IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos and video games, internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries and fan reviews and ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of October 2018, IMDb has 5.3 million titles and 9.3 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.
However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.
In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes", about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.
By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the World Wide Web, under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.
However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Founder Col. Needham became the primary owner as well as the figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals.
IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory
Gentlemen of Nerve
Gentlemen of Nerve is a 1914 American comedy silent film directed by Charles Chaplin, starring Chaplin and Mabel Normand, produced by Mack Sennett for Keystone Studios. Mabel and her beau are joined by Charlie and his friend; as Charlie's friend is attempting to enter the raceway through a hole, the friend gets stuck and a policeman shows up. A reviewer from Bioscope wrote, "Charles Chaplin, as the broke gentleman, anxious to make love to all the pretty girls assembled to watch some daring motor-races, manages to obtain an abundance of humor out of every situation, it is just the type of film that audiences have grown to appreciate with great gusto." Motion Picture News commented, " Charlie and Mabel attend an auto race. Results? As laughable as were pictured." Charles Chaplin - Mr. Wow-Woe Mabel Normand - Mabel Chester Conklin - Mr. Walrus Mack Swain - Ambrose Phyllis Allen - Flirty woman Edgar Kennedy - Policeman Alice Davenport - Patron List of American films of 1914 Gentlemen of Nerve on YouTube Gentlemen of Nerve on IMDb Gentlemen of Nerve is available for free download at the Internet Archive Gentlemen of Nerve at the Progressive Silent Film List
Frank D. Williams (cinematographer)
Frank D. Williams was a pioneering cinematographer, active in the early days of the motion picture industry, he patented the traveling matte shot. Frank D. Williams was born March 21, 1893, to James and Lucinda Williams in the small community of Nashville, Missouri. In 1912, Williams became a cameraman at Keystone Studios. There, in 1914, he was the photographer for many of Charlie Chaplin's first-year pictures, including Kid Auto Races at Venice, the first film released in which The Tramp appeared. Williams is credited as appearing in Kid Auto Races at Venice, playing a cameraman, but his appearance is in doubt. For a time he was chief cinematographer at Keystone, a large number of the studio's 1914 films are credited to him as photographer, he defected to work for the short-lived Sterling Motion Pictures, but returned to Keystone when Sterling closed in 1915. He worked a camera for Henry Lehrman's L-Ko Kompany, Reliance-Majestic Studios, Bluebird Photoplays; when Roscoe Arbuckle formed a new motion picture company, Comique, in 1917, he hired Williams to be his cameraman.
At Comique, Williams shot Buster Keaton's first film appearance, The Butcher Boy. His tenure there was short, his business did not get off the ground and he supplemented his income by continuing to work as a cameraman. He was director of photography at Sessue Hayakawa's Haworth Pictures Corporation and is credited with 15 pictures that came out of that studio between 1919 and 1921. While he was working as a cameraman at various studios, Williams worked on his idea for a traveling matte in which the actions of actors would be combined with a filmed moving background. Available technology prevented him from achieving the effect he envisioned until he built a printer himself to his own specification, he filed for a patent in May 1916, it was granted in July 1918. The process was first used in a motion picture in 1922's Wild Honey. Frank D. Williams on IMDb Frank D. Williams at Find a Grave "Hollywood's History of Faking it: The Evolution of Greenscreen Compositing", article at Filmmaker IQ website that includes examples and explanation of Williams' process
Mack Sennett was a Canadian-American film actor and producer, studio head, known as the King of Comedy. Born in Canada, he started in films in the Biograph company of New York, opened Keystone Studios in Edendale, California in 1912, it was the first enclosed film stage, Sennett became famous as the originator of slapstick routines such as pie-throwing and car-chases, as seen in the Keystone Cops films. He produced short features that displayed his Bathing Beauties, many of whom went on to develop successful acting careers. Sennett's work in sound-movies was less successful and he was bankrupted in 1933, he was presented with an honorary Academy Award for his contribution to film comedy. Born Michael Sinnott in Richmond Ste-Bibiane Parish, Canada, he was the son of Irish Catholic John Sinnott and Catherine Foy, married 1879 in Tingwick, Québec; the newlyweds moved the same year to Richmond. By 1883, when Michael's brother George was born, John Sinnott was working in Richmond as an innkeeper. John Sinnott and Catherine Foy had all their children and raised their family in Richmond a small Eastern Townships village.
