A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. In the social sciences, a larger society exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. A society can consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society; this is sometimes referred to a term used extensively within criminology. More broadly, within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
The term "society" came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun socius used to describe a bond or interaction between parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term can refer to the entirety of humanity, although those who are unfriendly or uncivil to the remainder of society in this sense may be deemed to be "antisocial". However, the Scottish economist, Adam Smith taught instead that a society "may subsist among different men, as among different merchants, from a sense of its utility without any mutual love or affection, if only they refrain from doing injury to each other."Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language, or hierarchical structure. Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit; the great apes have always been more or less social animals, so Robinson Crusoe-like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.
Cultural relativism as a widespread approach or ethic has replaced notions of "primitive", better/worse, or "progress" in relation to cultures. According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in society, in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives, is the parental role assumed by the males, which would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not determinable. Societies may be structured politically. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes and state societies; these structures may have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more to survive than one in close proximity to others that may encroach on their resources. A society, unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will be subsumed into the culture of the competing society.
Sociologist Peter L. Berger defines society as "...a human product, nothing but a human product, that yet continuously acts upon its producers." According to him, society was created by humans but this creation turns back and creates or molds humans every day. Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology and economy: hunters and gatherers, simple agricultural, advanced agricultural and special; this is similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. Fried, a conflict theorist, Elman Service, an integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state; this system of classification contains four categories: Hunter-gatherer bands. Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige. Stratified structures led by chieftains. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.
In addition to this there are: Humanity, upon which rest all the elements of society, including society's beliefs. Virtual society, a society based on online identity, evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of control; this cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become cities. Cities turned into nation-states. Many societies distribute largess at some larger group of people; this type of generosity can be seen i
Gaithersburg the City of Gaithersburg, is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. At the time of the 2010 U. S. Census, Gaithersburg had a population of 59,933, making it the fourth largest incorporated city in the state, behind Baltimore and Rockville. Gaithersburg is located to the northwest of Washington, D. C. and is considered a suburb and a primary city within the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gaithersburg was incorporated as a town in 1878 and as a city in 1968. Gaithersburg is divided into east and west sections, separated by Interstate 270; the eastern section of the city is older and is the original portion of the town before more recent growth. Landmarks and buildings from that time can still be seen in many places but in the historic central business district of Gaithersburg called "Olde Towne"; the east side includes Lakeforest Mall, City Hall, the Montgomery County Fair grounds, Bohrer Park. The west side of the city has many wealthier neighborhoods that were designed with smart growth techniques and embrace New Urbanism.
These include the award-winning Kentlands community, the Lakelands community, the Washingtonian Center, a popular shopping/business district. Consumers come to this area during Black Friday and other shopping holidays for the deals and variety of huge brand name stores like Target and Dick's Sporting Goods, smaller stores like Francesca's and Blue Mercury. Two New Urbanism communities are under construction, including Watkins Mill Town Center, the massive "Science City"; the state has a bus rapid transit line, Corridor Cities Transitway or "CCT", planned for the western portion of the city starting at Shady Grove Metro Station and connecting all the high density western Gaithersburg neighborhoods with a total of eight stops planned in the city. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is headquartered in Gaithersburg directly west of I-270. Other major employers in the city include IBM, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services business area headquarters, MedImmune, the French multinational corporation, Sodexo.
Gaithersburg is the location of the garrison of the U. S. Army Reserve's 220th Military Police Brigade. Gaithersburg is noted for its economic diversity. S. cities for ethnic diversity and second for social class diversity. Gaithersburg was settled in 1765 as a small agricultural settlement known as Log Town near the present day Summit Hall on Ralph Crabb's 1725 land grant "Deer Park"; the northern portion of the land grant was purchased by Henry Brookes, he built his brick home "Montpelier" there, starting first with a log cabin in 1780/3. This 1,000 acre tract became part of the landmark IBM Headquarters complex built on the then-new I-270 Interstate "Industrial", now "Technology", Corridor in the late 1960s to the 1970s. Benjamin Gaither married Henry's daughter Margaret, Benjamin and Margaret inherited a portion of Henry's land prior to Henry's death in 1807. Gaither built his home on the land in 1802. By the 1850s the area was known to inhabitants as Gaithersburg; the Forest Oak Post Office, named for a large tree in the town, was located in Gaither's store in 1851.
