Generation of '80
The Generation of'80 was the governing elite in Argentina from 1880 to 1916. Members of the oligarchy of the provinces and the country's capital, they first joined the League of Governors, the National Autonomist Party, they filled the highest public political, economical and religious positions, staying in power through electoral fraud. In spite of the growing opposition politically centred on the Radical Civic Union, anarchist and socialist groups workers formed by immigrant workers, the Generation of'80 managed to stay in power until the sanction of the Sáenz Peña Law of secret and obligatory male suffrage; the project of the Generation of'80 consisted of keeping the country free of any kind of unrest, with harsh responses towards any kind of revolts, to maintain a stability that would attract foreign investment, while centering the economy of the country in the production of primary food products to support the import of the needed manufactured goods. On the social level, the concept of progress was linked to the creation of public and compulsory primary education, the incentive of European immigration.
The positive international balance of trade of the country was not re-invested in modernization and industrialisation of the basic production of the country, but expended by the richest groups with luxury items and imposing constructions. European immigration brought not only educated people, but several political ideologies that were rising in Europe: socialism and anarchism, which clashed with the liberal position of the governing elite. During the second presidency of Julio A. Roca, Law 4144 or Law of Argentine Residence was sanctioned, which allowed the immediate expulsion of any activists opposing the national government. Juárez Celman had to resign after the Revolución del Parque. In 1905 the UCR coordinated an armed rebellion between several provinces. Though there were a few mild changes towards the conciliation with the workers, such as the creation of the National Work Department in 1907, such enterprises were decorative. In 1910, as celebration of the centenary of the National Independence approached, the Law of Social Defense was sanctioned, which allowed arrests for the prevention of revolts.
But the increasing number of workers' strikes and press criticism forced the sanction of the Sáenz Peña Law in 1912. In the following elections of 1916, the first ones open to every male Argentine citizen, radical candidate Hipólito Yrigoyen was elected president. Bruno, Paula, "Un balance acerca del uso de la expresión generación del 80 entre 1920 y 2000", Secuencia. Revista de Historia y Ciencias Sociales - Instituto de Investigaciones "Dr. José María Luis Mora", México DF: 117–161
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America. The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that extended over the Río de la Plata Basin the present-day territories of Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay, extending inland from the Atlantic Coast; the colony of Spanish Guinea depended administratively on the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. Buenos Aires, located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento, was chosen as the capital. Considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms, the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds, as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign powers in the area; the Spanish Crown wanted to protect its territory against the Kingdom of Portugal. But these Enlightenment reforms proved counterproductive, or too late, to quell the colonies' demands.
The entire history of this Viceroyalty was marked by growing domestic unrest and political instability. Between 1780 and 1782, the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II inspired a violent Aymara-led revolt across the Upper Peru highlands, demonstrating the great resentment against colonial authorities by both the mestizo and indigenous populations. Twenty-five years the Criollos, native-born people of the colony defended against two successive British attempts to conquer Buenos Aires and Montevideo; this enhanced their sense of power at a time when Spanish troops were unable to help. In 1809, the Criollo elite revolted against colonial authorities at La Paz and Chuquisaca, establishing revolutionary governments, juntas. Although short-lived, these provided a theoretical basis for the legitimacy of the locally based governments, which proved decisive at the 1810 May Revolution events deposing Viceroy Cisneros at Buenos Aires; the revolution spread except for Paraguay and Upper Peru. Meanwhile, the Governor of Montevideo Francisco Javier de Elío, appointed as a new Viceroy by the Cortes of Cádiz in 1811, declared the Buenos Aires Junta seditious.
However, after being defeated at Las Piedras, he retained control only of Colonia del Sacramento and Montevideo. He departed by ship to Spain on 18 November and resigned as Viceroy in January 1812. By 1814, as the revolutionary patriots entered Montevideo, following a two-year-long siege, the Viceroyalty was finished as government of the region. In 1680, Manuel Lobo, Portuguese governor of Rio de Janeiro, created the Department of Colonia and founded Colónia do Sacramento; the fort was developed as the department's capital. Lobo's chief objective was to secure the Portuguese expansion of Brazil beyond the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which had defined areas of influence in the Americas between the Iberian nations. From 1580 to 1640, Spain had controlled Portugal and thus all of its territories in America. In 1681 José de Garro attacked and seized the new fort for Spain. On 7 May 1681, under the Provisional Treaty of Lisbon, it was ceded to Portugal; the Viceroyalty of Peru was requiring all commerce to go through the port of Lima, on the Pacific Ocean.
