Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of the first prime minister of India, she served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian Prime Minister, after her father. Gandhi served as her father's personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as Prime Minister between 1947 and 1964, she was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. In the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966, she defeated her rival Morarji Desai to become leader, thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India.
As Prime Minister, Gandhi was known for her political intransigency and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regional hegemon of South Asia. Citing fissiparous tendencies and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. In 1980, she returned to power after fair elections. After Operation Blue Star, she was assassinated by her own bodyguards and Sikh nationalists on 31 October 1984; the assassins, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, were both shot by other security guards. Satwant Singh was executed after being convicted of murder. In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC.
Indira Gandhi was born as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru in a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in India's political struggle for independence from British rule, became the first Prime Minister of the Dominion of India, she was the only child, grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan. She had a unhappy childhood, her father was away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was bed-ridden with illness, suffered an early death from tuberculosis. She had limited contact with her father through letters. Indira was taught at home by tutors, intermittently attended school until matriculation in 1934, she was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad, the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, affiliated to University of Mumbai. She and her mother Kamala Nehru moved to Belur Math headquarters of Ramakrishna Mission where Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian she went on to study at the Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan.
It was during her interview that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. A year however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe. While there, it was decided. After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor, she did, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. On 26 September 1981, Indira was conferred with the Honorory Degree of Doctor at the Laucala Graduation at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji. During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was attended to by doctors, she had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover.
She was being treated there in 1940, when the German armies conquered Europe. Gandhi was left stranded for nearly two months, she managed to enter England in early 1941, from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. The university awarded her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford further honoured her by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. During her stay in Great Britain, Indira met her future husband Feroze Gandhi, whom she knew from Allahabad, and, studying at the London School of Economics; the marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat. The couple had Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. In the 1950s, now Mrs Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime Minister of India. Towards the end of the 1950s, Indira Gandhi served as the President of the Congress.
In that ca
1967 Indian general election
The Indian general election of 1967 elected the 4th Lok Sabha of India and was held from 17 to 21 February. The 27 Indian states and union territories were represented by 520 single-member constituencies. Under the leadership of Indira Gandhi, the Indian National Congress won a fourth consecutive term in power and over 54% of the seats, while no other party won more than 10% of the votes or seats. However, the INC's victory was lower than the results they had achieved in the previous three elections under Jawaharlal Nehru. By 1967, economic growth in India had slowed – the 1961–1966 Five-Year Plan gave a target of 5.6% annual growth, but the actual growth rate was 2.4%. Under Lal Bahadur Shastri, the government's popularity was boosted after India prevailed in the 1965 War with Pakistan, but this war had helped put a strain on the economy. Internal divisions were emerging in the Indian National Congress and its two popular leaders Nehru and Shastri had both died. Indira Gandhi had succeeded Shastri as leader, but a rift had emerged between her and Deputy Prime Minister Morarji Desai, her rival in the 1966 party leadership contest.
The INC suffered significant losses in 7 states which included: Gujarat where INC won 11 out of 24 seats while Swatantra Party won 12 seats. Madras where INC won 3 out of 39 seats and DMK won 25 seats. Orissa where INC won 6 out of 20 seats and Swatantra Party won 8 seats. Rajasthan where INC won 10 out of 20 seats Swatantra Party won 8 seats. West Bengal where INC won 14 out of 40. Kerala where INC won only 1 out of 19. Delhi where INC won 1 out of 7 while remaining 6 were won by Bharatiya Jana Sangh; the decline in support for Congress was reflected by the fact it lost control of six state governments in the same year. The party's electoral losses led to Gandhi becoming assertive and opting for a series of choices that put her against the rest of the party establishment leading to a split in the party. Election Commission of India Indian presidential election, 1967
Maniben Patel was an Indian independence movement activist and a Member of the Indian parliament. She was the daughter of freedom fighter and post-Independence Indian leader Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Educated in Mumbai, Maniben adopted the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi in 1918, started working at his ashram in Ahmedabad. Maniben was born on 3 April 1903 at Karamasad, India, she lost her mother. She was brought up by her uncle Vitthalbhai Patel, she completed her early education at Queen Mary High School in Mumbai, known as Bombay. In 1920 She joined Gujarat Vidhyapith started by Mahatma Gandhi. After completing her graduation in 1925, Maniben went on to assist her father. In 1923-24 British Government had levied heavy taxes and for recovery of the same they started confiscating their cattle, properties of the common people. To protest against his oppression, Maniben Motivated women to come out and join campaign led by Gandhiji and Sardar Patel and support No-tax movement. Exorbitant tax was levied by Britishers on the peasants of Bardoli in 1928 and were going similar harassament as that of Borsad.
