The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is sprung and drawn by four horses. Used before steam-powered rail transport was available a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced by fresh horses; the business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging. Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver"; the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a closed four-wheeled vehicle drawn by hard-going mules, it was used as a public conveyance on an established route to a regular schedule. Spent horses were replaced with fresh horses at posts, or relays.
A simplified and lightened form of stagecoach, known as a stage wagon, mud-coach, or mud-wagon, was used in the United States under difficult conditions. These were the vehicles. In addition to the stage driver or coachman who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger armed with a coach gun might travel as a guard beside him. A stagecoach traveled at an average speed of about 5 miles per hour, with the average daily mileage covered being around 60 to 70 miles.'Stage' referred to the distance between stage stations on a route but through metonymy it came to be applied to the stagecoach. The first crude depiction of a coach was in an English manuscript from the 13th century; the first recorded stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the island. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool.
The stagecoach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. Stagecoaches became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were performed at coaching inns such as Southwark. By the end of the 17th century stagecoach routes ran down the three main roads in England; the London-York route was advertised in 1698: Whoever is desirous of going between London and York or York and London, Let them Repair to the Black Swan in Holboorn, or the Black Swan in Coney Street, where they will be conveyed in a Stage Coach, which starts every Thursday at Five in the morning. The novelty of this method of transport excited much controversy at the time. One pamphleteer denounced the stagecoach as a "great evil mischievous to trade and destructive to the public health." Another writer, argued that: Besides the excellent arrangement of conveying men and letters on horseback, there is of late such an admirable commodiousness, both for men and women, to travel from London to the principal towns in the country, that the like hath not been known in the world, and, by stage-coaches, wherein any one may be transported to any place, sheltered from foul weather and foul ways.
The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey - from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement - "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour.
More dramatic improvements were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office. The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years—from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider; the riders were frequent targets for robbers, the system was inefficient. Palmer made much use of the "flying" stagecoach services between cities in the course of his business, noted that it seemed far more efficient than the system of mail delivery in operation, his travel from Bath to London took a single day to the mail's three days. It occurred to him that this stagecoach service could be developed into a national mail delivery service, so in 1782 he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea, he met resistance from officials who believed that th
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage. Wedding traditions and customs vary between cultures, ethnic groups, religions and social classes. Most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of marriage vows by the couple, presentation of a gift, a public proclamation of marriage by an authority figure or celebrant. Special wedding garments are worn, the ceremony is sometimes followed by a wedding reception. Music, prayers or readings from religious texts or literature are commonly incorporated into the ceremony, as well as superstitious customs originating in Ancient Rome; some cultures have adopted the traditional Western custom of the white wedding, in which a bride wears a white wedding dress and veil. This tradition was popularized through the marriage of Queen Victoria; some say Victoria's choice of a white gown may have been a sign of extravagance, but may have been influenced by the values she held which emphasized sexual purity. Within the modern'white wedding' tradition, a white dress and veil are unusual choices for a woman's second or subsequent wedding.
The use of a wedding ring has long been part of religious weddings in Europe and America, but the origin of the tradition is unclear. One possibility is the Roman belief in the Vena amoris, believed to be a blood vessel that ran from the fourth finger directly to the heart. Thus, when a couple wore rings on this finger, their hearts were connected. Historian Vicki Howard points out that the belief in the "ancient" quality of the practice is most a modern invention. "Double ring" ceremonies are a modern practice, a groom's wedding band not appearing in the United States until the early 20th century. The wedding ceremony is followed by wedding reception or a wedding breakfast, in which the rituals may include speeches from the groom, best man, father of the bride and the bride, the newlyweds' first dance as a couple, the cutting of an elegant wedding cake. In recent years traditions has changed to include a father-daughter dance for the bride and her father, sometimes a mother-son dance for the groom and his mother.
