Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig, to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg and carpenter and he went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting. In 1786 his family moved to Blans, a village near the picturesque Alssund, where he enjoyed drawing pictures of the surrounding countryside, after confirmation he began his training as a painter under church- and portrait painter, Jes Jessen of Aabenraa. He continued his training at 17 years of age under Josiah Jacob Jessen in Flensborg and he, had his sights set on being accepted at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. Still under apprenticeship he produced proficient drawings and paintings, having amassed some money, including financial support from local well-wishers, he arrived at Copenhagens Tollbooth on 23 May 1803. He was accepted into the Academy without payment in 1803 where he studied with Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard and he made good progress, painting historical paintings and landscapes.
However, friction between him and Abildgaard impeded his advancement, and he did not win the Academys big gold medal until 1809 and he worked to earn living money as a hand laborer, and he made drawings for copperplate etchings. Although he received promise of a stipend in conjunction with the gold medal. On 1 July 1810, he married E. Christine Rebecca Hyssing against his wishes, in order to legitimize a son, Erling Carl Vilhelm Eckersberg and his son, eventually followed in his fathers footsteps with an Academy education, and a career as a copperplate engraver. On 3 July, a few days after the wedding, he began his travels out of the country, along with Tønnes Christian Bruun de Neergaard, enthusiastic art lover and financial supporter, he made his way over Germany to Paris. Here he studied under neoclassicist Jacques-Louis David from 1811-1812 and he improved his skills in painting the human form, and followed his teachers admonition to paint after Nature and the Antique in order to find Truth.
It was here that he developed a friendship with Paris roommate, fellow artist Jens Peter Møller. After two years he traveled further via Florence to Rome where he continued his studies between 1813-1816 and he worked on improving his skills as a history painter, and enjoyed painting smaller studies of the local life and area. He lived there three years among a group of artists, with Bertel Thorvaldsen as the cultural head. Eckersberg and Thorvaldsen developed a lasting relationship, and the master served the younger Eckersberg as both loyal friend and advisor. Eckersberg painted one of his best portraits, a portrait of Thorvaldsen, in Rome 1814, life in Rome agreed with him, and he was greatly affected by the bright southern light he experienced there. He produced a body of work during those years, including a number of exceptional landscape studies. His divorce from Hyssing was finalized during his stay out of the country, shortly after his return to Denmark he arranged for his admission into the Academy, and received as the subject of his admissions painting the Norse legend, the Death of Baldur
Holger Henrik Herholdt Drachmann was a Danish poet and dramatist. He was a figure of the Modern Breakthrough, the son of a physician, A. G. Drachmann, whose father belonged to the German-speaking congregation at St. Peters Church, was born in Copenhagen. Drachmann first visited Skagen in 1872 with the Norwegian painter Frits Thaulow and he frequently returned, associating with the growing colony of artists known as the Skagen Painters although his painting took second place to his writing. In 1903, he and his third wife Soffi settled in Skagens Vesterby in their Villa Pax, in life, Drachmann returned to art, often painting pictures of ships and the sea. After his death, his Skagen home became a museum, Holger was sent to Bornholm to learn to paint, there he met his first wife Vilhelmine Erichsen, whom he married in 1871 in Gentofte. He was involved with a woman named Polly for a short while. Shortly after she gave birth to a daughter, she broke contact with him and he met with a young girl in Hamburg by the name of Emmy.
They fell in love and got married and they adopted Pollys daughter and had four more children of their own. In 1887 she became ill, and one of their daughters died the same year. Perhaps suffering from stress, he fled into a relation with Amanda Nielsen, whom he called Edith and he would have many muses in his life, but on his deathbed he said that his two biggest muses were Vilhelmine and Edith. Behind in his studies, he did not enter university until 1865, from 1866 to 1870 he learned, under Professor Sørensen, to become a marine painter, with some success. In about 1870 he came under the influence of Georg Brandes, at various periods he travelled very extensively in England, France and Italy, and his literary career began by his sending letters about his journeys to the Danish newspapers. After returning home, he settled for some time on the island of Bornholm and he now issued his earliest volume of poems and joined the group of young Radical writers who followed Brandes. Drachmann was unsettled, and still doubted whether his strength lay in the pencil or in the pen.