This policy failed to develop the potential of Buenos Aires as an Atlantic port, adding months to the transport of goods and commodities in each direction. It resulted in encouraging widespread contraband activities in the eastern region in Asunción, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Under these conditions, Viceroy Manuel de Amat y Junyent issued a decree for the former Governor of the Río de la Plata Pedro Antonio de Cevallos to found the new viceroyalty in August 1776; the ruling was resisted by the elite of Lima. The Cabildo of the Captaincy General of Chile requested the King be excluded from the new viceroyalty, accepted; the Cuyo region, with its main city Mendoza, was split from the Captaincy General of Chile. Leaders in Santiago resented this action as the Cuyo region had been settled by Spanish colonists from Chile; the Portuguese prime minister Marquis of Pombal encouraged the occupation of territory, awarded to the Spanish in the Treaty of Paris, following the British defeat of France in the Seven Years' War.
King Charles III reacted to the advantageous conditions: France was bound to be an ally as a guarantor of the treaty, Great Britain, due to its own colonial problems with revolution in the Thirteen Colonies in North America, maintained neutrality on the issues between Portugal and Spain. Pedro de Cevallos conquered Colonia del Sacramento and the Santa Catarina islands after a siege of three days, gaining the First Treaty of San Ildefonso. With it, the Portuguese left the Banda Oriental for Spain. In exchange Spain ceded them the area of Rio Grande do Sul. Cevallos ended his military actions at this point and started working with government, but he was soon replaced by Juan José Vertiz y Salcedo; the viceroyalty was tasked with promoting local production of linen and hemp as export commodity crops, to supply the Spanish cloth industries that the Bourbons sought to favor. The conditions imposed by Spain on
Argentine Constitution of 1853
The Argentine Constitution of 1853 is the current constitution of Argentina approved by provincial governments except Buenos Aires Province, who remained separate from the Argentine Confederation until 1859. After several modifications to the original constitution and the return of power to Buenos Aires' Unitarian Party, it was sanctioned in May 1853 by the Constitutional Convention gathered in Santa Fe, was promulgated by the provisional Director of the national executive government Justo José de Urquiza, a member of the Federals Party. Following the short-lived constitutions of 1819 and 1826, it was the third constitution in the history of the country. In spite of a number of reforms of varying importance, the 1853 constitution is still the base of the current Argentine juridical system, it was inspired by the juridical and political doctrines of the United States Federal Constitution, establishing for instance a Republican division of powers, a high level of independence for the provinces, a federal power controlled by a strong executive government yet limited by a bicameral national congress to equilibrate the population's representation with equity among the provinces.
The model, elaborated by the constitutional deputies from the precedent constitutional attempts and the pioneer work of Juan Bautista Alberdi, has been the target of repeated critics. The historical importance of the constitutional project has been unquestionable, all disputes regarding the political theory and practice in modern Argentina include an either positive or negative reference on the political consequences of the 1853 constitution. For the Generation of'80, the settlers of the first liberal conventions on Argentine historiography, the constitution represented a true foundational act that broke the long government of Juan Manuel de Rosas; the members of the Generation of'80 praised the fact that the Constitution had established a European-style liberal political regime. However, at the time when it was sanctioned, it had been opposed by some of them. For the UCR, of social-democrat tendencies, the constitution represented an unfulfilled political ideal against the oligarchic government Generation of the 1880s, perpetuated in power through electoral fraud.
At the same time, for the nationalist movements of the 20th century, who criticised the liberal conventions and praised Rosas' figure, the constitution had represented the renouncement of the national identity towards the ruin of liberalism. In different fronts, the discussion remains open, has inspired several of the most important works of the Argentine thinking; the legal system that would be accepted by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata formed after the May Revolution from the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was one of the main concerns after the resignation of the last viceroy. The formation of the First Junta and its continuation in the Junta Grande, which included provincial delegates, gave testimony of the division of interests between the city of Buenos Aires and the other landlocked provinces. In part, such division existed during colonial times, when the port of Buenos Aires gave the city commercial interest far different from the artisanal and agricultural countryside.
