Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone, regarded as having access to, influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who enters into a trance state during a ritual, practices divination and healing; the word "shaman" originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Udehe/Orochi, Ilcha, Orok and Ulcha, "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning'shaman' derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia; the term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking peoples.
Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to use the term in a broad sense. The term was used to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa and completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, the least hazardous, will be: shamanism ='technique of religious ecstasy'." Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness; the shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.
The shaman operates within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, historians, religious studies scholars and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many Westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement, it has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures to which they do not belong.
The word shamanism derives from the Manchu-Tungus word šaman, meaning'one who knows'. The word "shaman" may have originated from the Evenki word šamán, most from the southwestern dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples; the Tungusic term was subsequently adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum; the word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen. Adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China; the etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- "to know". This has been questioned on linguistic grounds: "The possibility cannot be rejected, but neither should it be accepted without reservation since the assumed derivational relationship is phonologically irregular."
Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, as such would be the only used English word, a loan from this language. However, Mircea Eliade noted that the Sanskrit word śramaṇa, designating a wandering monastic or holy figure, has spread to many Central Asian languages along with Buddhism and could be the ultimate origin of the Tungusic word; this proposal has been critiqued since 1917. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility", nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology."21st-century anthropologist and archeologist Silvia Tomaskova argues that by the mid-1600s, many Europeans applied the Arabic term shaitan to the non-Christian practices and beliefs of indigenous peoples beyond the Ural Mountains. She suggests that shaman may have entered the various Tungus dialects as a corruption of this term, been told to Christian missionaries, explorers and colonial administrators with whom the people had increasing contact for centuries.
Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word. A shamaness is somet
Brechin Castle is a castle in Brechin, Scotland. The castle is the seat of the Earl of Dalhousie, the clan chieftain of Clan Maule of Panmure in Angus, Clan Ramsay of Dalhousie in Midlothian; the castle was constructed in stone during the 13th century. Most of the current building dates to the early 18th century, when extensive reconstruction was carried out by architect Alexander Edward for James Maule, 4th Earl of Panmure, between 1696 and 1709; the castle is a Category A listed building and the grounds are included in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland. The grounds have been in the Maule-Ramsay family since the 12th century; the castle has been the seat of the Clan Maule since medieval times. The Maule and Ramsay clans were joined under a single chieftain in the 18th century; the seat of the Ramsay clan was moved from Dalhousie Castle to Brechin Castle in the early 20th century. The estate consisted of 150,000 acres at its height and is now 55,000 acres; the formal gardens date to the early 18th century.
Agriculture and forestry dominate the estate grounds, but tourists can stay at several guest lodges on the property. A 1990s addition to the grounds is a retail shopping complex. Montrose Basin Dalhousie Estates - Brechin Castle Engraving of Brechin castle by James Fittler in the digitised copy of Scotia Depicta, or the antiquities, public buildings and gentlemen's seats, cities and picturesque scenery of Scotland, 1804 at National Library of Scotland
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson c. 1230. The name Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts. Heimskringla is a collection of sagas about Swedish and Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla in 1177; the exact sources of his work are disputed, but included earlier kings' sagas, such as Morkinskinna and the twelfth century Norwegian synoptic histories and oral traditions, notably many skaldic poems. Snorri had himself visited Norway and Sweden. For events of the mid-12th century, Snorri explicitly names the now-lost work Hryggjarstykki as his source; the composition of the sagas is Snorri's. The name Heimskringla comes from the fact that the first words of the first saga in the compilation are Kringla heimsins, "the orb of the Earth".