His volume of lyrics, Dæmpede Melodier, proved that Drachmann was a poet with a real vocation, ungt Blod contained three realistic stories of contemporary life. In 1879 he published Ranker og Roser, amatory lyrics of a high order of melody. To the same period belongs Paa sømands tro og love, a volume of stories in prose. It was about time that Drachmann broke with Brandes and the Radicals
Danish Golden Age
The Danish Golden Age covers a period of exceptional creative production in Denmark, especially during the first half of the 19th century. Although Copenhagen had suffered fires and national bankruptcy. It saw the development of Danish architecture in the Neoclassical style, Copenhagen, in particular, acquired a new look, with buildings designed by Christian Frederik Hansen and by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. In relation to music, the Golden Age covers figures inspired by Danish romantic nationalism including J. P. E. Hartmann, Hans Christian Lumbye, Niels W. Gade, literature centred on Romantic thinking, introduced in 1802 by the Norwegian-German philosopher Henrik Steffens. Key contributors were Adam Oehlenschläger, Bernhard Severin Ingemann, N. F. S. Grundtvig and, last but not least, Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard furthered philosophy while Hans Christian Ørsted achieved fundamental progress in science. The Golden Age thus had an effect not only on life in Denmark but, with time.
The origins of the Golden Age can be traced back to around the beginning of the 19th century, this was a very rough period for Denmark. Copenhagen, the centre of the intellectual life, first experienced huge fires in 1794 and 1795 which destroyed both Christiansborg Palace and large areas of the inner city. In 1801, as a result of the involvement in the League of Armed Neutrality. Then in 1813, as a result of the inability to support the costs of war. To make matters worse, Norway ceased to be part of the Danish realm when it was ceded to Sweden the following year, Copenhagens devastation nevertheless provided new opportunities. Architects and planners widened the streets, constructing beautifully designed Neoclassical buildings offering a brighter yet intimate look, at the time, with a population of only 100,000, the city was still quite small, built within the confines of the old ramparts. As a result, the figures of the day met frequently, sharing their ideas, bringing the arts. Henrik Steffens was perhaps the most effective proponent of the Romantic idea, in a series of lectures in Copenhagen, he successfully conveyed the ideas behind German romanticism to the Danes.
Influential thinkers, such as Oehlenschläger and Grundtvig were quick to take up his views and it was not long before Danes from all branches of the arts and sciences were involved in a new era of Romantic nationalism, known as the Danish Golden Age. Especially in the field of painting, change became apparent, grand historical art gave way to more widely appealing but less pretentious genre paintings and landscapes. The Golden Age is generally believed to have lasted until about 1850, around that time, Danish culture suffered from the outbreak of the First Schleswig War. In addition, political reforms involving the end of the monarchy in 1848
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the wall surface, usually treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom. In contrast to a pilaster, a column or buttress can support the structure of a wall. It may be defined as a column which has lost its three-dimensional. A pilaster appears with a capital and entablature, in low-relief or flattened against the wall and these vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway, when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile, during the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms.
In the giant order pilasters appear as tall, linking floors in a single unit
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture, the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognised by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns and it was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above. The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, and had no base, the capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but more restrained. In stone they are purely ornamental, the relatively uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, and often introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as often using plain columns. The Doric order was used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards, often earlier Greek versions were used, with wider columns. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues and it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use.
In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the pavement of a temple without a base. The Parthenon has the Doric design columns and it was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, and found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum. These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes. The triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike stagons or guttae that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction and they served to organize rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the metopes and they may be left plain, or they may be carved in low relief.
The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems which some time to resolve. The architecture followed rules of harmony, since the original design probably came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly, the last triglyph was centred upon the last column and this was regarded as the ideal solution which had to be reached. Changing to stone instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, even worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column. That “archaic” manner was not regarded as a harmonious design, the resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict
Heinrich Hirschsprung was born on 7 February 1836 in Copenhagen into a family of German-Jewish descent. His father, Abraham Marcus, had born in Friedberg near Frankfurt am Main in 1783. Two years later, in 1827, he married Petrea Hirschsprung née Hertz and his brother Bernhard took over their fathers shop in 1858 and under their leadership the business, now specializing in cigar making, grew rapidly. In 1866, they bought a piece of unused land at Gammelholm, there they built a modern factory for manufacting cigars. It was designed by the young architect Ove Petersen in a Historicist style which relied on Italian Renaissance architecture for inspiration, Heinrich married Pauline Elisabeth Jacobson, afterwards known as Pauline Hirschsprung, on 26 June 1864. They had five children, Ivar, Åge, Pauline was the daughter of wholesaler Daniel Simon and Friederiche Jacobson née Gerhardt. They had their first apartment on Højbro Plads in Copenhagen and a house on Bredgade and they had country homes in the north of Sjælland as well as in Italy.