Mahatma Gandhi directed Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to take leadership of the Satyagrah. Women were reluctant to join the movement, Maniben along with Mithuben Petit and Bhaktiba Desai motivated women, who outnumbered men in the movement; as a part of protest, they stayed in huts eracted on lands confiscated by the government. During 1938, Against the unjust rule of Diwan of Rajkot State a Satyagrah was planned. Kasturba Gandhi was keen to join the Satyagrah despite her poor health. Maniben Accompanied her. On the government passed an order to separate both the ladies. Maniben went on fast against the order and authorities allowed her to be with Kasturba Gandhi, she participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement as well as the Salt Satyagraha and was imprisoned for long periods of time. In the 1930s she became her father's aide caring for his personal needs. However, because Manibehn Patel was committed to the liberation of India, thus the Quit India movement, she was again imprisoned from 1942 to 1945 in Yerwada Central Jail.
Manibehn Patel served her father until his death in 1950. After moving to Mumbai, she worked for the rest of her life with numerous charitable organizations and for the Sardar Patel Memorial Trust, she went on to author an account of the freedom struggle as a book on her father's life in the years following Indian Independence. Maniben always ensured that her and her fathers cloths are weaved from khadi threads which were spun by her, she always insisted on travelling in third class. Maniben Vallabhai Patel was once Vice-President of the Gujarat Provincial Congress Committee, she was elected as a member of Indian National congress led by Nehru in first lok sabha from South Kaira constituency, in the second Lok Sabha from Anand. She was Secretary and Vice President of Gujarat state Congress, she was elected to Rajya Sabha in 1964 and continued till 1970. Information is lacking over whether it was as a Congress Party member, a Swatantra Party member or an NCO member, she left Indira led Congress to join Congress, opposed emergency and was elected to Lok Sabha from Mehsana on Janata party ticket in 1977.
She was connected with several educational institutions including the Gujarat Vidyapith, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Bardoli Swaraj Ashram and Navajivan Trust prior to her death in 1990. In 2011, the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Memorial Trust undertook a project to publish her Gujarati diary, in collaboration with Navajivan Publications. Inside Story of Sardar Patel: The Diary of Maniben Patel, 1936-50, by Manibahen Patel. Ed. Prabha Chopra. Vision Books, 2001. ISBN 81-7094-424-4. Condolence letter from Horace Alexander to Maniben on her father's death. National Archives of India
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo-Pakistan Wars fought between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar from Waziristan, in an effort to capture Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance; the inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries. The Maharaja faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October 1947, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state; these local tribal militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Maharaja Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance, help was offered, but it was subject to his signing an Instrument of Accession to India.
The war was fought by the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and by tribal militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier Province. Following the accession of the state to India on 26 October 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital; the British commanding officers refused the entry of Pakistani troops into the conflict, citing the accession of the state to India. However in 1948, they relented and the Pakistani armies entered the war after this; the fronts solidified along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948 and became effective on the night of 1 January 1949; the result of the war was inconclusive. However, most neutral assessments agree that India was the victor of the war as it was able to defend about two-thirds of the Kashmir including Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Prior to 1815, the area now known as "Jammu and Kashmir" comprised 22 small independent states carved out of territories controlled by the Amir of Afghanistan, combined with those of local small rulers.
These were collectively referred to as the "Punjab Hill States". These small states, ruled by Rajput kings, were variously independent, vassals of the Mughal Empire since the time of Emperor Akbar or sometimes controlled from Kangra state in the Himachal area. Following the decline of the Mughals, turbulence in Kangra and invasions of Gorkhas, the hill states fell successively under the control of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh; the First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire, which asserted sovereignty over Kashmir, the East India Company. In the Treaty of Lahore of 1846, the Sikhs were made to surrender the valuable region between the Beas River and the Sutlej River and required to pay an indemnity of 1.2 million rupees. Because they could not raise this sum, the East India Company allowed the Dogra ruler Gulab Singh to acquire Kashmir from the Sikh kingdom in exchange for making a payment of 750,000 rupees to the Company. Gulab Singh became the first Maharaja of the newly formed princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, founding a dynasty, to rule the state, the second-largest principality during the British Raj, until India gained its independence in 1947.
The years 1946–1947 saw the rise of All-India Muslim League and Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate state for India's Muslims. The demand took a violent turn on the Direct Action Day and inter-communal violence between Hindus and Muslims became endemic. A decision was taken on 3 June 1947 to divide British India into two separate states, the Dominion of Pakistan comprising the Muslim majority areas and the Union of India comprising the rest; the two provinces Punjab and Bengal with large Muslim-majority areas were to be divided between the two dominions. An estimated 11 million people migrated between the two parts of Punjab, 1 million perished in the inter-communal violence. Jammu and Kashmir, being adjacent to the Punjab province, was directly affected by the happenings in Punjab; the original target date for the transfer of power to the new dominions was June 1948. However, fearing the rise of inter-communal violence, the British Viceroy Lord Mountbatten advanced the date to 15 August 1947.
