Islamic Foundation is a mosque located in Villa Park, Illinois. It was one of the largest mosques in America upon its completion; the mosque is connected to Islamic Foundation School. The organization that runs the mosque was founded in 1974, when it was registered with the State of Illinois as a non-profit organization. Through the organization, Islamic Foundation School would be established in 1988. By 1995, the local community had raised enough money to begin the construction of a new full mosque as part of the school; the mosque was completed in 1998 at a cost of $3.6 million. List of Mosques in Illinois Islam in the United States Islamic Architecture List of Mosques http://www.islamicfoundation.org/
Umar spelled Omar, was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, he succeeded Abu Bakr as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. He was an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq, he is sometimes referred to as Umar I by historians of Islam, since a Umayyad caliph, Umar II bore that name. Under Umar, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire, his attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years. According to Jewish tradition, Umar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship. Umar was killed by the Persian Piruz Nahavandi in 644 CE. Umar is revered in the Sunni tradition as a great ruler and paragon of Islamic virtues, some hadiths identify him as the second greatest of the Sahaba after Abu Bakr.
He is viewed negatively in the Shia tradition. Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, responsible for arbitration among the tribes, his father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. In his youth he used to tend to his father's camels in the plains near Mecca, his merchant father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe. Umar himself said: "My father, Al-Khattab was a ruthless man, he used to make me work hard. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling, he was physically powerful and a renowned wrestler. He was a gifted orator who succeeded his father as an arbitrator among the tribes. Umar became a merchant and made several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met various scholars and analyzed Roman and Persian societies; as a merchant he was unsuccessful. Like others around him, Umar was fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days.
In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. Like many others in Mecca, Umar opposed Islam and he threatened to kill Muhammad, he resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and prominent in persecuting Muslims, he recommended Muhammad's death. He believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord. Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia; when a small group of Muslims migrated, Umar became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated. Umar converted to Islam in one year after the Migration to Abyssinia; the story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah. On his way to murder Muhammad, Umar met his best friend Nua'im bin Abdullah who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Umar; when Umar informed him that he had set out to kill Muhammad, Nua'im said, “By God, you have deceived yourself, O Umar!
Do you think that Banu Abd Manaf would let you run around alive once you had killed their son Muhammad? Why don't you return to your own house and at least set it straight?"Nuaimal Hakim told him to inquire about his own house where his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, Umar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid reciting the verses of the Quran from sura Ta-Ha, he started quarreling with his brother-in-law. When his sister came to rescue her husband, he started quarreling with her, yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Upon hearing these words, Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth; when he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. His sister replied in the negative and said "You are unclean, no unclean person can touch the Scripture." He insisted, but his sister was not prepared to allow him to touch the pages unless he washed his body.
Umar at last gave in. He washed his body and began to read the verses that were: Verily, I am Allah: there is no God but Me, he declared, "Surely this is the word of Allah. I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." On hearing this, Hadhrat Khabbab came out from inside and said: "O, Umar! Glad tidings for you. Yesterday Muhammad prayed to Allah,'O, Allah! Strengthen Islam with either Umar or Abu Jahl, whomsoever Thou likest.' It seems that his prayer has been answered in your favour."Umar went to Muhammad with the same sword he intended to kill him with and accepted Islam in front of him and his companions. Umar was 39 years old. Following his conversion, Umar went to inform the chief of Quraish, Amr ibn Hishām, about his acceptance of Islam. According to one account, Umar thereafter prayed at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishām and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb watched in anger; this further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. At this stage Umar challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere wi
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah, known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult and reformer. A member of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, A polarizing figure in his own lifetime, Ibn Taymiyyah's iconoclastic views on accepted Sunni doctrines such as the veneration of saints and the visitation to their tomb-shrines made him unpopular with the majority of the orthodox religious scholars of the time, under whose orders he was imprisoned several times. A minority figure in his own times and in the centuries that followed, Ibn Taymiyyah has become one of the most influential medieval writers in contemporary Islam, where his particular interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah and his rejection of some aspects of classical Islamic tradition are believed to have had considerable influence on contemporary Wahhabism and Jihadism. Indeed, particular aspects of his teachings had a profound influence on Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the Hanbali reform movement practiced in Saudi Arabia known as Wahhabism, on other Wahabi scholars.
