle was built about 1250/60 on land given as a fief by Lorsch Abbey, which since 1232 was in the possession of the Archbishop of Mainz.
Engelhard I increased his influence and his dominions through Imperial fiefdoms and land mortgaged to him in return for loans. His son, Engelhard II, was placed under the Imperial ban. Hirschhorn was surrounded by a town wall after the brothers Hans V, Albrecht and Eberhard of Hirschhorn had received its town charter from King Wenceslaus in 1391; when Elector Palatine Ruprecht III was elected King in 1400, Hans V of Hirschhorn was employed in Imperial service as an adviser and financier. His diplomatic missions took him to the English court. King Henry V of England held Hans in such high esteem that he granted him a lifelong annual payment of 100 marks. Hirschhorn was endowed with the right to have a weekly market in 1404; the oldest town seal dates from 25 July 1406. It was in that year that Hans V, together with his brothers, founded the Carmelite monastery with its Church of the Annunciation on the slope below the castle. A first enlargement of the town is mentioned as early as in 1413; the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages sought protection within the precincts of the fortified town, so Ersheim, Ramsau and Weidenau were soon abandoned.
Ersheim only consisted of the church compound for centuries. Between 1522 and 1529, the Knights of Hirschhorn converted to Protestantism, they quarrelled with the Carmelites and closed their monastery down in 1543. In 1555 the town was hit by the Plague, in 1556 a devastating fire destroyed nearly the whole of the oldest part of the town. Extensive flooding aggravated by thawing ice occurred in 1565. While Hirschhorn was not involved in the German Peasants' War, major changes were brought about by the Thirty Years' War. After the Lords of Hirschhorn had died out with the demise of Frederic III in September 1632 - he had fled to Heilbronn in order to escape the turmoil of the war - the castle and the town passed to the archdiocese of Mainz; the Plague of 1635 decimated the population. After the end of Swedish occupation in 1636, Hirschhorn was mortgaged to an official at the court of the Elector of Cologne, Rudolf Raitz von Frentz; the population, afflicted by the war, had to suffer exploitation and impoverishment.
The Carmelites moved back into their monastery. Around the middle of the seventeenth century Hirschhorn's population only amounted to a fifth of what it had been at the beginning of that century. Following the Peace of Westphalia, new inhabitants from Palatinate, the Electorates of Mainz and Trier, Lorraine and Switzerland settled in the town. Between 1676 and 1699, Hirschhorn was mortgaged to Westphalian baron Johann Wilhelm von der Reck, but in 1700 direct rule by the Electorate of Mainz was established. Hirschhorn was now the seat of an Amtskellerei within the higher administrative unit of Starkenburg with its centre in Heppenheim. In 1803, Hirschhorn came into the possessi
Hartshorn is the horn of male red deer. Various substances were made from hartshorn shavings: Oil of hartshorn is a crude animal oil obtained from the destructive distillation of male red deer bones or horns. Salt of hartshorn refers to ammonium carbonate, an early form of smelling salts obtained by dry distillation of oil of hartshorn. Spirit of hartshorn is an aqueous solution of ammonia; this term was applied to a solution manufactured from the hooves and horns of the red deer, as well as those of some other animals. The aqueous solution was pungent, consisting of about 28.5 percent ammonia. It was used chiefly as a detergent, for removing stains and extracting certain vegetable coloring agents, in the manufacture of ammonium salts; the term was applied to the purified similar products of the action of heat on nitrogenous animal matter generally. The term was applied to any aqueous solution of ammonia. Hartshorn jelly or a decoction of burnt hartshorn in water was used to treat diarrhea; the coal of hartshorn, called calcinated hartshorn, was used as an absorbent, as well as in the treatment of dysentery.
Salt of hartshorn was used as a sudorific for treatment of fevers, as a smelling salt. Hartshorn was used to treat insect bites, sunstroke and snakebites. Hartshorn salt known as hartshorn, baker's ammonia, was used as a leavening agent, in the baking of cookies and other edible treats, it was used in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as a forerunner of baking powder. A half-teaspoon of hartshorn can substitute for one teaspoon of baking powder, it is called for in old German and Scandinavian recipes and, although used in modern times, may still be purchased as a baking ingredient. Hartshorn helps molded cookies such as Springerle to retain their intricate designs during baking. Cookies made with hartshorn can be kept for a long time without hardening. Use of hartshorn may turn some ingredients, such as sunflower seeds, green. Ammonium carbonate is suited to thin, dry cookies and crackers; when heated, it releases no water. The absence of water allows cookies to cook and dry out more and thinner cookies allow the pungent ammonia to escape, rather than to remain trapped, as it would in a deeper mass.