The earliest parchment copy of the work is referred to as Kringla, now catalogued as Reykjavík, National Library, Lbs fragm 82. This is now a single vellum leaf from c. 1260. Heimskringla consists of several sagas thought of as falling into three groups, giving the overall work the character of a triptych; the saga narrates the contests of the kings, the establishment of the kingdom of Norway, Viking expeditions to various European countries, ranging as far afield as Palestine in the saga of Sigurd the Crusader. The stories are told with a freshness, giving a picture of human life in all its reality; the saga is a prose epic, relevant to the history not only of Scandinavia but the regions included in the wider medieval Scandinavian diaspora. The first part of the Heimskringla is rooted in Norse mythology; the first section tells of the mythological prehistory of the Norwegian royal dynasty, tracing Odin, described here as a mortal man, his followers from the East, from Asaland and Asgard, its chief city, to their settlement in Scandinavia.
The subsequent sagas are devoted starting with Halfdan the Black. A version of Óláfs saga helga, about the saint Olaf II of Norway, is the main and central part of the collection: Olaf's 15-year-long reign takes up about one third of the entire work. Thereafter, the saga of Harald Hardrada narrates Harald's expedition to the East, his brilliant exploits in Constantinople and Sicily, his skaldic accomplishments, his battles in England against Harold Godwinson, the son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, where he fell at the battle Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 only a few days before Harold fell at the Battle of Hastings. After presenting a series of other kinds, the saga ends with Magnus V of Norway. Heimskringla contains the following sagas: Ynglinga saga Saga of Halfdanr svarti Saga of Haraldr hárfagi Saga of Hákon góði Saga of King Haraldr gráfeldr Saga of King Óláfr Tryggvason Saga of King Óláfr Haraldsson, excerpt from conversion of Dale-Gudbrand Saga of Magnús góði Saga of Haraldr harðráði Saga of Óláfr Haraldsson kyrri Saga of Magnús berfœttr Saga of Sigurðr Jórsalafari and his brothers Saga of Magnús blindi and of Haraldr Gilli Saga of Sigurðr, Eysteinn and Ingi, the sons of Haraldr Saga of Hákon herðibreiðs Saga of Magnús Erlingsson Snorri explicitly mentions a few prose sources, now lost in the form that he knew them: Hryggjarstykki by Eiríkr Oddsson, Skjǫldunga saga, an unidentified saga about Knútr inn gamli, a text called Jarlasǫgurnar.
Snorri may have had access to a wide range of the early Scandinavian historical texts known today as the'synoptic histories', but made most use of: Ágrip af Nóregs konunga sǫgum. Morkinskinna. Fagrskinna, itself based on Morkinskinna, but the much shorter, his own Separate saga of St Óláfr, which he incorporated bodily into Heimskringla. This text was based on a saga of Olaf from about 1220 by Styrmir Kárason, now lost. Oddr Snorrason's Life of Óláfr Tryggvason, a Latin life of the same figure by Gunnlaugr Leifsson. Snorri made extensive use of skaldic verse which he believed to have been composed at the time of the events portrayed and transmitted orally from that time onwards, made us of other oral accounts, though it is uncertain to what extent. Up until the mid-19th century, historians put great trust in the factual truth of Snorri's narrative, as well as other old Norse sagas. In the early 20th century, this trust was abandoned with the advent of saga criticism, pioneered by Curt and Lauritz Weibull.
These historians pointed out that Snorri's work had been written sev
Peter Andreas Munch
Peter Andreas Munch known as P. A. Munch, was a Norwegian historian, known for his work on the medieval history of Norway. Munch’s scholarship included Norwegian archaeology, ethnography and jurisprudence, he was noted for his Norse legendary saga translations. Peter Andreas Munch was born in Christiania, he was the son of Johanne Sophie Hofgaard. Munch was the uncle of the famous painter Edvard Munch. Munch grew up at Gjerpen parsonage, he was schooled in the city of Skien. He attended the Royal Frederick University. Munch first studied law and took his state examination in 1834, but turned to historical and philological studies. Munch's first great achievement, with Rudolph Keyser, was their three volumes of Norges Gamle Love, edited after a two-year research visit to Copenhagen. In 1837, he became lecturer in history at the University of Oslo and in 1841 became a professor of history. In 1857, after producing numerous publications, he received a large grant for archives research in Rome and lived there from 1859 to 1861.
Munch served as Norway's national archivist from 1861 to 1863. He was one of the first non-Catholics to be allowed into the archives of the Vatican, he took extensive notes from the volumes of papal letters, sometimes drew accurate facsimiles of the texts. His research there was useful in his main work, Det norske Folks Historie, in eight volumes, he sent his notes home to the Royal Archives in Christiania. Among the theories he is remembered for is the theory on immigration to Norway, in which he developed work done by Rudolf Keyser. On a trip back to Rome to fetch his family, who had remained there for a while, he died from a stroke, was buried in the Protestant cemetery in Rome. In this work, Munch translated the 3rd Chronicle from a Codex transferred to the British Museum; the manuscript is the only known copy of this Codex. In any event, Munch translated runic characters and added historical notes to lend light upon the writings, using previous works on the history of Scottish and Icelandic Isles to aid in the presentation of the translated material.
Peter Munch had racial thoughts on e.g. Finns and Hungarians, he despised Finns and claimed that they cannot have an independent country because of their low state of civilization, as he claimed. Peter Munch claimed in his article on Finnish nationality in 1855, that Finns and Hungarians must have a human race of their own. Norges, Sveriges og Danmarks Historie til Skolebrug Norges Historie i kort Udtog for de første Begyndere Nordens gamle Gude- og Helte-Sagn i kortfattet Fremstilling Verdenshistoriens vigtigste Begivenheder De nyeste Tiders Historie Fortegnelse over de mest befarede Landeveie og Reiserouter saavel mellem Stæderne, som Landdistricterne i Norge Det oldnorske Sprogs eller Norrønasprogets Grammatik Underholdende Tildragelser af Norges Historie Nordmændenes Gudelære i Hedenold Det gotiske Sprogs Formlære Kortfattet Fremstilling af den ældste norske Runeskrift Om Skandinavismen Historisk-geographisk Beskrivelse over Kongeriget Norge i Middelalderen Det norske Folks Historie Om den saakaldte nyere historiske Skole i Norge Nordmændenes ældste Gude- og Helte-Sagn The Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys Works by or about Peter Andreas Munch at Internet Archive Peter Andreas Munch Peter Andreas Munch's "Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes" e-book Digitized books by Munch in the National Library of Norway
Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum
Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum or Ágrip is a history of the kings of Norway. Written in Old Norse, it is, along with the Historia Norvegiæ, one of the Norwegian synoptic histories; the preserved text starts with the death of Hálfdan svarti and ends with the accession of Ingi krókhryggr but the original is thought to have covered a longer period up to the reign of Sverrir. The work was composed by an unknown Norwegian writer around 1190; the only surviving manuscript is Icelandic from the first half of the thirteenth century. The preserved parchment book consists of four quires, a fifth quire has been lost; the first leaf is missing, therefore the original title of the book, if it had any, is unknown. The name Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum was first used in an edition in 1835.Ágrip is compared with the two other Norwegian synoptic histories from the same period, Historia Norvegiae and the work of Theodoricus monachus. It broke ground by being the first one written in the vernacular. Ágrip is the first of the kings' sagas to quote skaldic poetry in the text.