Moreover, Ibn Taymiyyah's controversial fatwa allowing jihad against other Muslims is referenced by al-Qaeda and other jihadi groups. Ibn Taymiyyah's full name is Taqī ad-Dīn Abu'l-`Abbās Ahmad ibn `Abd al-Ḥalīm ibn `Abd as-Salām ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Khidr ibn `Ali ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Taymiyyah al-Ḥarrānī. Ibn Taymiyyah's name is unusual in that it is derived from a female member of his family as opposed to a male member, the normal custom at the time and still is now. Taymiyyah was a woman, famous for her scholarship and piety and the name Ibn Taymiyyah was taken up by many of her male descendants. Ibn Taymiyyah had a simple life, most of which he dedicated to learning and teaching, he never did he have a female companion, throughout his years. Al-Matroudi says that this may be why he was able to engage with the political affairs of his time without holding any official position such as that of a judge. An offer of an official position was made to him but he never accepted.
His life was that of a political activist. In his efforts he was persecuted and imprisoned on six different occasions with the total time spent inside prison coming to over six years. Other sources say, his detentions were due to certain elements of his creed and his views on some jurisprudential issues. However according to Yahya Michot, "the real reasons were more trivial". Michot gives five reasons as to why Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned, they being: not complying with the "doctrines and practices prevalent among powerful religious and Sufi establishments, an overly outspoken personality, the jealousy of his peers, the risk to public order due to this popular appeal and political intrigues." Baber Johansen, a professor at the Harvard divinity school says that the reasons for Ibn Taymiyyah's incarcerations were, "as a result of his conflicts with Muslim mystics and theologians, who were able to persuade the political authorities of the necessity to limit Ibn Taymiyyah's range of action through political censorship and incarceration."Ibn Taymiyyah's own relationship, as a religious scholar, with the ruling apparatus, who did deviate in application of shari'a law, was not always amicable.
It ranged from silence to open rebellion. On occasions when he shared the same views and aims as the ruling authorities, his contributions were welcomed but when Ibn Taymiyyah went against the status quo, he was seen as "uncooperative" and on occasions spent much time in prison. Ibn Taymiyyah's attitude towards his own rulers, was based on the actions of the companions when they made an oath of allegiance to Muhammad as follows, his father had the Hanbali chair in Harran and at the Great mosque of Damascus. Harran was a city part of the Sultanate of Rum, now Harran is a small city on the border of Syria and Turkey in Şanlıurfa province, a place to which Moses was sent to provide guidance. Before its destruction by the Mongols, Harran was well known since the early days of Islam for its Hanbali school and tradition, to which Ibn Taymiyyah's family belonged, his grandfather, Abu al-Barkat Majd ad-Din ibn Taymiyyah al-Hanbali and his uncle, Fakhr al-Din were reputable scholars of the Hanbali school of law.
The scholarly achievements of ibn Taymiyyah's father, Shihab al-deen'Abd al-Halim ibn Taymiyyah were well known. According to the book'Rethinking Islamic Studies' edited by Carl W. Ernst and Richard C. Martin, Ibn Taymiyyah believed, non-Arab Muslims are inferior to Arab Muslims. In 1269, Ibn Taymiyyah, at the age of seven together with his father and three brothers left the city of Harran, destroyed by the ensuing Mongol invasion. Ibn Taymiyyah's family moved and settled in Damascus, which at the time was ruled by the Mamluks of Egypt. In Damascus, his father served as the director of the Sukkariyya madrasa, a place where Ibn Taymiyyah received his early education. Ibn Taymiyyah acquainted himself with the religious and secular sciences of his time, his religious studies began in his early teens, when he committed the entire Qur'an to memory and on ca
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, MA, LL. M, FRSA, FRSL was a British-Indian barrister and scholar who wrote a number of books about Islam and whose translation of the Qur'an into English is one of the most known and used in the English-speaking world. A supporter of the British war effort during World War I, Ali received the CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause, he died in London in 1953. Ali was born in Bombay, British India, the son of Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh known as Khan Bahadur Yusuf Ali, a Shi'i in the Dawoodi Bohra tradition, who turned his back on the traditional business-based occupation of his community and instead became a Government Inspector of Police. On his retirement he gained the title Khan Bahadur for public service; as a child Abdullah Yusuf Ali attended the Anjuman Himayat-ul-Islam school and studied at the missionary school Wilson College, both in Bombay. He received a religious education and could recite the entire Qur'an from memory, he spoke both English fluently. He concentrated his efforts on the Qur'an and studied the Qur'anic commentaries beginning with those written in the early days of Islamic history.