This gave only 6 weeks to complete all the arrangements for partition. Mountbatten's original plan was to stay on the joint Governor General for both the dominions till June 1948. However, this was not accepted by the Pakistani leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah. In the event, Mountbatten stayed on as the Governor General of India, whereas Pakistan chose Jinnah as its Governor General, it was envisaged. Hence British officers stayed on after the transfer of power; the service chiefs were responsible to them. The overall administrative control, but not operational control, was vested with Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck, titled the'Supreme Commander', answerable to a newly formed Joint Defence Council of the two dominions. India appointed General Rob Lockhart as its Army chief and Pakistan appointed General Frank Messervy; the presence of the British commanding officers on both sides made the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 a strange war. The two commanding officers were in daily telephone contact and adopted mutually defensive positions.
The attitude was that "you can hit them so hard but not too hard, otherwise there will be all kinds of repercussions." Both Lockhart and Messervy were replaced in the course of war, their successors Roy Bucher and Douglas Gracey tried to exercise restrain
St Catherine's College, Oxford
St Catherine's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its motto is Nova et Vetera, which translates as: "Things both new and old". Catz claims to be "Oxford’s youngest undergraduate college and one of its largest", it developed out of the university's Delegacy for Unattached Students St Catherine's Society, was founded in 1962 by the historian Alan Bullock, who went on to become the first Master of the college, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. As of 2018, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £84.8m. The college traces its descent from the Scholares Non Ascripti, or Delegacy for Unattached Students, founded by Statute on 11 June 1868; this was established as part of an expansion of the University so that students would be able to gain an Oxford education without the costs of college membership. During the academic year 2018/2019, the College will therefore be celebrating its 150th Anniversary, in recognition of these origins; the delegacy was headed by two Censors, George Kitchin and George S. Ward, who oversaw the administration and welfare of the students.
Nineteen students matriculated in October 1868 as Scholares Non Ascripti and were joined throughout the year by another forty, bringing the total number in the first year to fifty-nine. By 1914, more than 4,000 men had matriculated as Non-Collegiate students; the Delegacy students met as St Catherine's Club from 1874, named after its meeting place in a hall on Catte Street. The club was recognised by the University in 1931 as St Catherine's Society, it was thus developing the characteristics of a college, in 1956 the Delegates decided to formalise this change in status. After acquiring 8 acres from Merton College, Oxford on part of Holywell Great Meadow for £57,690, monies were sought from the University Grants Committee who agreed to supply £250,000 towards the building, additional funds up to £400,000 for all facilities. By 1960 Sir Alan Bullock raised a further £1,000,000 with invaluable assistance from two industrial notables, Sir Alan Wilson and Sir Hugh Beaver. After a total cost of £2.5 million, the college opened in 1962 to male students.
In 1974 St Catz was one of the first men's colleges to admit women as full members, the others being Brasenose, Jesus College and Wadham. The college is situated on the bank of the Cherwell river, its striking buildings in glass and concrete by the Danish architect Arne Jacobsen marry modern materials with a traditional layout around a quadrangle. Jacobsen's designs went further than just the fabric of the buildings, with cutlery and lampshades being of his own idiosyncratic design; the dining hall is notable for its Cumberland slate floor. The original college buildings received a Grade I listing on 30 March 1993. Jacobsen's plans for the college did not include a chapel: St Cross Church on the corner of Manor Road and Longwall Street used to serve this purpose when required before its decommission in the Autumn of 2008; the St Catherine's Christmas carol concert has since been held in Harris Manchester College's chapel. The college has a bell tower however. An extra floor was reputedly planned for most accommodation blocks, but due to regulations concerning safe building on marshland, this was removed from the final design.
St Catherine's has a number of lecture theatres and seminar rooms, a music house, two student computer rooms, a small gym, squash courts, a punt house, among the most spacious common rooms in Oxford. There are additional purpose-built conference facilities with lecture theatres, meeting rooms and bar, car parking available for non-students; the dining hall, which seats 350 diners, has the largest capacity of any Oxford college. The majority of St Catherine's buildings are in the form of'staircases' that open directly onto the quad outside. There is little indoor space in the college and St Catherine's favours a minimalist, rather austere environment, though still comfortable. Student rooms are spacious, notable for their ` curtain wall' glazing. In 1994 and 2004, the college completed construction of three and seven new accommodation staircases designed by Hodder and Partners with en-suite rooms, which means that most undergraduates can live on the main college site for the duration of their course.