Kua, Chinese traditional formal wear Batik and Kebaya, a garment worn by the Javanese people of Indonesia and by the Malay people of Malaysia Hanbok, the traditional garment of Korea Barong Tagalog, an embroidered, formal men's garment of the Philippines Kimono, the traditional garments of Japan Sari/Lehenga, Indian popular and traditional dress in India Dhoti, male garment in South India Dashiki, the traditional West African wedding attire Seshweshe, female dress worn by the Basotho women during special ceremonies. Although it has been adopted to men attire as well. Ao dai, traditional garments of Vietnam Ribbon shirt worn by American Indian men on auspicious occasions, such as weddings, another common custom is to wrap bride and groom in a blanket Kilt, male garment particular to Scottish culture Kittel, a white robe worn by the groom at an Orthodox Jewish wedding; the kittel is worn only under the Chupah, is removed before the reception. Topor, a type of conical headgear traditionally worn by grooms as part of the Bengali Hindu wedding ceremony Western code Morning dress, western daytime formal dress Stroller White tie Evening Suits Black tie Non-traditional "tuxedo" variants Lounge suit Sherwani, a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia Wedding crown, worn by Syrian and Greek couples and Scandinavian brides Wedding veil Wedding dress Langa oni, traditional two piece garment worn by unmarried Telugu Hindu women.
Different wedding clothing around the world Music played at Western weddings includes a processional song for walking down the aisle either before or after the marriage service. An example of such use is reported in the wedding of Nora Robinson and Alexander Kirkman Finlay in 1878; the "Bridal Chorus" from Lohengrin by Richard Wagner is used as the processional and is known as "Here Comes the Bride". Richard Wagner is said to have been anti-Semitic, as a result, the Bridal Chorus is used at Jewish weddings. UK law forbids music with any religious connotations to be used in a civil ceremony. Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D is an alternative processional. Other alternatives include various contemporary melodies, such as Bob Marley's One Love, sometimes performed by a steel drum band. In the United States 2 million people get married each year and close to 70 million people attend a wedding and spend more than $100 on a gift. Most religions recognize a lifelong union with established rituals; some religions permit same-sex marriages.
Many Christian faiths emphasize the raising of children as a priority in a marriage. In Judaism, marriage is so important. Islam recommends marriage highly; the Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife. Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both social obligations. By contrast, Buddhism does not encourage or discourage marriage, although it does teach how one might live a ma
The Yellow Kid
The Yellow Kid was a lead American comic strip character that ran from 1895 to 1898 in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Created and drawn by Richard F. Outcault in the comic strip Hogan's Alley, it was one of the first Sunday supplement comic strips in an American newspaper, although its graphical layout had been established in political and other, purely-for-entertainment cartoons. Outcault's use of word balloons in the Yellow Kid influenced the basic appearance and use of balloons in subsequent newspaper comic strips and comic books; the Yellow Kid is famous for its connection to the coining of the term "yellow journalism." The idea of "yellow journalism" was the sensationalized stories for the sake of selling papers, named from the "Yellow Kid" cartoons. Although a cartoon, Outcault's work aimed its humor and social commentary at Pulitzer's adult readership; the strip has been described as "... a turn-of-the-century theater of the city, in which class and racial tensions of the new urban, consumerist environment were acted out by a mischievous group of New York City kids from the wrong side of the tracks."
Mickey Dugan, better known as The Yellow Kid, was a bald, snaggle-toothed barefoot boy who wore an oversized yellow nightshirt and hung around in a slum alley typical of certain areas of squalor that existed in late 19th-century New York City. Hogan's Alley was filled with odd characters other children. With a goofy grin, the Kid habitually spoke in a ragged, peculiar slang, printed on his shirt, a device meant to lampoon advertising billboards; the Yellow Kid's head was drawn wholly shaved as if having been ridden of lice, a common sight among children in New York's tenement ghettos at the time. His nightshirt, a hand-me-down from an older sister, was white or pale blue in the first color strips; the character who would become the Yellow Kid first appeared on the scene in a minor supporting role in cartoon panel published in Truth magazine in 1894 and 1895. The four different black-and-white single panel cartoons were deemed popular, one of them, Fourth Ward Brownies, was reprinted on 17 February 1895 in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, where Outcault worked as a technical drawing artist.