Ali took a first class Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature at the University of Bombay in January 1891 aged 19 and was awarded a Presidency of Bombay Scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge in England. Ali first went to Britain in 1891 to study Law at St John's College and after graduating BA and LL. B in 1895 he returned to India in the same year with a post in the Indian Civil Service being called to the Bar in Lincoln's Inn in 1896 in absentia, he received his MA and LL. M in 1901, he married Teresa Mary Shalders at St Peter's Church in Bournemouth in 1900, with her he had three sons and a daughter: Edris Yusuf Ali, Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali, Alban Hyder Yusuf Ali, Leila Teresa Ali. His wife and children settled variously in Tunbridge Wells, St Albans and Norwich while Ali returned to his post in India, he returned to Britain in 1905 on a two-year leave from the ICS and during this period he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Society of Literature.
Ali first came to public attention in Britain after he gave a lecture at the Royal Society of Arts in London in 1906, organised by his mentor Sir George Birdwood. Another mentor was Lord James Meston Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces, when he was made Finance Member of the Government of India appointed Ali to positions in various districts in India which involved two short periods as acting Under Secretary and Deputy Secretary in the Finance Department of the Government of India. Khizar Humayun Ansari, his biographer on the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, wrote of Ali: "Yusuf Ali belonged to the group of Indian Muslims from professional families who were concerned with rank and status. In pursuit of his aspiration for influence, deference, if not outright obsequiousness, became a central feature of his relationship with the British. During the formative phase of his life he mingled in upper-class circles, assiduously cultivating relations with members of the English élite.
He was impressed by the genteel behaviour and cordiality of those with whom he associated, and, as a result, became an incorrigible Anglophile. His marriage to Teresa Shalders according to the rites of the Church of England, his hosting of receptions for the good and the great, his taste for Hellenic artefacts and culture and fascination for its heroes, his admiration for freemasonry in India as a way of bridging the racial and social divide, his advocacy of the dissemination of rationalist and modernist thought through secular education were all genuine attempts to assimilate into British society." His constant travelling between India and Britain took its toll on his marriage and his wife Teresa Mary Shalders was unfaithful to him and gave birth to an illegitimate child in 1910, causing him to divorce her in 1912 and gaining custody of their four children, whom he left with a governess in England. However, his children rejected him and on future visits to London during the 1920s and 1930s he stayed at the National Liberal Club.
In 1914 Ali resigned from the ICS and settled in Britain where he became a Trustee of the Shah Jehan Mosque in Woking and in 1921 became a Trustee of the fund to build the East London Mosque. With the outbreak of World War I, unlike many Muslims in Britain who felt uncomfortable with supporting the British war effort against fellow Muslims of the Ottoman Empire, Ali was an enthusiastic supporter of the Indian contribution to the war effort, to that end writing articles, giving public speeches and undertaking a lecture tour of Scandinavia and was awarded a CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause. In the same year he joined the staff of the School of Oriental Studies as a lecturer in Hindustani, he married Gertrude Anne Mawbey in 1920, she having taken the Muslim name'Masuma' returned with him to India to escape the harassment the couple suffered from Ali's children from his first marriage, who resented him and his new wife. In his will Ali mentioned his second son Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali who "has gone so far as to abuse, insult and persecute me from time to time."With Mawbey he had a son, but this marriage too ended in failure.
He was a respected intellectual in India and Sir Muhammad Iqbal recruited him to be the Principal of Islamia College in Lahore, serving from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1935 to 1937. He was a Fellow and syndic of the University of the Punjab and a member of the Punjab University
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature; the Quran is divided into chapters. Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, through the archangel Gabriel, incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad; the word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, other names and words are said to refer to the Quran. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it; the codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures, it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185, it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, it emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional written traditions supplementing the Quran. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
The word qurʼān appears assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning "he read" or "he recited"; the Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it."In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited ". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." The word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran; each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts.
Such terms include kitāb. The latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts with a definite article, the word is referred to as the "revelation", that, "sent down" at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, ḥikmah, sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it; the Quran describes itself as "the discernment", "the mother book", "the guide", "the wisdom", "the remembrance" and "the revelation". Another term is al-kitāb, though it is used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels; the term mus'haf is used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims became literate; as it was spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Mu