Ammonia released during the baking process reacts with glucose and fructose to form intermediate molecules that in turn, react with asparagine to form acrylamide, a carcinogen
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden is an art museum beside the National Mall, in Washington, D. C. the United States. The museum was endowed during the 1960s with the permanent art collection of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, it is part of the Smithsonian Institution. It was conceived as the United States' museum of contemporary and modern art and focuses its collection-building and exhibition-planning on the post–World War II period, with particular emphasis on art made during the last 50 years; the Hirshhorn is sited halfway between the Washington Monument and the US Capitol, anchoring the southernmost end of the so-called L'Enfant axis. The National Archives/National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden across the Mall, the National Portrait Gallery/Smithsonian American Art building several blocks to the north mark this pivotal axis, a key element of both the 1791 city plan by Pierre L'Enfant and the 1901 MacMillan Plan; the building itself is an attraction, an open cylinder elevated on four massive "legs," with a large fountain occupying the central courtyard.
Before architect Gordon Bunshaft designed the building, the Smithsonian staff told him that, if it did not provide a striking contrast to everything else in the city it would be unfit for housing a modern art collection. In the late 1930s, the United States Congress mandated an art museum for the National Mall. At the time, the only venue for visual art was the National Gallery of Art, which focuses on Dutch and Italian art. During the 1940s World War II shifted the project into the background. Meanwhile, Joseph H. Hirshhorn, now in his forties and enjoying great success from uranium-mining investments, began creating his collection from classic French Impressionism to works by living artists, American modernism of the early 20th century, sculpture. In 1955, Hirshhorn sold his uranium interests for more than $50-million, he expanded his collection to warehouses, an apartment in New York City, an estate in Greenwich, with extensive area for sculpture. A 1962 sculpture show at New York's Guggenheim Museum awakened an international art community to the breadth of Hirshhorn's holdings.
Word of his collection of modern and contemporary paintings circulated, institutions in Italy, Canada and New York City vied for the collection. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley campaigned for a new museum on the National Mall. In 1966, an Act of Congress established the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution. Most of the funding was federal, but Hirshhorn contributed $1-million toward construction. Joseph and his fourth wife, Olga Zatorsky Hirshhorn, visited the White House; the groundbreaking was in 1969 and Abram Lerner was named the founding Director. He oversaw research and installation of more than 6,000 items brought from the Hirshhorns' Connecticut estate and other properties to Washington, DC. Joseph Hirshhorn spoke at the inauguration, saying: It is an honor to have given my art collection to the people of the United States as a small repayment for what this nation has done for me and others like me who arrived here as immigrants.
What I accomplished in the United States I could not have accomplished anywhere else in the world. One million visitors saw the 850-work inaugural show in the first six months. In 1984, James T. Demetrion, fourteen-year director of the Des Moines Art Center in Iowa, succeeded Abram Lerner as the Hirshhorn's director. Art collector and retail store founder Sydney Lewis of Richmond, succeeded Senator Daniel P. Moynihan as board chairman. Mr. Demetrion held the post for more than 17 years. Ned Rifkin became director in February 2002, returning to the Hirshhorn after directorship positions at the Menil Collection in Texas and the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia. Rifkin was chief curator of the Hirshhorn from 1986 until 1991. In October 2003, Rifkin was named Under Secretary for Art of the Smithsonian. In 2005, Olga Viso was named director of the Hirshhorn. Viso joined the curatorial department of the Hirshhorn in 1995 as assistant curator, was named associate curator in 1998, served as curator of contemporary art from 2000 to 2003.
In October 2003, Viso was named deputy director of the Hirshhorn, a post she held until her 2005 promotion to director. After two years, Ms. Viso accepted the position of Director of the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, departing in December 2007. Chief Curator and Deputy Director Kerry Brougher served as Acting Director for more than a year until an international search led to the hiring of Richard Koshalek, named the fifth director of the Hirshhorn in February, 2009. Richard Koshalek was president of Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, Calif. from 1999 until January 2009. Before that, he served as director of The Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles for nearly 20 years. At both institutions, he was noted for his commitment to new artistic initiatives, including commissioned works, scholarly exhibitions and publications and the building of new facilities that garnered architectural acclaim, he worked with architect Frank Gehry on the design and construction of MOCA's Geffen Contemporary, a renovated warehouse popularly known as the Temporary Contemporary.
He worked with the Japanese architect Arata Isozaki on the museum's permanent home in Los Angeles. Koshalek resigned in 2013 after the Bloomberg Bubble controversy. On June 5, 2014, Hirshhorn trustees announced that they had hired Melissa Chiu, director of Asia Society Museum in New York City, to be the Hirshhorn's new director. Chiu, born