The World published another, newer Hogan's Alley cartoon less than a month and this was followed by the strip's first color printing on 5 May 1895. Hogan's Alley became a full-page Sunday color cartoon with the Yellow Kid as its lead character. In 1896 Outcault was hired away at a much higher salary to William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal American where he drew the Yellow Kid in a new full-page color strip, violent and vulgar compared to his first panels for Truth magazine; because Outcault failed in his attempt to copyright the Yellow Kid, Pulitzer was able to hire George Luks to continue drawing the original version of the strip for the World and hence the Yellow Kid appeared in two competing papers for about a year. Luks's version of the Yellow Kid introduced a pair of twins and George dressed in yellow nightshirts. Outcault produced three subsequent series of Yellow Kid strips at the Journal American, each lasting no more than four months: McFadden's Row of Flats Around the World with the Yellow Kid – a strip that sent the Kid on a world tour in the manner of Nellie Bly A half-page strip which adopted the title Ryan's Arcade.
Publication of both versions stopped abruptly after only three years in early 1898, as circulation wars between the rival papers dwindled. Moreover, Outcault may have lost interest in the character when he realized he couldn't retain exclusive commercial control over it; the Yellow Kid's last appearance is most noted as 23 January 1898 in a strip about hair tonic. On 1 May 1898, the character was featured in a rather satirical cartoon called Casey Corner Kids Dime Museum but he was drawn as a bearded, balding old man wearing a green nightshirt which bore the words: "Gosh I've growed old in making dis collection."The Yellow Kid appeared now and in Outcault's cartoon strips, most notably Buster Brown. The two newspapers which ran the Yellow Kid, Pulitzer's World and Hearst's Journal American became known as the yellow kid papers; this was contracted to the yellow papers and the term yellow kid journalism was at last shortened to yellow journalism, describing the two newspapers' editorial practices of taking sensationalism and profit as priorities in journalism.
The Yellow Kid's image was an early example of lucrative merchandising and appeared on mass market retail objects in the greater New York City area such as "billboards, cigarette packs, cracker tins, ladies' fans, postcards, chewing gum cards, toys and many other products". With the Yellow Kid's merchandising success as an advertising icon, the strip came to represent the crass commercial world it had lampooned. Entertainment entrepreneur Gus Hill staged vaudeville plays based on the comic strip, his version of McFadden's Flats was made into films in 1927 and 1935. The Yellow Kid made an appearance in the Marvel Universe in the Joss Whedon-written Runaways story. In this take on the character, he exhibits superhuman powers. In the Ziggy of February 16, 1990, Ziggy points to a smiling old man seated next to him on a park bench and says, "No kidding... You were The Yellow Kid!" The Yellow Kid Awards are Italian comics awards presented by the Italian International Comics an
Heinrich Christian Wilhelm Busch was a German humorist, poet and painter. He published comic illustrated cautionary tales from 1859, achieving his most notable works in the 1870s. Busch's illustrations used wood engraving, zincography. Busch drew on contemporary parochial and city life, satirizing Catholicism, strict religious morality and bigotry, his comic text was colourful and entertaining, using onomatopoeia and other figures of speech, led to some work being banned by the authorities. Busch was influential in both poetry and illustration, became a source for future generations of comic artists; the Katzenjammer Kids was inspired by Busch's Max and Moritz, one of a number of imitations produced in Germany and the United States. The Wilhelm Busch Prize and the Wilhelm Busch Museum help maintain his legacy, his 175th anniversary in 2007 was celebrated throughout Germany. Busch remains one of the most influential artists in Western Europe. In the late 18th century Johann Georg Kleine, Wilhelm Busch's maternal grandfather, settled in the small village of Wiedensahl.
There, in 1817, he bought a thatched half-timbered house, where Wilhelm Busch was to be born about 15 years later. Amalie Kleine, Johann's wife and Wilhelm Busch's grandmother, kept a shop in which Busch's mother Henriette assisted while her two brothers attended high school; when Johann Georg Kleine died in 1820, his widow continued to run the shop with Henriette. At the age of 19 Henriette Kleine married surgeon Friedrich Wilhelm Stümpe. Henriette became widowed at the age with her three children to Stümpe dying as infants. About 1830 Friedrich Wilhelm Busch, the illegitimate son of a farmer, settled in Wiedensahl after completing a business apprenticeship in the nearby village of Loccum, he took over the Kleine shop in Wiedensahl, which he modernised. Wilhelm Busch was born on 15 April 1832, the first of seven children to the marriage of Henriette Kleine and Friedrich Wilhelm Busch, his six siblings followed shortly after: Fanny, Adolf, Otto and Hermann. His parents were ambitious, hard-working and devout Protestants who despite becoming prosperous, could not afford to educate all three sons.
Busch's biographer Berndt W. Wessling suggested that Friedrich Wilhelm Busch invested in his sons' education because his own illegitimacy held significant stigma in rural areas; the young Wilhelm Busch with a rather delicate and graceful physique. The coarse boyishness of his protagonists "Max and Moritz" was rare in his childhood, he described himself in autobiographical sketches and letters as sensitive and timid, as someone who "carefully studied apprehension", who reacted with fascination and distress when animals were killed in the autumn. He described the "transformation to sausage" as "dreadfully compelling", leaving a lasting impression. In the autumn of 1841, after the birth of his brother Otto, Busch's education was entrusted to the 35-year-old clergyman Georg Kleine, his maternal uncle at Ebergötzen, this through lack of space in the Busch family home, his father's desire for a better education than the small local school could provide, where 100 children were taught within a space of 66 m2.
The nearest convenient school was located in 20 km from Wiedensahl. Kleine, with his wife Fanny Petri, lived in a rectory at Ebergötzen, while Busch was lodged with an unrelated family. Kleine and his wife were responsible and caring, exercised a substitute parental role, provided refuge for him in future unsuccessful times. Kleine's private lessons for Busch were attended by Erich Bachmann, the son of a wealthy Ebergötzen miller. Both became friends, according to Busch the strongest friendship of his childhood; this friendship was echoed in the Moritz. A small pencil portrait by the 14-year-old Busch depicted Bachmann as a chubby, confident boy, showed similarities with Max. Busch portrayed himself with a "cowlick", in the "Moritzian" perky style. Kleine was a philologist, his lessons not held in contemporary language, it is not known for certain all subjects Busch and his friend were taught. Busch did learn elementary arithmetic from his uncle, although science lessons might have been more comprehensive, as Kleine, like many other clergymen, was a beekeeper, published essays and textbooks on the subject — Busch demonstrated his knowledge of bee-keeping in his future stories.
Drawing, German and English poetry, were taught by Kleine. Busch had little contact with his natural parents during this period. At the time, the 165 km journey between Wiedensahl and Ebergötzen took three days by horse, his father visited Ebergötzen two to three times a year, while his mother stayed in Wiedensahl to look after the children. The 12-year-old Busch visited his family once; some Busch biographers think that this early separation from his parents from his mother, resulted in his eccentric bachelorhood. In the autumn of 1846, Busch moved with the Kleine's to Lüthorst, where, on 11 April 1847, he was confirmed. In September 1847 Busch began studying mechanical engineering at Hanover Polytechnic. Busch's biographers are not in agreement as to. Biographer Eva Weissweiler suspects that Kleine played a major role, that other possible causes were Busch's friendship with an innkeeper, Brümmer, political debates in Brümmer's tavern, Busch's reluctance to believe every
Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art is a 1993 non-fiction work of comics by American cartoonist Scott McCloud. It explores formal aspects of comics, the historical development of the medium, its fundamental vocabulary, various ways in which these elements have been used, it expounds theoretical ideas about comics as an art form and medium of communication, is itself written in comic book form. Understanding Comics received praise from notable comic and graphic novel authors such as Art Spiegelman, Will Eisner, Alan Moore, Neil Gaiman, Garry Trudeau. Although the book has prompted debate over many of McCloud’s conclusions, its discussions of "iconic" art and the concept of "closure" between panels have become common reference points in discussions of the medium; the title of Understanding Comics is an homage to Marshall McLuhan's seminal 1964 work Understanding Media. Excerpts from Understanding Comics were published in Amazing Heroes #200. McCloud previewed the book at the August 1992 Comics Arts Conference.