However, when the railroad was built through town the new station was called Gaithersburg, an recognized name for the community for the first time. The town incorporated under its current name in 1878. Gaithersburg boomed during the late 19th century and churches, schools, a mill, grain elevators and hotels were built. Much of this development focused around the railroad station. In 1873 the B&O Railroad constructed a station at Gaithersburg, designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin as part of his well-known series of Victorian stations in Maryland. Rapid growth occurred shortly thereafter, on April 5, 1878 the town was incorporated as the Town of Gaithersburg. In 1899, Gaithersburg was selected as one of six global locations for the construction of an International Latitude Observatory as part of a project to measure the Earth's wobble on its polar axis; the Gaithersburg Latitude Observatory is the only National Historic Landmark in the City of Gaithersburg. The observatory and five others in Japan, Italy and the United States gathered information, still used by scientists today, along with information from satellites, to determine polar motion.
The Gaithersburg station operated until 1982 when computerization rendered the manual observation obsolete. In 1968, Gaithersburg was upgraded from a town to a city. Gaithersburg remained a predominantly rural farm town until the 1970s; as the population grew, with homes spreading throughout the area, Gaithersburg began taking on a suburban and semi-urban feel, leaving its farming roots behind. During the late 1990s and 2000s, it had become one of the most economically and ethnically diverse areas in the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan Area as well as the State of Maryland, with people from all walks of life calling Gaithersburg home; this can be seen in the local schools, with Gaithersburg High School and Watkins Mill High School having two of the most diverse student bodies in the region. During a 1997 rainstorm, the 295-year-old forest oak tree that gave its name to the Forest Oak Post Office crashed down; the tree served as the inspiration for
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service; the department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, concurrently serves in the Department as Deputy Secretary; the Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are responsible for police matters and internal security.
In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State; the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do, he noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, the Patent Office, part of the Department of State.
Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, spent just over two weeks in the Senate; the department was established on March 3, 1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill; the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the domestic concerns the department dealt with were transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which became the Department of Agriculture; however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee; the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin; the department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury, in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit.
Some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases; the $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009; as important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell. Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis National Invasive Species Council Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance and Acquisiti
Hagerty Insurance Agency
Hagerty Insurance Agency, styled just Hagerty, is an insurance company specializing in classic car insurance based in Traverse City, Michigan, in the United States. The company is the leading insurance agency for collector vehicles in the world and host to the largest network of collector car owners, they have been recognized as "largest insurance agency for collector cars in the United States." Frank and Louise Hagerty started out as personal lines insurance agents. With a personal interest in vintage boats and classic cars, they had a problem finding insurance coverage for their collectibles. In 1984, the couple started their own agency in the family basement offering agreed value policies for boats; this specialty coverage was a big hit. In 1991, the company added coverage for classic cars, offering a specialty auto policy The company is led today by McKeel Hagerty, son of Frank and Louise; the company sponsors scholarships to students interested in working in the collector car market. They started this through their former Collectors Foundation in 2005, continued in partnership with LeMay–America’s Car Museum since 2014.
In addition, company employees participate in a program to get hands-on experience restoring classic cars. In one such project in 2013, 123 employees donated 2,750 hours of labor, made 900 telephone calls chasing down parts, worked through 215 lunch breaks, used three tubes of super glue to repair cracked fingertips and, according to the project Web site, uttered "too many four-letter words to count" as they brought a decimated 1969 Chevrolet Camaro SS back to life, according to the New York Times; the car has been used both to educate employees of the company on what clients experience in restoration, as well as for marketing and promotional purposes. After restoration of the Chevrolet Camaro SS was completed in 2013, the company sent it to the Woodward Dream Cruise and other events; this experience in working with the details or restoration was touted by Nationwide Insurance when that company partnered with Hagerty in 2014 to offer specialty car insurance. Hagerty has partnered with Progressive Auto Insurance and Esurance to provide collector car insurance policies to consumers.
