SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hispanic America

Hispanic America known as Spanish America is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of the continents of North and South America. These countries and Spain have significant commonalities with one another as all were part of the same state and the society it created. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages, or English and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term "Ibero-America", meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula. Hispanic America contrasts with Latin America, which includes not only Hispanic America, but Brazil, as well as the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere; the Spanish conquest of the Americas began in 1492, was part of a larger historical process of world discovery, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries.

Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire. Napoleon's intervention in Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were the Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spanish is the official language in most Hispanic American countries, it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. Native American languages are spoken in Chile, Guatemala, Bolivia and Mexico, to a lesser degree, in Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Amongst other countries. In some Hispanic American countries, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be small or non-existent. Mexico is the only country that contains the largest variety of indigenous languages than any other Hispanic American country, the most spoken native language is Nahuatl.

In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution. In Bolivia, Aymara and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guaraní, along with Spanish, is an official language of Paraguay, is spoken by a majority of the population, it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito and Rama hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.

Other European languages spoken in Hispanic America include: English, by some groups in Puerto Rico. Yiddish and Hebrew can be heard around Buenos Aires. Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in Peru and Paraguay. In several nations in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. Creole languages of mainland Latin America are derived from European languages and various African tongues; the Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras, Guatemala and Belize by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. An Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean and European languages. Hispanic cuisine as the term is applied in the Western Hemisphere, is a misnomer. What is considered Hispanic cuisine in the United States is Mexican and Central American cuisine. Mexican cuisine is composed of indigenous—Aztec and Mayan—and Spanish influences. Mexican cuisine is considered intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO and can be found all over the United States.

In the United States, with its growing Hispanic population, food staples from Mexican cuisine and the cuisine from other Hispanic countries have become available. Over the years, the blending of these cuisines has produced unique American forms such as Tex-Mex cuisine; this cuisine, which originated in Texas, is based on maize products spiced ground beef and tomato sauces with chilies. This cuisine is available not just in the United States but across other countries, where American exports are found. In Florida, Cuban food is available. All of these Hispani

Janusz Reiter

Janusz Stanisław Reiter is a Polish diplomat. Janusz Reiter has graduated from German studies at the University of Warsaw. A former Solidarity activist and editor of certain opposition magazines for seven years during communist rule in Poland, Reiter became an editor for Życie Warszawy and served as diplomat for Poland. From 1990 to 1995, he was Poland's ambassador to Germany, he was the Polish ambassador to the United States from 2005 to 2007, accredited to the Bahamas as well. Reiter returned to Poland in late 2007 and took the position of Poland’s Special Envoy for Climate Change, he served as Vice-Chairman of the Management Board of the media company Presspublica. From 2010 until 2013, he was the president of the Polish Center for International Relations, he is on the advisory board of OMFIF where he participates in various meetings regarding the financial and monetary system. Reiter has received the Grand Crosses with Star and Sash of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Deutsche Bank, Member of the Advisory Board

List of mountain peaks of Hawaii

This article comprises three sortable tables of the 13 major mountain peaks of the Hawaiian Islands and the U. S. State of Hawaiʻi; each of these 13 major summits has at least 500 meters of topographic prominence. The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways: The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level; the first table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic elevation. The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings; the second table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic prominence. The topographic isolation of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation; the third table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic isolation. Of the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa exceed 4000 meters elevation, Haleakalā exceeds 3000 meters, Hualalai exceeds 2000 meters, 11 peaks exceed 1000 meters elevation.

Four of these peaks rise on the island of Hawaiʻi, two on Maui, two on Kauaʻi, two on Molokaʻi, two on Oʻahu, one on Lānaʻi. Of the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi, Mauna Kea exceeds 4000 meters of topographic prominence, Haleakalā exceeds 3000 meters, Mauna Loa exceeds 2000 meters, six peaks are ultra-prominent summits with more than 1500 meters, eight peaks exceed 1000 meters of topographic prominence. Of the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi, Mauna Kea has 3947 kilometers of topographic isolation and four peaks exceed 100 kilometers of topographic isolation. List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of mountain peaks of Arizona List of mountain peaks of California List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of mountain peaks of Hawaii List of mountains of Hawaii List of the ultra-prominent summits of Hawaii List of mountain peaks of Idaho List of mountain peaks of Montana List of mountain peaks of Nevada List of mountain peaks of New Mexico List of mountain peaks of Oregon List of mountain peaks of Utah List of mountain peaks of Washington List of mountain peaks of Wyoming Hawaii Geography of Hawaii Geology of Hawaii Category:Mountains of Hawaii commons:Category:Mountains of Hawaii Physical geography Topography Topographic elevation Topographic prominence Topographic isolation United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System @ USGS United States National Geodetic Survey Geodetic Glossary @ NGS NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS Survey Marks and Datasheets @ NGS Bivouac.com Peakbagger.com Peaklist.org Peakware.com Summitpost.org