The Last Shadow Puppets
The Last Shadow Puppets are an English supergroup consisting of Alex Turner, Miles Kane, James Ford, Zach Dawes. They are joined live by Tyler Parkford; the band released their debut album The Age of the Understatement in 2008. Following a lengthy hiatus, they returned, releasing second album Everything You've Come to Expect in 2016. In August 2007 NME magazine reported that Arctic Monkeys lead singer Alex Turner and lead singer of newly formed the Rascals, Miles Kane would be recording an album with Simian Mobile Disco member and former Simian drummer James Ford producing and playing drums. Turner and Kane had become friends when Kane's previous band the Little Flames played support for Arctic Monkeys on their 2005 UK tour; the Little Flames supported Arctic Monkeys on their April 2007 UK tour, when Turner and Kane wrote songs together for a collaborative project. Their collaboration extended into Arctic Monkeys material, with Kane playing guitar on "505", the closing track of second Arctic Monkeys album Favourite Worst Nightmare and on "Fluorescent Adolescent" B-sides "The Bakery" and "Plastic Tramp."
Kane guested on "505" and "Plastic Tramp" at several Arctic Monkeys gigs in 2007, including the summer mini-festivals at Lancashire County Cricket Club and Arctic Monkeys' 2007 & 2013 appearances at Glastonbury. The initial recording of the songs that would form their debut album took place in France in late August 2007 with additional material added between August and December of that year. In December Owen Pallett was appointed to arrange the strings and percussion for the album with the 22-piece London Metropolitan Orchestra. During the recording of the album Turner and Kane hired a documentary film-making team, Luke Seomore and Joseph Bull, to capture the story of the project. On 20 February 2008, Miles Kane and Alex Turner revealed they would be known as the Last Shadow Puppets and that their album would be titled The Age of the Understatement and would be released on 21 April 2008; the album went straight to number one in the UK Albums Chart. The first single, "The Age of the Understatement", was released the week before on 14 April, with new song "Two Hearts in Two Weeks" and covers of Billy Fury's "Wondrous Place" and David Bowie's "In the Heat of the Morning" as b-sides.
The duo have said they took inspiration from early Bowie. As well as this, there are influences of the Beatles and late 60s/ early 70s progressive rock; the second single, "Standing Next to Me", was released on 7 July 2008. The album produced a third single, "My Mistakes Were Made for You." The album was nominated for the 2008 Mercury Music Prize but lost out to Elbow's The Seldom Seen Kid. Although Kane said in an interview with The Sun that the Last Shadow Puppets were looking to record new material in 2009, nothing was subsequently announced during that year. In a March 2010 interview with Absolute Radio, Alex Turner said that there were no plans, Kane said in October 2010 they would get back together after he was done with his solo project. In March 2011, Turner confirmed his interests in recording a second album. In January 2012, Miles Kane confirmed that he would reunite with Arctic Monkeys' singer Alex Turner to record again as the Last Shadow Puppets, saying that he and Turner would record the follow-up to The Age Of The Understatement "when the time is right."On 19 October 2015 Owen Pallett, who contributed the string arrangements on The Age of the Understatement, confirmed work on the second album on Twitter.
In an interview with the Chilean site Rock & Pop on 17 November 2015, producer James Ford confirmed that work on the second album had been completed and that the record would be released sometime in spring 2016. When asked of his recent work, Ford said, "This year, I've just done a Last Shadow Puppets record, the guy from Arctic Monkeys and Miles. So we did the follow-up album to that. That's the last thing I did."On 3 December 2015, the band's official Facebook and YouTube pages released a teaser trailer for the album confirming for the album to be released sometime in spring 2016. People such as Turner's ex-girlfriend, Taylor Bagley, Zach Dawes of Mini Mansions made small cameos in the video. A second teaser trailer for the album was released on 28 December 2015; the video featured Kane impersonating wrestler Ric Flair along with videos from the studio and various cinematic shots. On 10 January 2016, the band released their first single since 2008; the song, "Bad Habits", was accompanied with a music video filmed in the same style as the first two teaser trailers.
On 21 January 2016, the band announced that their second album would be entitled Everything You've Come to Expect, would feature the return of all three previous band members, as well as the addition of bass player Zach Dawes. It is set to be released on 1 April 2016. On 10 March 2016 the band released the title track from Everything You've Come to Expect,as the albums second single. An accompanying music video was released, of which there is 9 varieties, depicting Turner and Kane buried up to their necks on a beach while a woman dances around them. On 16 March 2016, the band released the track "Aviation", as the 3rd single. A video similar in style to Everything You've Come to Expect was released showing Turner and Kane digging a sand pit on the same beach they were buried on in the previous video. On 29 March 2016, the band released a 4th song, "Miracle Aligner", to be the last one before the release of the entire album; the band played their first show in Brooklyn, New York, at Sound Fix Re
Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds
Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds are an Australian rock band formed in Melbourne in 1983 by vocalist Nick Cave, multi-instrumentalist Mick Harvey and guitarist Blixa Bargeld. The band has featured international personnel throughout its career and presently consists of Cave and multi-instrumentalist Warren Ellis, bassist Martyn P. Casey, guitarist George Vjestica, keyboardist/percussionist Toby Dammit and drummers Thomas Wydler and Jim Sclavunos; the band has released sixteen studio albums and completed numerous international tours, has been considered "one of the most original and celebrated bands of the post-punk and alternative rock eras in the'80s and onward". The band was founded in 1983 following the demise of Cave and Harvey's former group the Birthday Party, the members of which met at a boarding school in Victoria. By the release of their fifth studio album Tender Prey in 1988, they shifted from post-punk towards an experimental alternative rock sound incorporating various influences throughout their career.
For example, the 2008 album Dig, Dig!!! and the side-project Grinderman were influenced by garage rock. Synthesizers and minimal guitar work feature prominently on Push the Sky Away, recorded after Harvey's departure from the band in 2009; the project that would evolve into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds began following the demise of The Birthday Party in August 1983. Both Cave and Harvey were members of the Birthday Party, along with guitarist Rowland S. Howard and bassist Tracy Pew. During the recording sessions of the Birthday Party's scheduled EPs Mutiny/The Bad Seed, internal disputes developed in the band; the difference in Cave and Howard's approach to songwriting was a major factor, as Cave explained in an interview with On The Street: "the main reason why The Birthday Party broke up was that the sort of songs that I was writing and the sort of songs that Rowland was writing were just at odds with each other." Following the departure of Harvey, they disbanded. Cave said that "it would have gone on longer, but Mick has the ability to judge things much more than the rest of us."
An embryonic version of what would become Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds was formed in the Birthday Party's then-home of London in September 1983, with Cave, Einstürzende Neubauten guitarist Bargeld, Magazine bassist Barry Adamson, Jim G. Thirlwell; the band was formed as a backing band for Cave's intended solo project Man Or Myth?, approved by the record label Mute Records. During September and October 1983, they recorded material with producer Flood, although the sessions were cut short due to Cave's touring with the Immaculate Consumptive, another project formed with Thirlwell, Lydia Lunch and Marc Almond. In December 1983 Cave returned to Melbourne, where he formed a temporary line-up of his backing band, due to Bargeld's absence, that included Pew and guitarist Hugo Race; the band performed their first live show at Seaview in St. Kilda on 31 December 1983. Following a short Australian tour, during a period when they were without management and his band returned to London. Cave, Bargeld and Adamson formed the project's first consistent line-up, while Cave's longtime girlfriend Anita Lane was credited as a lyricist on the band's debut album.
The group, which up to this time had been nameless, adopted the moniker Nick Cave and the Cavemen, which they used for the first six months of their career. However, they were renamed Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds in May 1984, in reference to the final Birthday Party EP The Bad Seed, they began recording sessions for their debut album in March 1984 at London's Trident Studios and these sessions, together with the abandoned Man Or Myth? Sessions from September–October 1983 that were recorded at The Garden studios, formed the album From Her to Eternity, released on Mute Records in 1984. Race, touring guitarist Edward Clayton-Jones, left to form the Wreckery in Melbourne. After the departure of Race and Lane, the remaining members relocated to West Berlin, Germany, in 1985 and released a second album The Firstborn Is Dead; the album was influenced by the gothic Americana of the American South and blues music, exemplified in songs such as "Tupelo" and "Blind Lemon Jefferson", which reference the birth of Elvis Presley and Blind Lemon Jefferson respectively.
Released the following year, the cover version album Kicking Against the Pricks explored such influences more directly with renditions of material by Johnny Cash, John Lee Hooker and Lead Belly. The 1986 album marked the arrival of Swiss drummer Thomas Wydler, a member of Die Haut, featured guest appearances from Race and Birthday Party guitarist Howard, who had toured with the Bad Seeds as a substitute member in 1985. Pew's death from an epileptic seizure occurred in 1986; the band garnered an increased following due to a second 1986 album release, Your Funeral, My Trial, which coincided with Adamson's departure. Tender Prey, the dark, brooding 1988 follow-up, saw the arrival of American guitarist Kid Congo Powers—Harvey made the transition to bass—and short-tenured German keyboardist Roland Wolf; the single "The Mercy Seat" chronicled an unrepentant prisoner on death row and further increased the group's critical acclaim and commercial attention. The track was covered by Johnny Cash on his 2000 album American III: Solitary Man.
Despite the increasing level of success, the drug-related issues of band members became problematic. The documentary film The Road to God Knows Where, directed by Uli M Schueppel, depicts a five-week period of the United States leg of their 1989 tour. Cave and his ba
R. E. M. was an American rock band from Athens, formed in 1980 by drummer Bill Berry, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist/backing vocalist Mike Mills, lead vocalist Michael Stipe. One of the first alternative rock bands, R. E. M. was noted for Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style, Stipe's distinctive vocal quality and obscure lyrics, Mills' melodic basslines and backing vocals, Berry's tight, economical style of drumming. R. E. M. Released its first single—"Radio Free Europe"—in 1981 on the independent record label Hib-Tone; the single was followed by the Chronic Town EP in 1982, the band's first release on I. R. S. Records. In 1983, the group released its critically acclaimed debut album and built its reputation over the next few years through subsequent releases, constant touring, the support of college radio. Following years of underground success, R. E. M. Achieved a mainstream hit in 1987 with the single "The One I Love"; the group signed to Warner Bros. Records in 1988, began to espouse political and environmental concerns while playing large arenas worldwide.
By the early 1990s, when alternative rock began to experience broad mainstream success, R. E. M. was viewed by subsequent acts such as Pavement as a pioneer of the genre. The band released its two most commercially successful albums, Out of Time and Automatic for the People, which veered from the band's established sound and catapulted it to international fame. R. E. M.'s 1994 release, was a return to a more rock-oriented sound, but still continued its run of success. The band began its first tour in six years to support the album. In 1996, R. E. M. Re-signed with Warner Bros. for a reported US$80 million, at the time the most expensive recording contract in history. Its 1996 release, New Adventures in Hi-Fi, though critically acclaimed, fared worse commercially than its predecessors; the following year, Bill Berry left the band, while Stipe and Mills continued the group as a trio. Through some changes in musical style, the band continued its career into the next decade with mixed critical and commercial success, despite having sold more than 85 million albums worldwide and becoming one of the world's best-selling music artists of all time.
In 2007, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in their first year of eligibility. R. E. M. Disbanded amicably in September 2011, announcing the split on its website. In January 1980, Michael Stipe met Peter Buck in Wuxtry Records, the Athens record store where Buck worked; the pair discovered that they shared similar tastes in music in punk rock and protopunk artists like Patti Smith and the Velvet Underground. Stipe said, "It turns out that I was buying all the records, saving for himself." Through mutual friend Kathleen O'Brien and Buck met fellow University of Georgia students Mike Mills and Bill Berry, who had played music together since high school and lived together in Georgia. The quartet agreed to collaborate on several songs, their still-unnamed band spent a few months rehearsing in a deconsecrated Episcopal church in Athens, played its first show on April 5, 1980, supporting The Side Effects at O'Brien's birthday party held in the same church, performing a mix of originals and 1960s and 1970s covers.
After considering Twisted Kites, Cans of Piss, Negro Eyes, the band settled on "R. E. M.", which Stipe selected at random from a dictionary. The band members dropped out of school to focus on their developing group, they found a manager in Jefferson Holt, a record store clerk, so impressed by an R. E. M. performance in his hometown of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that he moved to Athens. R. E. M.'s success was immediate in Athens and surrounding areas. Over the next year and a half, R. E. M. Toured throughout the Southern United States. Touring was arduous because a touring circuit for alternative rock bands did not exist; the group toured in an old blue van driven by Holt, lived on a food allowance of $2 each per day. During April 1981, R. E. M. recorded its first single, "Radio Free Europe", at producer Mitch Easter's Drive-In Studios in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Distributing it as a four-track demo tape to clubs, record labels and magazines, the single was released in July 1981 on the local independent record label Hib-Tone with an initial pressing of 1,000 copies—600 of which were sent out as promotional copies.
The single sold out, another 6,000 copies were pressed due to popular demand, despite the original pressing leaving off the record label's contact details. Despite its limited pressing, the single garnered critical acclaim, was listed as one of the ten best singles of the year by The New York Times. R. E. M. recorded the Chronic Town EP with Mitch Easter in October 1981, planned to release it on a new indie label named Dasht Hopes. However, I. R. S. Records acquired a demo of the band's first recording session with Easter, circulating for months; the band turned down the advances of major label RCA Records in favor of I. R. S. with whom it signed a contract in May 1982. I. R. S. Released Chronic Town that August as its first American release. A positive review of the EP by NME praised the songs' auras of mystery, concluded, "R. E. M. Ring true, it's great to hear something as unforced and cunning as this."I. R. S. First paired R. E. M. with producer Stephen Hague to record its debut album. Hague's emphasis on technical perfection le
Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable", may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, soul, psychedelia, R&B, house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be experimental. Deriving from idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul and jazz, it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the'90s." Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic feel. Vocals in trip hop are female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock.
The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack and Groove Armada collaborates with male & female vocalists, Tricky features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, Chris Corner provided vocals for albums with Sneaker Pimps. Trip hop is known for its melancholy sound; this may be due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post-punk bands. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a proto-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded in 1983. Trip hop tracks incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones and flutes, may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin and Mellotron. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, breakbeat rhythms.
Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo. The term "trip-hop" first appeared in print in June 1994. Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo' Wax Records Artist RPM and DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing on Jamaican dub music used a laid-back and heavy drum beat. Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop termed "the Bristol Sound".
The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end; the Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart; the latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, Keith LeBlanc, a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label.
Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hip hop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, it was seen as an more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used the term trip hop to describe the hip hop instru
Mr. Bungle was an American experimental metal band from Northern California. Known for a eclectic style, the band cycled through several musical genres within the course of a single song, including heavy metal, avant-garde jazz, disco as well as funk. Many Mr. Bungle songs had an unconventional structure and utilized a wide array of instruments and samples. Live shows featured members dressing up and an array of cover songs; the band was founded in Eureka, California during 1985 while the members were still in high school, was named after a 1950s children's educational film featured in a 1981 Pee-wee Herman HBO special. Mr. Bungle released four demo tapes in the mid-to-late 1980s before signing to Warner Bros. Records and releasing three full-length studio albums between 1991 and 1999; the band toured in 2000 to support their last album before going on hiatus. Although Mr. Bungle went through several line-up changes early in their career, the longest-serving members were vocalist Mike Patton, guitarist Trey Spruance, bassist Trevor Dunn, saxophonists Clinton "Bär" McKinnon and Theo Lengyel, drummer Danny Heifetz.
Members were based in San Francisco during the band's tenure with Warner Bros. Mr. Bungle formed in 1985 in Eureka, while the members were still in high school; the band consisted of Trevor Dunn, Mike Patton, Trey Spruance, Theo Lengyel, Jed Watts. Watts was subsequently replaced by Hans Wagner, by Danny Heifetz, while Clinton "Bär" McKinnon joined in 1989; the band's name was taken from Beginning Responsibility: Lunchroom Manners, a 1959 children's educational film, featured in a Pee-wee Herman Show HBO special in the early 1980s. In it, an elementary school class watch a puppet show about an ill-mannered boy named Mr. Bungle; the short film was a strait-laced attempt to teach children good deportment, concluding that "a Mr. Bungle wouldn't have many friends." The version featured on The Pee-wee Herman Show had a laugh track added, which ridiculed the strict code of conduct promoted in the film. In various interviews, the band members noted that one reason they chose the Mr. Bungle moniker was because they identified with the Mr. Bungle character.
This was due to the intense feelings of isolation they experienced while growing up in Eureka, given that the rest of the community bullied them and treated them as outsiders. This was true of Trey Spruance, who noted that the treatment he received was what motivated him to pursue music. Spruance recollected, Mr. Bungle emerged. "It was kinda like a merger between two bands," Mike Patton recalled. "One horrible gothic metal band, which our guitarist and original drummer were in, one horrible metal band which did Metallica covers, the one Trevor and me came from." Mr. Bungle described themselves as a death metal band, but dabbled in speed metal, thrash metal, hardcore punk, and within a year of formation, the band expanded their sound to include ska. Trevor Dunn noted that, "After about a year we got tired of playing speed metal and wanted to do something a little more creative. So we just stopped and started writing our own style of music, influenced by bands like Camper Van Beethoven, Oingo Boingo, Bad Manners and kind of funky, ska-oriented stuff.
We added a two-piece horn section and a new drummer, so now we don't have any kind of limit on the music we play." Trey Spruance corroborated this. “When I was 15, I was in a death metal group," Spruance reminisced. "We had this idea. We just had this idea, you know: ‘Okay, we’re going to play this ska music, that’ll be amazing.’ Half of the audience hated us, but there was a joy in confronting that wall between styles.”Given that the band's background was in heavy music at that point, some band members experienced difficulties expanding their sound early on. In particular, Spruance noted that Mike Patton had to teach him to play the ska stroke for a performance at their high school talent show. Spruance explained, "Oh, what I remember was... this was our first... like, we had only done, uh, death metal up to that point. And so this was our first time trying to play ska, and I'd never played... on guitar, like, I'd never played... I didn't know, but Patton could do, like with one finger on the thread mark, he could do the, the rhythmic part of it pretty well.
Like, he could... he taught me how to do it. So, I just sort of awkwardly... I would fill in and make the chord and he played guitar, but would just kind of use it percussively, and we played these Camper Van Beethoven songs, I don't... I dunno if we played The Specials, but that's what we were listening to."Mr. Bungle played their first show during November 1985 at the Bayside Grange Hall; the band's first demo, The Raging Wrath of the Easter Bunny, was recorded during Easter of 1986. It featured a lo-fi death/thrash sound, with touches of ska. Instruments utilized on the album included a train whistle, bongos and a kazoo; the Raging Wrath of the Easter Bunny was followed in 1987 by the Bowel of Chiley demo. Bradley Torreano noted at AllMusic that the recording was "essentially the sound of some talented teenagers trying to make their love of jazz and ska come together in whatever way they can." In 1988, Mr. Bungle released their third demo, Goddammit I Love America!, musically similar to Bow
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i