At that time, Michael's grandparents were living in Québec. Michael Sinnott moved to Connecticut, he lived for a while in Northampton, where, according to his autobiography, Sennett first got the idea to become an opera singer after seeing a vaudeville show. He claimed that the most respected lawyer in town, Northampton mayor Calvin Coolidge, as well as Sennett's own mother, tried to talk him out of his musical ambitions. In New York City, Sennett became an actor, dancer, set designer, director for Biograph. A major distinction in his acting career overlooked, is the fact that Sennett played Sherlock Holmes 11 times, albeit as a parody, between 1911 and 1913. With financial backing from Adam Kessel and Charles O. Bauman of the New York Motion Picture Company, Michael "Mack" Sennett founded Keystone Studios in Edendale, California in 1912; the original main building, the first enclosed film stage and studio constructed, is still there today. Many important actors cemented their film careers with Sennett, including Marie Dressler, Mabel Normand, Charles Chaplin, Harry Langdon, Roscoe Arbuckle, Harold Lloyd, Raymond Griffith, Gloria Swanson, Ford Sterling, Andy Clyde, Chester Conklin, Polly Moran, Louise Fazenda, The Keystone Cops, Bing Crosby, W. C.
Fields. Mack Sennett's slapstick comedies were noted for their wild car chases and custard pie warfare in the Keystone Cops series. Sennett's first female comedian was Mabel Normand, who became a major star under his direction and with whom he embarked on a tumultuous romantic relationship. Sennett developed the Kid Comedies, a forerunner of the Our Gang films, in a short time, his name became synonymous with screen comedy which were called "flickers" at the time. In 1915, Keystone Studios became an autonomous production unit of the ambitious Triangle Film Corporation, as Sennett joined forces with D. W. Griffith and Thomas Ince, both powerful figures in the film industry. Beginning in 1915, Sennett assembled a bevy of women known as the Sennett Bathing Beauties to appear in provocative bathing costumes in comedy short subjects, in promotional material, in promotional events such as Venice Beach beauty contests; the Sennett Bathing Beauties continued to appear through 1928. In 1917, Sennett gave up the Keystone trademark and organized his own company, Mack Sennett Comedies Corporation.
Sennett went on to produce more ambitious comedy a few feature-length films. During the 1920s, his short subjects were in much demand, featuring stars such as Louise Fazenda, Billy Bevan, Andy Clyde, Harry Gribbon, Vernon Dent, Alice Day, Ralph Graves, Charlie Murray, Harry Langdon, he produced several features with his brightest stars such as Mabel Normand. Many of Sennett's films of the early 1920s were inherited by Warner Bros. Studio. Warner Bros. merged with the original distributor, First National, added music and commentary to several of these short subjects. Many of the films of this period were destroyed due to inadequate storage; as a result, many of Sennett's films from his most productive and creative period no longer exist. In the mid-1920s, Sennett moved to Pathé Exchange distribution. Pathé had a huge market share, but made bad corporate decisions, such as attempting to sell too many comedies at once. In 1927, Paramount and MGM, which were Hollywood's two top studios at the time, took note of the profits being made by smaller companies such as Pathé Exchange and Educational Pictures.
So, Paramount and MGM decided to resume the distribution of short subjects. Hal Roach signed with MGM, but Mack Sennett remained with Pathé Exchange during hard times, which were brought on by the competition. Hundreds of other independent exhibitors and movie houses of this period had switched from Pathe' to the new MGM or Paramount films and short subjects. Sennett made a reasonably smooth transition to sound films, releasing them through Earle Hammons's Educational Pictures. Sennett experimented with color. Plus, he was the first to get a talkie short subject on the market in 1928. In 1932, he was nominated f