The narrative is brief, much less detailed than the narratives of the kings' sagas, such as Fagrskinna and Heimskringla. The story is noticeably more detailed in descriptions of events and locations in the Trøndelag region and the city of Nidaros. Together with linguistic factors, this has been seen as an indication that the work was composed in Nidaros. Ágrip has been translated to Danish, German and English. Bjarni Einarsson. Íslenzk fornrit XXIX: Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum: Fagrskinna - Nóregs konunga tal. Reykjavík: Hið íslenzka fornritafélag, 1984. Driscoll, M. J.. Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series 10. 2nd ed. 2008. Available online from the Viking Society for Northern Research. ISBN 0-903521-27-X Stutt ágrip af Noregs konúnga sögum Old Norse text Stutt ágrip af Noregs konúnga sögum Same text on a different website AM 325 II 4to Information on the manuscript
Earl of Dalhousie
Earl of Dalhousie, in the County of Midlothian, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, held by the Chief of Clan Ramsay. The family descends from Sir George Ramsay, who represented Kincardineshire in the Scottish Parliament in 1617, he received a charter of the barony of Dalhousie and of the barony of Melrose on the resignation of John Ramsay, 1st Earl of Holderness. In 1618 he was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Lord Ramsay of Melrose. However, as he did not like the title, he obtained a letter from James VI in 1619 to change it to Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie, he was succeeded by the second Lord. He sat as a member of the Scottish Parliament for Montrose in 1617 and 1621 and served as Sheriff Principal of Edinburghshire. In 1633 he was created Lord Ramsay of Keringtoun and Earl of Dalhousie, in the County of Midlothian, in the Peerage of Scotland, his grandson, the third Earl, fought at the Battle of Bothwell Brig in 1679. His eldest son, the fourth Earl, was killed in a duel with a Mr Hamilton.
He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifth Earl. He was a colonel in the Scots Guards and brigadier-general in the British Army and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession, he was succeeded by the sixth Earl. He was the son of Captain second son of the first Earl. Lord Dalhousie's eldest son of George Ramsay, Lord Ramsay, married Jean, daughter of the Hon. Harry Maule of Kelly, younger son of George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure, brother of James Maule, 4th Earl of Panmure, who took part in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 and was attainted in 1716 with his titles forfeited. Dalhousie was succeeded by the seventh Earl, he was the eldest son of Lord Ramsay. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the eighth Earl, he sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1774 to 1787. His second son the Hon. William Ramsay succeeded to the Maule estates in 1784 and was created Baron Panmure in 1831. Lord Dalhousie was succeeded by the ninth Earl, he was a distinguished soldier and served as Governor General of British North America and as Commander-in-Chief of India.
In 1815 he was created Baron Dalhousie, of Dalhousie Castle in the County of Edinburgh, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which entitled him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords. He was succeeded by the tenth Earl, he was an influential Tory politician and served as Governor-General of India from 1847 to 1856. In 1849 he was created Marquess of Dalhousie, of Dalhousie Castle in the County of Edinburgh and of the Punjab, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Lord Dalhousie assumed the additional surname of Broun of Colstoun upon succeeding to the Colstoun estates, he had no male issue and on his death in 1860 the marquessate and barony of 1815 became extinct. He was succeeded in the Scottish titles by his first cousin Fox Maule, 2nd Baron Panmure, the eleventh Earl, he was a prominent Liberal politician and notably held office as Secretary of State for War. On succeeding to the earldom in 1860 he assumed the surname and arms of Ramsay of Dalhousie after that of Maule. Lord Dalhousie was childless and on his death in 1874 the barony of Panmure became extinct.
He was succeeded in the Scottish titles by his first cousin, the twelfth Earl, the second son of the Hon. John Ramsay, fourth son of the eight Earl. Lord Dalhousie was an admiral in the Royal Navy. In 1875, he was created Baron Ramsay, of Glenmark in the County of Forfar, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which entitled him to a seat in the House of Lords, he was succeeded by the thirteenth Earl. He was a Liberal politician and served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886, his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was a captain in the Scots Guards and an honorary colonel in the North Scottish Royal Garrison Artillery. He was succeeded by the fifteenth Earl, he was a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the sixteenth Earl, he was a Conservative Member of Parliament before succeeding in the earldom and served as Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and was Chancellor of the University of Dundee. As of 2013 the titles are held by his eldest son, the seventeenth Earl, who succeeded in 1999.