Buenos Aires was benefited from the traffic of goods brought by ships from the United Kingdom, to which it paid with the taxes collected from the exportation of the country's agricultural production —mainly raw leather and minerals— the discrepancies between the merchants that brought industrialised goods from the United Kingdom and the producers of the provinces that couldn't compete with the European industrial power, raised diverse conflicts during the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. With the Declaration of Independence in 1816, the first juridical bases had a marked Unitarian characteristic; the first project to converge the successive attempts that defined the different organs of the national executive power in the first years of organization was the convocation in 1812 of the General Constituent Assembly with the purpose of dictating the fundamental law for the national organization. The Assembly of the 1813 gathered on January 31 of that year, worked for over 2 years until 1815.
It dictated the regulations for the administration, the statute for the executive power, promulgated several norms regulation for the legislature that would be in use the following years. But the assembly was unable to dictate the national constitution. This, added to the absence of some provincial deputies, prevented an agreement on the subject; the lack of definitions from the Assembly after two years of deliberations was one of the arguments for which Carlos María de Alvear proposed the creation of a temporal one-man regime, known as Directorio. The Assembly voted favourably, but since it had no support from the e
Romantic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the particular manner of practice, the language, culture and customs of the nation in its primal sense of those who were born within its culture; this form of nationalism arose in reaction to dynastic or imperial hegemony, which assessed the legitimacy of the state from the top down, emanating from a monarch or other authority, which justified its existence. Such downward-radiating power might derive from a god or gods. Among the key themes of Romanticism, its most enduring legacy, the cultural assertions of romantic nationalism have been central in post-Enlightenment art and political philosophy. From its earliest stirrings, with their focus on the development of national languages and folklore, the spiritual value of local customs and traditions, to the movements that would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for self-determination of nationalities, nationalism was one of the key issues in Romanticism, determining its roles and meanings.
In Europe, the watershed year for romantic nationalism was 1848, when a revolutionary wave spread across the continent. While the revolutions fell to reactionary forces and the old order was re-established, the many revolutions would mark the first step towards liberalization and the formation of modern nation states across much of Europe; the ideas of Rousseau and of Johann Gottfried von Herder inspired much early Romantic nationalism in Europe. Herder argued nationality was the product of climate, geography'but more languages and characters,' rather than genetics. From its beginnings in the late 18th century, romantic nationalism has relied upon the existence of a historical ethnic culture which meets the romantic ideal; the Brothers Grimm, inspired by Herder's writings, put together an idealized collection of tales, which they labeled as authentically German. The concept of an inherited cultural patrimony from a common origin became central to a divisive question within romantic nationalism: is a nation unified because it comes from the same genetic source, because of race, or is the participation in the organic nature of the "folk" culture self-fulfilling?
Romantic nationalism formed a key strand in the philosophy of Hegel, who argued that there was a "spirit of the age" or zeitgeist that inhabited a particular people at a particular time, that, when that people became the active determiner of history, it was because their cultural and political moment had come. Because of the Germans' role in the Protestant Reformation, Hegel argued that his historical moment had seen the Zeitgeist settle on the German-speaking peoples. In continental Europe, Romantics had embraced the French Revolution in its beginnings found themselves fighting the counter-Revolution in the trans-national Imperial system of Napoleon; the sense of self-determination and national consciousness that had enabled revolutionary forces to defeat aristocratic regimes in battle became rallying points for resistance against the French Empire. In Prussia, the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a disciple of Kant.
The word Volkstum, or "folkhood", was coined in Germany as part of this resistance to French hegemony. Fichte expressed the unity of language and nation in his thirteenth address "To the German Nation" in 1806: The first and natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries; those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins. Only when each people, left to itself and forms itself in accordance with its own peculiar quality, only when in every people each individual develops himself in accordance with that common quality, as well as in accordance with his own peculiar quality-then, only, does the manifestation of divinity appear in its true mirror as it ought to be. In the Balkans, Romantic views of a connection with classical Greece, which inspired Philhellenism infused the Greek War of Independence, in which the Romantic poet Lord Byron died of high fever. Rossini's opera William Tell marked the onset of the Romantic Opera, using the central national myth unifying Switzerland.
