Exposition Park, Los Angeles
The Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles is in the south region of Los Angeles, California. It is home to Exposition Park, which includes the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium, Exposition Rose Garden and three museums: the California African American Museum, the California Science Center and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, it is home to a Science Center Academy. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, The Exposition Park 1.85-square-mile neighborhood is flanked by Adams-Normandie on the north, University Park on the northeast, Historic South Central on the east, Vermont Square on the south, Hyde Park and Leimert Park on the west. It is bounded by Jefferson Boulevard on the north, Vermont Avenue on the east, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard on the south and Arlington Avenue on the west, to, added all of Exposition Park and additional land along both sides of Figueroa Street east and Exit 20A of the Interstate 110 Freeway.
A total of 31,062 residents counted in its 1.85 square miles, including the park land as well as Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum according to the 2000 U. S. census—an average of 16,819 people per square mile among the highest population densities for both the city and the county. By 2008 the population had increased to 33,458, the city has estimated; the median age was 26, considered young for both the city and the county, the percentages of residents aged birth through 18 were among the county's highest. There were 1,818 families headed by single parents. Within the neighborhood, Latinos made up 36.9% of the population, while African American were at 38.1%— both considered high percentages for the county. Other ethnicities were White, 2.2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 38.5% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,999, considered low for both the city and county.
The percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.3 people was about the same as in the city at large. Renters occupied 69% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest; the percentages of never-married people were among the county's highest—45.5% for men and 39.1% for women. Only 7.3% of the neighborhood residents aged 25 and older had a four-year degree, a low percentage for both the city and the county. The percentage of residents of that age with less than a high school diploma was high; the schools operating with the Exposition Park neighborhood boundaries are: Alliance College-Ready Academy High No. 5, 1729 West Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard Foshay Learning Center, 3751 South Harvard Boulevard Thurgood Marshall Charter Middle School, 3200 West Adams Boulevard Lenicia B. Weemes Elementary School, 1260 West 36th Place Dr. Theo T. Alexander Jr. Science Center, 3737 S. Figueroa Street, within Exposition Park, the school first opened on September 9, 2004 Martin Luther King Jr.
Elementary School, 3989 South Hobart Street Three Metro Expo Line stations are located within the Exposition Park neighborhood: Expo Park/USC station Vermont station Western station Two Olympic Games were held at various venues within Exposition Park. Exposition Park Denker Recreation Center, 1550 West 35th Place Martin Luther King Jr. Park, 3916 South Western Avenue Jackie Robinson, Hall of Fame and pioneer athlete Betty Hill, activist Loren Miller, Los Angeles County attorney and judge Eric Dolphy, jazz musician William J. Powell, aviator Reb Spikes, jazz musician Ramon Novarro, actor Noble Johnson, film producer List of districts and neighborhoods in Los Angeles List of parks in Los Angeles Neighborhood Spotlight: Exposition Park's sports and transit offerings make it a player to watch Expo Center website, Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks North Area Neighborhood Council Exposition Park neighborhood crime map and statistics
Jefferson High School (Los Angeles)
Thomas Jefferson High School referred to as Jefferson High School, is a public high school in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Founded in 1916, it is the fourth oldest high school in the school district. Located in South Los Angeles, its surrounding communities are Downtown, Central-Alameda, Historic South-Central and South Park. Jefferson's school colors are kelly green and gold and the sports teams are called the Democrats, or Demos for short. In 2006, a pilot program called New Tech: Student Empowerment Academy began in the northeast portion of the school. New Tech has since become a separate charter school housed in the Jefferson building. In 2016 New Tech closed down and the available space is now used by Nava College Preparatory Academy a pilot school, established in 2014. In 1915, the citizens of Los Angeles voted to sell bonds to raise $4,600,000 to build schools in the Los Angeles area. $500,000 was appropriated to build Jefferson High School on the "Stadium East Grounds" which held 25,000 people in a circled amphitheater configuration.