Lord Dalhousie is Chief of Clan Ramsay. Several other members of the family have gained distinction; the Hon. George Ramsay, younger son of the second Earl, was a lieutenant-general in the Army and served as commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland in 1702; the aforementioned the Hon. William Ramsay, second son of the eighth Earl, was created Baron Panmure in 1831; the aforementioned the Hon. John Ramsay, fourth son of the eighth Earl, was a lieutenant-general in the service of the General Staff of India, he was the father of 1) William Ramsay, a major-general in the Bengal Army. Sir Henry Ramsay, a general in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was the politician Archibald Maule Ramsay; the Hon. Charles Ramsay, fourth son of the twelfth Earl, represented Forfar in the House of Commons from 1894 to 1895; the Hon. Sir Patrick Ramsay, second son of the thirteenth Earl, was a diplomat and served as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Greece and Denmark; the Hon. Sir Alexander Ramsay, third son of the thirteenth Earl, was an admiral in the Royal Navy and served as Fifth Sea Lord from
Orkney known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the isle of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles north of the coast of Caithness and comprises 70 islands, of which 20 are inhabited; the largest island, Mainland, is referred to as "the Mainland", has an area of 523 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, a historic county; the local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. A form of the name dates to the pre-Roman era and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and by the Picts. Orkney was colonized and annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse.
The Scottish Parliament annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride Margaret of Denmark. In addition to the Mainland, most of the islands are in two groups, the North and South Isles, all of which have an underlying geological base of Old Red Sandstone; the climate is mild and the soils are fertile, most of the land being farmed. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy; the significant wind and marine energy resources are of growing importance, the island generates more than its total yearly electricity demand using renewables. The local people are known as Orcadians and have a distinctive dialect of the Scots language and a rich inheritance of folklore. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site and there is an abundance of marine and avian wildlife. Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas.
This may have referred to Dunnet Head. Writing in the 1st century AD, the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela called the islands Orcades, as did Tacitus in 98 AD, claiming that his father-in-law Agricola had "discovered and subjugated the Orcades hitherto unknown" Etymologists interpret the element orc- as a Pictish tribal name meaning "young pig" or "young boar". Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc "island of the pigs"; the archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending. Some earlier sources alternately hypothesize that Orkney comes from whale; the Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in his seminal work Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Norwegian settlers arriving from the late ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn "seal" and added eyjar "islands" to the end so the name became Orkneyjar "Seal Islands"; the plural suffix -jar was removed in English leaving the modern name "Orkney".
According to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named. The Norse knew Mainland, Orkney as Megenland "Mainland" or as Hrossey "Horse Island"; the island is sometimes referred to as Pomona, a name that stems from a sixteenth-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, used locally. A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes; the earliest known permanent settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray, which dates from 3500 BC. The village of Skara Brae, Europe's best-preserved Neolithic settlement, is believed to have been inhabited from around 3100 BC. Other remains from that era include the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Maeshowe passage grave, the Ring of Brodgar and other standing stones. Many of the Neolithic settlements were abandoned around 2500 BC due to changes in the climate. During the Bronze Age fewer large stone structures were built although the great ceremonial circles continued in use as metalworking was introduced to Britain from Europe over a lengthy period.
There are few Orcadian sites dating from this era although there is the impressive Plumcake Mound near the Ring of Brodgar and various islands sites such as Tofts Ness on Sanday and the remains of two houses on Holm of Faray. Excavations at Quanterness on the Mainland have revealed an Atlantic roundhouse built about 700 BC and similar finds have been made at Bu on the Mainland and Pierowall Quarry on Westray; the most impressive Iron Age structures of Orkney are the ruins of round towers called "brochs" and their associated settlements such as the Broch of Burroughston and Broch of Gurness. The nature and origin of these buildings is a subject of ongoing debate. Other structures from this period include underground storehouses, aisled roundhouses, the latter in association with earlier broch sites. During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders, said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester. After the Agricolan fleet had come and gone anchoring at Shapinsay, direct Roman influence seems to have been limited to trade rather than conquest.
By the late Iron Age, Orkney was part of the Pictish kingdom, although the archaeological remains from this period are less