Verdi's opera choruses of an oppressed people inspired two generations of patriots in Italy with "Va pensiero". Under the influence of romantic nat
Governorate of the Río de la Plata
The Governorate of the Río de la Plata was one of the governorates of the Spanish Empire. It was created in 1549 by Spain in the area around the Río de la Plata, it was at first a renaming of the New Andalusia Governorate and included all of the land between 470 and 670 leagues south of the mouth of the Río Santiago along the Pacific coast. After 1617, Paraguay was separated under a separate administration After the founding of the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542, the governorate was since its birth under its authority until the formation of the independent Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata in 1776, it was under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Charcas until the formation of the independent Royal Audience of Buenos Aires from 1661 to 1671 and after 1783. Adelantado Governor, Captain General, Chief Justicee Pedro de Mendoza. First founding of Buenos Aires. Retires and dies mad en route home. Governor Juan de Ayolas. In Paraguay. Asunción founded by Juan de Salazar de Espinoza. Killed by natives.
Lt. Governor Francisco Ruíz Galán. At Buenos Aires, prior to its abandonment. Governor Domingo Martínez de Irala. Elected by the colonists. Adelantado Governor Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Victorious campaign against Guarani in 1542. Arrested and returned to Spain for trial. Governor Domingo Martínez de Irala. Encouraged his men to marry and keep concubines from local women. Two adelantados are unable to arrive from Spain and de Irala confirmed in his post by the king 1552. Died peacefully. Governor Gonzalo de Mendoza. Ciudad Real de Guayrá founded by Ruy Díaz de Malgarejo in 1557. Died peacefully. Governor Francisco Ortiz de Vergara. Elected by the colonists. Foundations fail at San Francisco, Sancti Spiritus, Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Arrested and returned to Spain for trial. Lt. Governor Felipe de Cáceres. Appointed by Royal Audience. Arrested and returned to Spain for trial. Adelantado Governor Juan Ortiz de Zárate. Sailed to Spain to confirm his election. Foundation of Tucuman. Lt. Governor Diego Ortiz de Zárate.
Juan Ortiz leaves others de facto governors. Lt. Governor Juan de Garay. Buenos Aires refounded 1580. Lt. Governor Alonso de Vera y Aragón, and de facto governor at Asunción until 1592. Adelantado Governor Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón. Judge of the Royal Audience, married to Juana Ortiz de Zárate. Last appointed adelantado. Governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra. Governor Fernando de Zárate. Governor Juan Ramírez de Velasco. Governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra. Second time. Governor Diego Rodríguez de Valdés y de la Banda. Governor Francés de Beaumont. Appointment formalized 1601. Governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra. Third time. First Jesuit Reduction established. Slave trade restricted. Governor Diego Martín de Negrón. Governor Mateo Leal de Ayala. Governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra. Fourth time. Guayrá separated into a separate governorate in 1617. Governor Hernando Arias de Saavedra. Governor Diego de Góngora. Found guilty post mortem of corruption, allowing trade in slaves and contraband to flourish. Governor Alonso Pérez de Salazar.
Governor Francisco de Céspedes. Continued efforts to pacify the Charrua. Governor Pedro Esteban Dávila. Concepción del Bermejo destroyed by natives. Governor Mendo de la Cueva y Benavidez. Defense of Buenos Aires improved. Expedition against the Calchaquís. Fort Santa Teresa erected. Governor Ventura Mojica. Governor Andrés de Sandoval. Governor Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. Ban of Portuguese attempted in governorate. Governor Jacinto Lariz. Arrested. Governor Pedro Baigorrí Ruiz. Three French ships repelled from Buenos Aires. Calchaquís repelled from Santa Fe. Governor Alonso Mercado y Villacorta. Request to be able to send two trade ships annually denied. Dutch ships permitted to dock in Buenos Aires. Governor Juan Martínez de Salazar. Continued requests for free commerce; the Royal Audience of Buenos Aires independent of the court at Charcas. Governor Andrés de Robles. Governor José de Garro. Portuguese expelled from Colonia de Sacramento in 1680. Governor José Antonio de Herrera y Sotomayor. Tucuman relocated. Governor Agustín de Robles.
Governor Manuel de Prado y Maldonado. Visit from Danish squadron in Buenos Aires. Governor Alonso Juan de Valdés e Inclán. Colonia de Sacramento retaken. Governor Manuel de Velasco y Tejada. Purchased office for 3000 pesos. Arrested. Governor Juan José de Muliloa. Governor Alonso de Arce y Soria. Buys the position for 18,000 pesos. Dies five months later. Governor José Bermúdez de Castro. Governor Baltasar García Ros. Colonia del Sacramento returned to the Portuguese. Campaigns against the Charrua and Bohanes. Governor Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. Portuguese removed from Montevideo. Governor Miguel de Salcedo y Sierraalta. Expulsion of foreigners from Buenos Aires ordered. Failed attempt to retake Colonia del Sacramento. Governor Domingo Ortíz de Rozas. Refortified Montevideo. Governor José de Andonaegui. First mail delivery opened with Chile and Potosí. Gover
Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Argentina has 35 indigenous groups or Argentine Amerindians or Native Argentines, according to the Complementary Survey of the Indigenous Peoples of 2004, in the first attempt by the government in more than 100 years to recognize and classify the population according to ethnicity. In the survey, based on self-identification or self-ascription, around 600,000 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 1.49% of the population. The most populous of these were the Aonikenk, Qom, Wichí, Mocoví, Huarpe peoples and Guarani In the 2010 census, 955,032 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 2.38% of the population. Many Argentines claim at least one indigenous ancestor: in a recent genetic study conducted by the University of Buenos Aires, more than 56% of the 320 Argentines sampled were shown to have at least one indigenous ancestor in one parental lineage and about 11% had indigenous ancestors in both parental lineages.
Jujuy Province, in the Argentine Northwest, is home to the highest percentage of households with at least one indigenous person or a direct descendant of an indigenous people. The earliest evidence of indigenous peoples yet discovered in what today is Argentina is the Piedra Museo archaeological site in Santa Cruz Province, found to date from 11,000 BCE; the Cueva de las Manos, in the same province, is over 10,000 years old. Both are among the oldest evidence of indigenous culture in the Americas, have, with a number of ancient sites elsewhere in the hemisphere, challenged the "Clovis First" hypothesis on the settlement of the Americas. By the year 1500, many different indigenous communities lived in, they were not a unified group but many independent ones, with distinct languages and relations with each other. As a result, they did not face the arrival of the Spanish colonization as a single block and had varied reactions toward the Europeans; the Spanish people looked down on the indigenous population, to the point that they held in doubt whether they had souls, following the general thought in Europe.
For this reason, they kept little historical information about them. In the 19th century major population movements altered the original Patagonian demography. Between 1820 and 1850 the original Aonikenk people were conquered and expelled from their territories by invading Mapuche armies. By 1870 most of northern Patagonia and the south east Pampas were Araucanized. During the Generation of 1880, European immigration was encouraged as a way of occupying an empty territory, configuring the national population and, through their colonizing effort incorporating the nation into the world market; these changes were best summarized by the anthropological metaphor which states that “Argentines descend from ships.” The strength of the immigration and its contribution to the Argentine ethnography is evident by observing that Argentina became the second country in the world that received the most immigrants, with 6.6 millions, second only to the United States with 27 millions, ahead of countries such as Canada, Australia, etc.
The expansion of European immigrant communities and the railways westward into the Pampas and south into Patagonia was met with Malón raids by displaced tribes. This led to the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s. Indigenous cultures in Argentina were affected by a process of invisibilization, promoted by the government during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th; the extensive explorations and writing by Juan Bautista Ambrosetti and other ethnographers during the 20th century encouraged wider interest in indigenous people in Argentina, their contributions to the nation's culture were further underscored during the administration of President Juan Perón in the 1940s and 1950s as part of the rustic criollo culture and values exalted by Perón during that era. Discriminatory policies toward these people and other minorities ended, with the August 3, 1988, enactment of the Antidiscrimination Law by President Raúl Alfonsín, were countered further with the establishment of a government bureau, the National Institute Against Discrimination and Racism, in 1995.
Corrientes Province, in 2004, became the first in the nation to award an indigenous language with co-official status, all 35 native peoples were recognized by both the 2004 Indigenous Peoples Census and by their inclusion as self-descriptive categories in the 2010 census. In addition to the indigenous population in Argentina, most Argentines are descended from indigenous peoples or have some indigenous ancestry. Many genetic studies have shown that Argentina's genetic footprint is but not overwhelmingly European. In one of the most comprehensive genetic studies involving the population of Argentina, 441 Argentines from across the North East, North West and Central provinces of the country, it was observed that the Argentine population comprised on average of 65% European, followed by 31% Amerindian, 4% of African ancestry, it was found there were great differences in the ancestry amongst Argentines as one traveled across the country. For example, the population in the Nort