These policies come with a number of restrictions. Insured vehicles cannot be in daily use, they must be kept in secured storage; the company places restrictions on the driving records of its policy holders. Hagerty showcases classic cars at its Traverse City headquarters. For the 50th anniversary of the Ford Mustang, the company displayed the eight convertible of that model built in 1964. In addition, the company publishes a monthly magazine for car collectors, Hagerty Classic Cars, available online and in print. Hagerty has partnered with Hemmings Motor News to provide vehicle pricing information for classic cars, they release lists of cars deemed to be collectible in the future. Official website Peek, Jeff. "Hagerty's Strangest Classic Car Insurance Claims". Fox News Channel
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL
The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL was produced from 1954 to 1963. It was first produced as a coupe from 1954 to 1957 with gullwing doors and from 1957 to 1963 as a roadster; the direct fuel injected production version was based on the company's less powerful carbureted overhead camshaft straight-6 engine 1952 racer, the W194. Mercedes-Benz introduced the 300 SL in February 1954 at the International Motor Sports Show in New York instead of in Europe and was the marketing creation of Max Hoffman, it was voted the "sports car of the century" in 1999. The 300 refers to its engine displacement of 300 centiliter or more 2,996 cc. SL is the short form for "super-light" in German and refers to the light tubular frame construction; the 300 SL goes back to the racing sports car, Mercedes-Benz W194, which had had the name "300 SL". In 1951, Daimler-Benz had decided to take part in races again in 1952 and to build a sports car for this purpose. To achieve a sufficient performance for racing, the existing engine of the Coupe 300 S had to be further developed.
In 1952, the W 194 took part in the most important races of the year. The new SL achieved second place, it won the top three places at the Bern Sports Car Prize 131.04 kilometres. At the 24-hour race at Le Mans the 300 SL gained the top two places. First place went to Hermann Lang and Fritz Riess with an overall average 155.575 kilometres per hour, they achieved a new record in Le Mans history. Second place went to Helmut Niedermayr. A race at the Nürburgring ended with a four-fold success. At the Carrera Panamericana in Mexico, the 300 SL again won with Karl Kling and Hans Klenk – despite a vulture flying through the windscreen; these successes those on the high speed open road races, were rather surprising as the W194 engine was fitted only with carburetors, producing 175 hp, not only less than the competing cars by Ferrari and Jaguar, but less than the 300 SL road car developed from it and introduced 1954. Low weight and low aerodynamic drag made the W194 fast enough to be competitive in endurance races.
Mercedes-Benz developed a new version for the 1953 racing season. Chassis number 0011/52 was called the "Hobel", or carpenter's plane because of its distinctive front end, added fuel injection and 16-inch wheels; the gearbox was installed on the rear axle. Its body was made of a magnesium alloy, to reduce the weight by 85 kg. However, the car was not used because Mercedes-Benz decided to take part in Formula One from 1954 onwards. Versions revised the body for lower air resistance and did not adopt the transmission arrangement. Mass production of the 300 SL was not planned; the idea of a toned-down Grand Prix car tailored to affluent performance enthusiasts in the booming post-war American market was suggested by Max Hoffman at a director's meeting in Stuttgart, in 1953. Mercedes' new General Director Fritz Konecke agreed when Hoffman put an order in for 1000 carsand the new 300 SL was introduced at the 1954 New York Auto Show rather than the Frankfurt or Geneva gatherings company models made their usual debuts.
In addition, the production of a smaller roadster, the Mercedes-Benz 190 SL was announced after Hoffman put another order in for 1000 of the 190SL's The two sports cars premiered at the "International Motor Sports Show" in New York, which took place from 6 to 14 February 1954. Mercedes-Benz experienced a positive visitor response to the 300 SL and the 190 SL at the Motor Show. Serial production began in August 1954 at the Sindelfingen plant. Shortly after the start of production or from the 51st car, the long shift lever, which meshed directly with the transmission, was replaced by a shorter one with a shift linkage; the first W 198 was first sold in Europe in 1954 and in August 1954, the first vehicle was exported to the USA and sold to Briggs Cunningham. Of the 1400 Coupes built in total, the largest part, about 1100, reached the US. More than 80% of the vehicle's total production of 1400 units were sold in the US, making the coupe the first Mercedes-Benz successful outside its home market and validating Hoffman's prediction.
The 300 SL is credited with changing the company's image in America from a manufacturer of solid but staid luxury automobiles to one capable of rendering high-performance sports cars. The 300 SL's main body was steel, with aluminum hood, doors and trunk lid, it could be ordered with an 80 kg saving all-aluminium body but only 29 were made.. With the upward opening doors, the 300 SL had an unusually high sill, making entry and exit from the car's cockpit problematic. A steering wheel with a tilt-away column was added to improve driver access. Initial sales were sluggish due to several things. While initial prices were about $6,800 a new Chevrolet Bel-Air could be purchased for $1,700 in the same year. There were few mechanics at the dealers, who understood the fuel injection system enough to do repairs. A 1955 Coupe was removed from the showroom to a warehouse as unsellable and was sold at dealer cost; the price of the 300 SL was set at 29,000 DM while a 1953 Mercedes 170 Vb cost 7900 DM. The 300 SL in 1954, was not the most expensive car in the Mercedes program as the W 188 cost 5500 DM more.
Mercedes-Benz did not announce. Leicht is either "easy" as an adverb or "light" as an adjective in German. Defining a car it has to mean "light", it is assumed that the letters stand for Sport Leicht. One car magazine in 2012, declared that the abbreviation "SL" - "securitized and signed by Rudo
A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal. A service club, for example, exists for charitable activities. There are clubs devoted to hobbies and sports, social activities clubs and religious clubs, so forth. Clubs occurred in all ancient states of which we have detailed knowledge. Once people started living together in larger groups, there was need for people with a common interest to be able to associate despite having no ties of kinship. Organizations of the sort have existed for many years, as evidenced by Ancient Greek clubs and associations in Ancient Rome, it is uncertain whether the use of the word "club" originated in its meaning of a knot of people, or from the fact that the members “clubbed” together to pay the expenses of their gatherings. The oldest English clubs were informal periodic gatherings of friends for the purpose of dining or drinking with one another. Thomas Occleve mentions. In 1659 John Aubrey wrote, “We now use the word clubbe for a sodality in a tavern.”
Of early clubs the most famous, was the Bread Street or Friday Street Club that met at the Mermaid Tavern on the first Friday of each month. John Selden, John Donne, John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont were among the members. Another such club, founded by Ben Jonson, met at the Devil Tavern near Temple Bar in London; the word “club,” in the sense of an association to promote good-fellowship and social intercourse, became common in England at the time of Tatler and The Spectator. With the introduction of coffee-drinking in the middle of the 17th century, clubs entered on a more permanent phase; the coffee houses of the Stuart period are the real originals of the modern clubhouse. The clubs of the late 17th and early 18th century type resembled their Tudor forerunners in being oftenest associations for conviviality or literary coteries, but many were confessedly political, e.g. The Rota, or Coffee Club, a debating society for the spread of republican ideas, broken up at the Restoration in 1660, the Calves Head Club and the Green Ribbon Club.
The characteristics of all these clubs were: No permanent financial bond between the members, each man's liability ending for the time being when he had paid his “score” after the meal. No permanent clubhouse, though each clique tended to make some special coffee house or tavern their headquarters; these coffee-house clubs soon became hotbeds of political scandal-mongering and intriguing, in 1675 King Charles II issued a proclamation which ran: “His Majesty hath thought fit and necessary that coffee houses be put down and suppressed,” because “in such houses divers false and scandalous reports are devised and spread abroad to the Defamation of his Majesty’s Government and to the Disturbance of Peace and Quiet of the Realm.” So unpopular was this proclamation that it was instantly found necessary to withdraw it, by Anne’s reign the coffee-house club was a feature of England’s social life. See English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries; the idea of the club developed in two directions.
One was of a permanent institution with a fixed clubhouse. The London coffeehouse clubs in increasing their members absorbed the whole accommodation of the coffeehouse or tavern where they held their meetings, this became the clubhouse retaining the name of the original innkeeper, e.g. White's, Brooks's, Arthur's, Boodle's; these still exist today as the famous gentlemen's clubs. The peripatetic lifestyle of the 18th and 19th century middle classes drove the development of more residential clubs, which had bedrooms and other facilities. Military and naval officers, judges, members of Parliament and government officials tended to have an irregular presence in the major cities of the Empire London, spending a few months there before moving on for a prolonged period and returning; when this presence did not coincide with the Season, a permanent establishment in the city, or the opening of a townhouse was inconvenient or uneconomic, while hotels were rare and déclassé. Clubbing with a number of like-minded friends to secure a large shared house with a manager was therefore a convenient solution.
The other sort of club meets or periodically and has no clubhouse, but exists for some specific object. Such are the many purely athletic and pastimes clubs, the Alpine, chess and motor clubs. There are literary clubs and art clubs, publishing clubs; the name of “club” has been annexed by a large group of associations which fall between the club proper and friendly societies, of a purely periodic and temporary nature, such as slate and Christmas clubs, which do not need to be registered under the Friendly Societies Act. The institution of the gentleman's club has spread all over the English-speaking world. Many of those who energised the Scottish Enlightenment were members of the Poker Club in Edinburgh. In the United States clubs were first established after the War of Independence. One of the first was the Hoboken Turtle Club, which still survived as of 1911. In former British Empire colonies like India and Pakistan they are known as Gymkhana; the earliest clubs on the European con
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi