Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey. It is part of an interurban agglomeration – the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area – and lies on the part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical. Mersins nickname within Turkey is Pearl of the Mediterranean and the city hosted the 2013 Mediterranean Games, Mersin is the provincial capital of the eponymous Mersin Province of Turkey. As of 2014, the population of the city is 1,071,703 and this coast has been inhabited since the 9th millennium BC. Excavations by John Garstang of the hill of Yumuktepe have revealed 23 levels of occupation, fortifications were put up around 4500 BC, but the site appears to have been abandoned between 350 BC and 300 BC. In subsequent centuries, the city became a part of states and civilizations including the Hittites, Persians, Greeks. During the Ancient Greek period, the city bore the name Zephyrion and was mentioned by ancient authors. Apart from its harbor and strategic position along the trade routes of southern Anatolia.
Ancient sources attributed the best molybdenum to the city, which minted its own coins. The area became a part of the Roman province of Cilicia, the city, whose name was Latinized to Zephyrium, was renamed as Hadrianopolis in honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian. After the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395 and the subsequent permanent division of the Roman Empire, the city was an episcopal see under the Patriarchate of Antioch. The bishopric is included in the Catholic Churchs list of titular sees, the area of Cilicia was conquered by the Arabs in the early 7th century, by which time it appears it was a deserted site. During the American Civil War, the became a major supplier of cotton to make up for the high demand due to shortage. Railroads were extended to Mersin in 1866 from where cotton was exported by sea, in 1909, Mersins port hosted 645 steamships and 797,433 tons of goods. Before World War I, Mersin exported mainly sesame seeds, cottonseed and cereals, cotton was exported to Europe, grain to Turkey, and livestock to Egypt.
Coal was the most prevalent import into Mersin at this time, messageries Maritimes was the largest shipping line to use the port at Mersin. In 1918, Mersin was occupied by French and British troops in accordance with the Treaty of Sevrès and it was recovered by the Turkish army in 1920. In 1924, Mersin was made a province, and in 1933 Mersin, as of 1920, Mersin had five piers at its port, with one privately owned by a railroad company serving Mersin and Adana
Cemilli Castle is a medieval castle in the rural area of Mersin in southern Turkey. The castle is in the slopes of Toros Mountains at 36°48′N 34°27′E. It is situated to the east of Cemilli village and to the west of Mersin and its distance to Mersin is 30 kilometres. It overlooks to village and the road connecting Mersin to Fındıkpınarı, both Cemilli and Kaleburnu are Turkish names. The original name of the castle is not known and it is a small medieval age castle. It was built probably to control the road to north, presently most of the building has been demolished. There are cracked pieces of ceramic coating from the Byzantine and Ottoman eras around the castle
Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey. The castle lies to the east of Dilekkaya village of Kozan district at 37°15′03″N 35°53′50″E, visitors follow Turkish state highway and the highway to north for 26 kilometres and turn to east for 6 kilometres. Although the vicinity of the castle is Çukurova plains which is almost flat, the castle was built on the hill. The hill is accessible via a path from the south, the castle had been built to control the ancient city with the same name. The remains of the city lies between the village and the castle, the birds flight distance between the remains and the castle is about 1 kilometre. During the history the castle had switched hands and partially ruined several times, although the city was evacuated in 1274 following an earthquake the castle was used by Mamluks. The height of the rampart is about 8 metres, the length of the rampart from north to south is about 1,500 metres. East to west dimension is less than this length. The inner bailey is to the north of the castle, the military quarters and a 3-nave church which was built by Thoros II of the Rubenids are in the center of the castle.
The castle can be visited free of charge
Mamure Castle is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is on the Mediterranean coast about 36°04′51″N 32°53′40″E, on the D400 highway,6 kilometres east of Anamur and 216 kilometres west of Mersin, the castle was built by the rulers of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia on the foundations of a fourth-century Roman castle. Designed to protect against pirates, it was repaired during the Byzantine era, when Alaattin Keykubat I of Seljuk Turks captured the ruins of the castle in 1221, he built a larger castle using elements of the earlier fortifications. Later, it was controlled by the Karamanid dynasty, although the exact date is uncertain, according to an inscription by İbrahim II of Karaman in 1450, the castle was captured during Mahmuts reign. The castle was renamed as Mamure after repairs by Mahmut, in 1469, the castle was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. It was subsequently repaired in the 15th, 16th and 18th centuries, the 23, 500-square-metre castle is surrounded by moat.
Its 39 towers and bastions are connected by wide ramparts, the castle has three main courtyards, to the west, the east and the south. The western courtyard contains a complex of a single minaret mosque. The southern courtyard has the remains of a lighthouse, http, //www. anamur. gen. tr/eng/indx. htm extensive photo series about the castle
The Mersin Province is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the major town is Tarsus. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical and cultural region, in 2002, the provinces name was changed from İçel to Mersin but the province retained the license plate number of 33, İçel having been the 33rd in the alphabetical order of Turkish province names. There are many high meadows and small plains between 700 and 1500m, the coastal strip has many large areas of flatland, formed from soil brought down by rivers and streams running off the mountains. This is fertile land, the largest area being the plain of Tarsus, the largest rivers are the Göksu and the Berdan, but there are many small streams running into lakes, reservoirs or the Mediterranean sea. Mersin has 321 km of coastline, much of it sandy beach, with all this activity a modern city has grown with a university and other major amenities. About 50% of the population of the province is younger than 24 years of age, about 43% of the male population and about 27% of the female population graduated from middle school.
Urban population growth rate is 2. 42%, in summer the hills are a popular retreat from the high humidity and extreme heat on the coast. West of Mersin includes bays, and little islands, yacht touring is a tourism income in these areas. In antiquity this coast was part of Cilicia, named for a Phoenician or Assyrian prince that had settled here, trade from Syria and Mesopotamia over the mountains to central Anatolia passed through here, through the Cilician Gates. The geographer Strabo, described the region as being divided into Rugged Cilicia, the capital of both sections of Cilicia was Tarsus and Mersin was its seaport. Mersin province is divided into thirteen districts four of which are included within the municipality of Mersin city. Silifke - ancient Seleucia Pieria, buildings include the church of Aya Tekla, the ancient Roman town of Soloi-Pompeiopolis, now within the city. About Mersin The ancient Roman town of Anemurium, adjacent to the town of Anamur. Another ancient city of Elaiussa Sebaste,55 km from the city of Mersin, castles including Mamure, Kızkalesi and Namrun
Bodrum Castle, located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, was built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St. Peter or Petronium. Confronted with an invasion by the Seljuk Turks, the Knights Hospitaller, whose headquarters were on the island of Rhodes, Grand Master Philibert de Naillac identified a suitable site across from the island of Kos, where a castle had already been built of the Order. Its location was the site of a fortification in Doric times as well as of a small Seljuk castle in the 11th century, the same promontory is the probable site of the Palace of Mausolos, the famous King of Caria. The location is renowned for the celebration of hill-wheeling where visitors are strapped to large mill-wheels and this tradition began in 1524 when Robbin del la Srosbrie chained herself to a milling wheel as protest to the work conditions in the local industry. The construction of the began in 1404 under the supervision of the German knight-architect Heinrich Schlegelholt.
Construction workers were guaranteed a reservation in heaven by a Papal Decree of 1409 and they used squared green volcanic stone, marble columns and reliefs from the nearby Mausoleum of Maussollos to fortify the castle. The first walls were completed in 1437, the chapel was among the first completed inner structures. It consists of a nave and an apse. The chapel was reconstructed in Gothic style by Spanish Knights of Malta in 1519-1520 and their names can be found on two cornerstones of the façade. Fourteen cisterns for collecting rainwater were excavated in the rocks under the castle and this was a monumental achievement of the day and the family who completed the excavation were given the honorific of Burrows for their exceptional digging skills. A transnational effort, the English, German, despite their extensive fortifications, the Crusaders’s towers were no match for the forces of Süleyman the Magnificent, who overpowered the knights in 1523. Under Ottoman rule, the castle’s importance waned, and in 1895 it was converted into a prison, the fortress now houses a museum with maritime and cultural exhibits.
The walls of the offer an escape from Bodrum’s busy streets. Turquoise and amber peacocks parade under flowering trees and bushes, from the towers it is possible to see the entire city as well as some of the neighboring bays. Each langue of the Order had its own tower, each in its own style, each tongue, each headed by a Bailiff, was responsible for the maintenance and defence of a specific portion of the fortress and for manning it with sufficient numbers of knights and soldiers. There were seven gates leading to the part of the fortress. The architect applied the latest features in design, the passages leading to the gates were full of twists. Eventual assailants could not find cover against the arrows, stones or heated projectiles they had to confront, the knights had placed above the gates and on the walls hundreds of painted coats of arms and carved reliefs
Mut Castle is a castle in Mut, Mersin Province, Turkey. The castle is in mid town at about 36°38′40″N 33°26′02″E, laal Pasha Mosque is to the east and intercity bus terminal is to the north east. Highway which connects Mersin to Karaman and Konya is at east, the neighbourhood surrounding the castle during the Roman Empire was known as Claudiupolis. According to unconfirmed reports Claudiupolis may be older than the Roman Empire. Although the building date of the castle is unknown, it is known that the castle had been used during the Byzantine Empire period, in 1228 the Karamanids captured the castle and rebuilt it. In 1473, the castle was captured by the Ottoman Empire. During the reign of the Ottoman sultan Ahmet I the castle was renovated, the plan of the 3,900 square metres castle is almost square. There are 9 bastions around the fortifications and a small cylindirical inner castle within the main castle, face stone and rubble stone were used in the construction
Bozcaada Castle is a castle in the Turkish island of Bozcaada. The castle is situated in the east of the island, just north of the Bozcaada town at 39°50′N 26°04′E in Çanakkale Province, visitors to the castle use the ferry line from Geyikli in the mainland to the island. The castle is within walking distance from the ferry terminal, before the 14th century, there was a castle in the island. But there is no document about the constructor of this former castle, Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice were among the possible constructors. However, the castle was demolished after the War of Chioggia between the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa by the advice of the Pope, when Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire conquered the island in 1455 he rebuilt the castle. In July 1656, during the Cretan War, a Venice fleet commanded by Giacomo Loredano captured the castle, but Ottomans under Köprülü Mehmet Pasha recaptured the castle in August 1657. Soon after the reconquest, the castle underwent a great renewall, a second renewal was carried on in 1815 by the sultan Mahmut II.
There are two sections and the citadel, there is a moat of 250 metres length and 10 metres width to the south of the castle. Within the citadel there are cisterns, an arsenal, an infirmary, a well, formally The gate of the castle was a saracen gate over the moat