Prior to this, all undergraduates had the experience of living off-campus for their second year. These new staircases form a second quad, used to provide accommodation for conferences during the breaks between academic terms; the college celebrates its patron saint each year with a special Catz Night dinner, attended by junior and senior members of the college. Every three years the college holds a ball off-site due to the problem of securing the college's perimeter sufficiently for insurance purposes; the Wallace Watson Award is a travel scholarship granted annually to a student or group students to undertake an expedition in a remote region of the world. In 2018, St Catherine's College ranked 3rd on the Norrington Table, with a score of 78.15%, climbing from 26th place in 2017 when it had a score of 68.68%. St Catherine's College Boat Club is the rowing club of the college. In Torpids 2012, the men's first boat was fourth on the river and were bumped three times, ending seventh; the first boat was ninth on the river after being bumped in the Summer Eights.
The women's first boat held headship in Torpids a few years ago. In 2017, the w
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Indian Civil Service (British India)
The Indian Civil Service, for part of the 19th century known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947 Its members ruled more than 300 million people in India, Pakistan and Burma. They were responsible for overseeing all government activity in the 250 districts that comprised British India, they were appointed under Section XXXII of the Government of India Act 1858, enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The ICS was headed by the Secretary of State for a member of the British cabinet. At first all the top thousand members of the ICS, known as "Civilians", were British, had been educated in the "best" British schools. By 1905, five per cent were from Bengal. In 1947 there were 688 British members; until the 1930s the Indians in the service were few and were not given high posts by the British. Wainwright notes that by the mid-1880s, "the basis of racial discrimination in the sub-continent had solidified".
At the time of the birth of India and Pakistan in 1947, the outgoing Government of India's ICS was divided between India and Pakistan. Although these are now organised differently, the contemporary Civil Services of India, the Central Superior Services of Pakistan, Bangladesh Civil Service and Myanmar Civil Service are all descended from the old Indian Civil Service. Historians rate the ICS, together with the railway system, the legal system, the Indian Army, as among the most important legacies of British rule in India. From 1858, after the demise of the East India Company's rule in India, the British civil service took on its administrative responsibilities; the change in governance came about due to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which came close to toppling British rule in the country. Up to 1853, the Directors of the British East India Company made appointments of covenanted civil servants by nominations; this nomination system was abolished in 1861 by the Parliament in England and it was decided that the induction would be through competitive examinations of all British subjects, without distinction of race.
Th examination for admission to the service was first held only in London in the month of August of each year. All candidate had to pass a compulsory horse riding test; the competitive examination for entry to the civil service was combined for the Diplomatic, the Home, the Indian, the Colonial Services. Candidates had to be aged between 24, which gave everyone three chances for entry; the total marks possible in the examination were 1,900. Successful candidates underwent one or two years probation in England, according to whether they had taken the London or the Indian examination; this period was spent at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, colleges in the University of London or Trinity College, where a candidate studied the law and institutions of India, including criminal law and the Law of Evidence, which together gave knowledge of the revenue system, as well as reading Indian history and learning the language of the Province to which they had been assigned. The Early Nationalists known as the Moderates, worked for several implementation of various social reforms such as the appointment of a Public Service Commission and a resolution of the House of Commons allowing for simultaneous examination for the Indian Civil Service in London and India.
By 1920, there were five methods of entry into the higher civil service: firstly, the open competitive examinations in London. Queen Victoria had suggested that the civil servants in India should have an official dress uniform, as did their counterparts in the Colonial Service. However, the Council of India decided that prescribing a dress uniform would be an undue expense for their officials. Although no uniform was prescribed for the Indian Civil Service until the early twentieth century; the only civilians allowed a dress uniform by regulations were those who had distinct duties of a political kind to perform, who are thereby brought into frequent and direct personal intercourse with native princes. This uniform included a blue coat with gold embroidery, a black velvet lining and cuffs, blue cloth trousers with gold and lace two inches wide, a beaver cocked hat with black silk cockade and ostrich feathers, a sword; the civil services were divided into two categories -- uncovenanted. The covenanted civil service consisted of only white British civil servants occupying the higher posts in the government.
The uncovenanted civil service was introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the pay scales were drawn up. Assistant Commissioners started out in their early twenties on around £300 a year; the governorship of a British province was the highest post. The Governors at the top of the pyramid got allowances. All ICS officers retired on the same pension £1,000. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the imbalance in salaries and emoluments was so great that 8,000 British officers earned £13,930,554, while 130,000 Indians in government service were collectively paid a total of £3,284,163, they served a minimum of twenty five and a maximum of thirty five yea