Understanding Comics was first published by Tundra Publishing. The book was edited with lettering by Bob Lappan. Tundra: ISBN 1-56862-019-5 Kitchen Sink: ISBN 0-87816-243-7 William Morrow Paperbacks: ISBN 0-06-097625-X Paradox Press/DC: ISBN 1-56389-557-9 Harper Perennial Kitchen Sink: ISBN 0-87816-244-5 Vertigo/DC Comics: ISBN 1-56389-759-8 McCloud has followed up Understanding Comics with Reinventing Comics, in which he suggested ways for the medium to change and grow. Understanding Comics is a wide-ranging exploration of the definition, history and methods of the medium of comics. An attempt to formalize the study of comics, it is itself in comics form; the book's overarching argument is. McCloud introduced the concept of "closure," to refer to a reader's role in closing narrative gaps between comics panels; the book argues that comics employ nonlinear narratives because they rely on the reader's choices and interactions. The book begins with a discussion of the concept of visual literacy and a history of narrative in visual media.
McCloud mentions, among other early works of graphic narrative, the Bayeux Tapestry, as an antecedent to comics. Understanding Comics posits Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer as in many ways "the father of the modern comic." McCloud emphasizes Töpffer's use of "cartooning and panel borders" along with "the first interdependent combination of words and pictures seen in Europe."McCloud highlights the differences between iconic and realistic figures. Iconic figures can be compared to your standard cartoon, while realistic figures focus more on photo-quality in terms of detail, he states. He provides a full comparison and breakdown of iconic and realistic images and gives an interesting explanation of his reasoning behind this statement. One of the book's key concepts is that of "masking," a visual style, dramatic convention, literary technique described in the chapter on realism, it is the use of simplistic, narrative characters if juxtaposed with detailed, verisimilar, spectacular backgrounds.
This may function, McCloud infers, as a mask, a form of projective identification. His explanation is that a familiar and minimally detailed character allows for a stronger emotional connection and for viewers to identify more easily. One of the book's concepts is "The Big Triangle," a tool for thinking about different styles of comics art. McCloud places the realistic representation in the bottom left corner, with iconic representation, or cartoony art, in the bottom right, a third identifier, abstraction of image, at the apex of the triangle; this allows grouping of artists by triangulation. Understanding Comics won multiple Harvey Awards in 1994 for Best Graphic Album/Original Material and Best Biographical, Historical or Journalistic Presentation. In addition, McCloud won the 1994 Harvey Award for Best Writer. Understanding Comics won the 1994 Eisner Award for Best Comics-Related Book. Author McCloud won the 1994 Adamson Award for Best International Comic-Strip Cartoonist; the book was a finalist for the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Non-Fiction Book.
The Swedish translation of the book, Serier: Den Osynliga Konsten, published in 1995 by Häftad, was awarded the 1996 Urhunden Prize. The French translation of the book, titled L'Art invisible and published by Vertige Graphic, won the Prix Bloody Mary at the 2000 Angoulême International Comics Festival. In addition, it was nominated for that year's Angoulême International Comics Festival Prize for Best Album. Along with Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art, Understanding Comics is considered to form the foundations for formal comics studies in English; the book was called "one of the most insightful books about designing graphic user interfaces written" by Apple Macintosh co-creator Andy Hertzfeld. Understanding Comics was parodied by Dylan Sisson in his Filibusting Comics: The Next Chapter, published by Fantagraphics in 1995, translated into Spanish, it was parodied again, in Tim Heiderich and Mike Rosen's Misunderstanding Comics, self-published via Kickstarter in 2012. Comics and Sequential Art, an earlier book by Will Eisner on the same subject Comics studies "How to Read Nancy," an essay by Mark Newgarden and Paul Karasik Masking Seq
The slang term "drag" refers to the wearing of clothing of the opposite sex, may be used as a noun as in the expression in drag, or as an adjective as in drag show. The use of "drag" in this sense appeared in print. One suggested etymological root is 19th-century theatre slang, from the sensation of long skirts trailing on the floor. Men dressed or disguised as women have featured in traditional rituals for centuries. For example, the characters of some regional variants of the traditional mummers play, which were traditionally always performed by men, include Besom Bet; the variant performed around Plough Monday in Eastern England is known as the Plough Play and involves two female characters, the young "Lady Bright and Gay" and "Old Dame Jane" and a dispute about a bastard child. A character called Bessy accompanied the Plough Jags in places where no play was performed: "she" was a man dressed in women's clothes, who carried a collecting box for money and other largesse. "Maid Marian" of the Abbots Bromley Horn Dance is played by a man, the Maid Marians referred to in old documents as having taken part in May Games and other festivals with Morris dancers would most also have been men.
The "consort" of the Castleton Garland King was traditionally a man and was simply referred to as "The Woman". Cross-dressing elements of performance traditions are widespread cultural phenomena. In England, actors in Shakespearean plays, all Elizabethan theatre, were all male. Shakespeare used the conventions to enrich the gender confusions of As You Like It, Ben Jonson manipulated the same conventions in Epicœne, or The Silent Woman; the plot device of the film Shakespeare in Love turns upon this Elizabethan convention. During the reign of Charles II the rules were relaxed to allow women to play female roles on the London stage, reflecting the French fashion, the convention of men playing female roles disappeared. However, in current-day British pantomime, the Pantomime dame is a traditional role played by a man in drag, while the Principal boy, such as Prince Charming or Dick Whittington, is played by a girl. Within the dramatic fiction, a double standard affected the uses of drag. In male-dominated societies where active roles were reserved to men, a woman might dress as a man under the pressures of her dramatic predicament.
In these societies a man's position was above a woman's, causing a rising action that suited itself to tragedy, sentimental melodrama and comedies of manners that involved confused identities. A man dressed as a woman was thought to be a falling action only suited to broad low comedy and burlesque. Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo are an all-male ballet troupe where much of the humor is in seeing male dancers en travesti; these conventions of male-dominated societies were unbroken before the 20th century, when rigid gender roles were undermined and began to dissolve. This evolution changed drag in the last decades of the 20th century. Among contemporary drag performers, the theatrical drag queen or street queen may at times be seen less as a "female impersonator" per se, but as a drag queen, the role of the queen existing as an identity based in neither mainstream male nor mainstream female conventions. Examples include Danny La Rue or RuPaul. In the 1890s the slapstick drag traditions of undergraduate productions were permissible fare to the same middle-class American audiences that were scandalized to hear that in New York City, rouged young men in skirts were standing on tables to dance the Can-Can in Bowery dives like The Slide.
Drag shows were popular night club entertainment in New York in the 20s were forced underground, until the "Jewel Box Revue" played Harlem's Apollo Theater in the 1950s: "49 men and a girl." The girl received a roar of applause, when she was revealed as the same smart young man in dinner clothes, introducing each of the evening's acts. In Baroque opera, where soprano roles for men were sung by castrati, Handel's heroine Bradamante, in the opera Alcina, disguises herself as a man to save her lover, played by a male soprano. In Romantic opera, certain roles of young boys were written for alto and soprano voices and acted by women en travestie; the most familiar trouser role in pre-Romantic opera is Cherubino in Mozart's Marriage of Figaro. Romantic opera continued the convention: there are trouser roles for women in drag in Rossini's Semiramide, Donizetti's Rosamonda d'Inghilterra and Anna Bolena, Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini, a page in Verdi's Don Carlo; the convention was beginning to die out with Siebel, the ingenuous youth in Charles Gounod's Faust and the gypsy boy Beppe in Mascagni's L'Amico Fritz, so that Offenbach gave the role of Cupid to a real boy in Orphée aux Enfers.
But Sarah Bernhardt played Hamlet in tights, giving French audiences a glimpse of Leg and Prince Orlovsky, who gives the ball in Die Fledermaus, is a mezzo-sopr