The "Stadium," as it was known, was the site for hosting and entertaining travelers on the way to both the San Diego and San Francisco world expos in 1915. Numerous rodeos and bicycle races were held at the location. Architect Norman F. Marsh was hired to design the new Jefferson High School complex, the property front 1235 feet on Hooper Avenue, 1149 feet on Compton Avenue, 952 feet on 34th Street and 392 feet on 38th street; the buildings of the group would be of brick and concrete construction, being faced with rug tapestry brick and trimmed with artificial stone. All corridors and stairways would be made fireproof; the classical style would be followed, each of the main structures having a dignified entrance portico with stone pediment and columns. Jefferson opened its doors on September 11, 1916, with 24 faculty members and two buildings completed. Theodore Fulton was installed as the school's first principal. On March 10, 1933, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake in the city of Long Beach destroyed the infrastructure of the six buildings which composed the Jefferson High School Campus.
The campus was closed from March 10 until April 6. On April 6, tent bungalows provided by the school board were erected on the football fields. Classes were shortened to half day sessions. In 1933, Architect Stiles O. Clements was hired to build a 45-unit campus with a budget of $353,000; the "Streamline Modern" building structures were completed in 1935. Ross Dickinson was selected and funded by Federal Art Project to paint four 11 feet by 5.5 foot murals with the theme "The History of Recorded Word". The murals were completed in 1937; as of 1936, several notable alumni such as Ralph Bunche, Woody Strode and Samuel R. Browne had graduated from Jefferson High School. All three men were African American, the first of many Jefferson alumni to break racial barriers in the politics of diplomacy, the art of dance, the art of music and the interpretation of sports. Jefferson produced more jazz musicians and composers than any other high school west of the Mississippi. Many of the musicians were nurtured under the guidance of Samuel R. Browne.
In 1937, Jefferson won the first of eight California State Championships in field. The four consecutive state championships in California have not been surpassed today. Woody Strode is one of two men who broke the color barrier in the National Football League in 1946. Mal Whitfield and Charles Dumas both received gold medals in the Olympics; this is a rare instance. Jefferson High has produced more prominent jazz musicians and composers than any other public or private high school in California. Jefferson is a traditional calendar school, composed of four Small Learning Communities and the Early College program, located at L. A. Trade Tech; the goal of each SLC is to offer individualized attention to students. The SLCs are as follows: Academy of Business & Communication: focuses on building leaders in the liberal arts, medical and business fields. Creative Arts and Expression: focuses on the creative energy and leadership within each student through the arts. Global Outlook through Academic Leadership: focuses on building leaders in the social, environmental and economic fields TPA Small Learning Community: focuses on building leaders in the education and social services fieldsThe Early College Program accepts students, based on recommendation and interview, who have "extenuating circumstances" requiring special support to achieve college acceptance.
Alvin Ailey – choreographer and activist. Carmen De Lavallade – dancer and actor Suzette Harbin - African American actress and dancer in films Theresa Harris - African American character actress and singer, notable early films include Hold Your Man starring Jean Harlow and Clark Gable, Baby Face starring Barbara Stanwyck, Professional Sweetheart starring Ginger Rogers Woody Strode – actor and football player, acted in films including The Ten Commandments and Posse Juanita Moore – actress, fourth African American nominated for an Oscar. Participated in over 50 movies.
Gilbert W. Lindsay
Gilbert William Lindsay known as Gil Lindsay, was a Los Angeles, politician who worked his way up from City Hall janitor to become the city's first black City Council member and one of its most powerful elected officials. He helped fashion downtown Los Angeles into a major metropolitan center but was accused of turning his back on the people in his district who elected him to 27 years on the city's governing body. Lindsay was born on November 29, 1900, in Mississippi, where he worked in the cotton fields as a youth, he enrolled in a school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He moved to Arizona, where he joined the Army and served in the 10th Cavalry and the 25th Infantry; as part of an Army program, he studied business administration at the University of Arizona. He moved to Los Angeles in 1923 or 1924 and became a City Hall janitor with the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, he took a civil service exam for a clerkship, he was given a basement office because, he said, his superiors did not want him to sit with whites.