Hirschsprungs disease is named after his pediatrician brother Harald, who first described it, Hirschsprung began his art collection in 1866, with the purchase of a painting by Julius Exner. His collection expanded over the years with additional purchases of paintings by contemporary Danish artists and it was a modern collection of examples from the Skagen Painters, the Fynboerne and Symbolists. Hirschsprung was a supporter, both personal and economic, of P. S. Krøyer who met him through Frants Henningsen, a friend at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Hirschsprung admired Krøyer’s artistic talent and skills, and he purchased the first paintings from him in 1874 — four watercolors from Hornbæk, Hirschsprung helped finance Krøyer’s travels and foreign residence during the years 1877-1881, giving him the economic support needed to develop his artistic skills. Krøyer was a friend of the entire family and he carried on a personal correspondence with Pauline and made a number of family portraits of Heinrich and their children.
The Hirschsprung Collection was established by Pauline and the museum opened in 1911 with 45 paintings,13 pastels,205 drawings,14 watercolors,12 busts,55 sketchbooks as well as P. S. The collection has grown since then, and the continues to this day in a beautiful park setting near central Copenhagen. The Hirschsprung Collection The story of P. S, Krøyer and Heinrich Hirschsprung, with Hirschsprung family portraits by Krøyer
Wilhelm Ferdinand Bendz was a Danish painter mainly known for genre works and portraits which often portray his artist colleagues and their daily lives. He was one of the most talented artists in the generation of painters who studied under Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. Wilhelm Bendz was born on 20 March 1804 in Odense on the island of Funen and he was sent to Copenhagen where he attended the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1820 to 1825, where he studied under Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. He may have acquired some knowledge of contemporary German painting, the Munich School, after his graduation from the Academy, Bendz contributed successfully with a number of works to the annual exhibitions at Charlottenborg in 1826,1827 and 1828. Another important work from this phase is A Tobacco Party from 1828, in late 1830 Bendz finally received a travel scholarship which enabled him to leave for southern Europe. After shorter visits to Dresden and Berlin, he went to Munich, which had developed into a vibrant centre for the arts.
His most important work from the stay is the thoroughly composed group portrait Artist in the Evening at Fincks Coffee House in Munich and they continued together but shortly after, in Vicenza, Bendz who had felt ill since Venice died from a lung infection. Today he is remembered for his many technically accomplished portraits, though his ambition most of all ran towards a refined fusion of portrait, genre scene. His technical virtuosity is particularly visible in his depictions of the play of light cast from an obscured source, Wilhelm Bendzs works Mortensen, Klaus P. Wilhelm Bendz. Rooms with a View The Open Window in the 19th Century, Wilhelm, Marianne, Birgitte. Wilhelm Bendz 1804-1832 et ungt kunstnerliv
The tympanum, the triangular area within the pediment, is often decorated with relief sculpture. The pediment is found in classical Greek temples, renaissance, a prominent example is the Parthenon, where it contains a tympanum decorated with figures in relief sculpture. This architectural element was developed in the architecture of ancient Greece, in Ancient Rome, the Renaissance, and architectural revivals, the pediment was used as a non-structural element over windows and aedicules. A variant is the segmental or arch pediment, where the normal angular slopes of the cornice are replaced by one in the form of a segment of a circle, both traditional and segmental pediments have broken and open forms. In the broken pediment the raking cornice is left open at the apex, the open pediment is open along the base – often used in Georgian architecture. A further variant is the Swan-necked pediment, where the cornice is in the form of two S-shaped brackets. The decorations in the tympanum frequently extend through these openings, in the form of Alto-relievo sculpture, tondo paintings and these forms were adopted in Mannerist architecture, and applied to furniture designed by Thomas Chippendale.
The terms open pediment and broken pediment are often used interchangeably, a pediment is sometimes the top element of a portico