He took classes in governmental administration and political science at the University of Southern California and in business administration at UCLA during the 25 years he worked for the department. About his years as a janitor, the Los Angeles Times quoted him as saying, "I used to scrub toilets for the city of Los Angeles with a mop—that was my job... I had the lowest job you can give a human being." But the Los Angeles Sentinel, a black-oriented newspaper, cited C. A. Barker, a Los Angeles businessman, as saying, "He was a helluva janitor! That was an important job for Negroes at that time, he gave the janitor's job the same respect. Whatever Gil was doing was important to him."He was known as being a short man, standing five feet, three inches tall. Lindsay's wife, was from Greenville, Texas, it was said that Lindsay "began to decline mentally and physically" after Theresa died in 1984. He had Melvin. Lindsay suffered a stroke in 1989 that reduced him to being the "titular leader" of the 9th District, with much of the real power in the hands of Bob Gay, his chief assistant, the Downtown News reported.
"On the Council floor, he has had moments of confusion, been both humored and manipulated by the other councilmembers. Those who deal with him say that he has moments of tremendous clarity, but that he is removed from the day-to-day workings of the office." Lindsay had lost "some control of his hands and has had trouble writing." City Council President John Ferraro said that Lindsay had "deteriorated to the point where he was incapable of doing his job." Lindsay was sent to a hospital again when, in the midst of the excitement occasioned by a planned visit to City Hall by South African anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela, he forgot to take his diabetes medicine and collapsed. He was brought to a hospital in Inglewood, where he remained until his fellow City Council members talked about removing him from his Council seat because he had been outside the Los Angeles city limits for more than 90 days, he was transferred to "another facility within Los Angeles to make him less vulnerable to efforts to unseat him."By in his 28th year as a City Council member, Lindsay died in a Hollywood hospital December 28, 1990, "as a result of a long illness which began with a severe stroke in early September that left him paralyzed on the right side and unable to speak and, at the end, was complicated by a heart attack."
A funeral service was held at Victory Baptist Church, he was buried in Evergreen Cemetery. Lindsay was a member of People's Baptist Church. Lindsay became involved in Democratic and labor politics and became so influential that his bosses in Water and Power "called on him to turn out the black vote on various bond issues." He was on the board of directors of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1953 to 1958 and was an NAACP vice president. He was tapped by City Council candidate Kenneth Hahn as his aide to turn out the black vote. Hahn won and when he became a county supervisor he appointed Lindsay as a field deputy, a job that Lindsay held for ten years, until 1963. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1963 and after. Lindsay became Los Angeles's first black council member at the age of 62 when, with the backing of the political Hahn brothers—Gordon and Kenneth—he was appointed to a vacant 9th District Council seat in January 1963 after Ed Roybal won election to Congress.
He won election in his own right in the year and was reelected to eight successive terms. As the years passed, he proclaimed himself the "Emperor of the Great 9th District." Lindsay's term of 27 years was surpassed only by those of John S. Gibson, Jr. Marvin Braude, 31 years, Ernani Bernardi and John Ferraro. Developers. Over the years, Lindsay attracted criticism "that he was too cozy with big developers, that he favored Downtown Los Angeles and neglected the neighborhoods." He was criticized for supporting Downtown "at the expense of the southern portion of his district." But City News Service writer Cathy Franklin said of him: "During his nearly three decades in office, the downtown area exploded into one of the premier business centers of the world." Blue lights. Lindsay clashed "in a bitter personal exchange" with Councilman Ernani Bernardi when the latter introduced a resolution aimed at removing the blue lights that Lindsay had had installed on the rear of his city automobile. Lindsay agreed to remove the lights but said: "The thing that disturbs me is that my coll
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti