Kelley Park is a 156-acre city park in San Jose, United States. Kelley Park is bounded by Story Road, Senter Road, Roberts Street, Yerba Buena High School and Phelan Avenue in East San Jose. Coyote Creek winds through much of the park, part of the larger Coyote Creek Park Chain in San Jose. Kelley Park encompasses other facilities such as: Happy Hollow Park & Zoo Japanese Friendship Garden History Park at Kelley Park, which itself includes: Portuguese Historical Museum Viet MuseumThe Leininger Center, just south of Happy Hollow, is the central location where citizens apply for city park permits and reservations. Most of the rest of the park is picnic areas, groves of trees, plenty of pathways in between. There is an 18-hole disc golf course in the walnut orchard behind History park The land was once a farm owned by Mrs. Louise Kelley who inherited the land from her father Judge Lawrence Archer, a local pioneer and former mayor of San Jose. Kelley called the land "AR-KEL Villa" in honor of her husband.
Pillars marked. Judge Archer was born in Anderson County, South Carolina in 1820 and attended the University of Virginia and studied law under Armisted Burt in Abbeville, South Carolina before he moved to Yazoo County, Mississippi in 1841, where he was admitted to the bar. In Yazoo County, Archer moved to St. Joseph, Missouri in 1843 for his health, he was elected district attorney in 1848 and married the former Louise Martin that same year, but resigned in 1851 and they moved to California to improve his health. In California, the Archers first settled in Sacramento briefly in San Francisco before arriving at San Jose in January 1853. Archer was elected mayor of San Jose in 1857 to the California State Legislature in 1866. After one term, he was elected county judge in 1867, from which he resigned in 1871, he was elected mayor again in 1877. With his first wife, he had a daughter before his wife Louise died in 1869, he remarried in 1870, to the former Alice B. Bethell, they had two more children together: Lawrence and Leo.
The land that would become Kelley Park was purchased by Archer in 1861, he planted 30 acres with cherry and prune trees. He is credited with being the first farmer in Santa Clara County to use women and children to pick fruit; the 4 acres planted with cherry trees yielded an average annual income of US$3,000. Archer named his estate Lone Oak; the estate house he constructed was destroyed in a fire in May 1909, a new estate house was completed on February 16, 1910, the day before Archer died. Louise Archer married Martin J. Flavin at Lone Oak in 1883; the Kelley family moved back to California around 1910, as Louise inherited Lone Oak after the death of Judge Archer. Louise retained Charles Sumner Greene to design a conservatory, tile fountain, servants' quarters for AR-KEL Villa, which were completed by the end of 1930; the house and 63 acres of land were sold to the City of San Jose in August 1951, to be used as a public park with the condition that Louise Kelley be allowed to live there for the rest of her life.
According to History San José, Alden Campen, a prominent landowner and Jaycee in San Jose, learned the Kelley family was planning on selling the orchard in 1951 for a housing development, since the city owned the land east of Coyote Creek, he thought it could create a municipal golf course by purchasing the Kelley property and merging the parcels. However, the city lacked the funds, so Campen joined with fellow Jaycees Ernie and Emily Renzel to purchase the initial 63-acre plot at a price of US$142,000, to be resold to the City on an annual basis. Louise Kelley died in February 1952 at the age of 89, the city embarked on purchasing the rest of the AR-KEL/Lone Oak estate acquiring 156 acres bounded by Keyes Street, Coyote Creek, Phelan Avenue, Senter Road. Campen and Renzel approached the city to develop the Kelley property as a children's park in 1956, leading to the creation of Happy Hollow, which opened in 1961, followed by the Japanese Friendship Garden, Leininger Center, the Historical Museum.
Only the 1910 house and a carriage house remain from the Archer/Kelley family's time owning the property. The 1910 estate house was damaged in a February 2012 fire, portions of the roof and interior collapsed. Historical Kelley House – Fly through on YouTube. Prior to the destructive 2012 fire, the Kelley House was scanned and a computer model was built from the data
Thomas Fallon was an Irish-born, Canadian-raised American capitalist and politician, the tenth Mayor of San Jose, California. Fallon's family moved to Canada. At age 18, he was in St. Louis and joined the third expedition of John C. Frémont to California. Early in 1846, Fallon stayed in Santa Cruz. In June 1846, he raised a group of 22 Santa Cruz-area volunteers to join Fremont, appointing himself captain; when the Mexican–American War began in California with Commodore John D. Sloat's capture of Monterey on July 7, Fallon's force crossed the Santa Cruz Mountains to capture the Pueblo of San José without bloodshed, on July 11. On July 14, 1846 he received an American Flag from Sloat, which he raised over the juzgado of San Jose, the pueblo's administrative building. Fallon's volunteers joined Fremont's California Battalion for the remainder of the war. After the war, Fallon returned to San Jose back to Santa Cruz where he established a business as a saddler. At the beginning of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Fallon took a cargo of iron picks made in Santa Cruz to sell to the gold miners.
With his share of the profits, he built a combination residence/workshop/hotel on the Mission plaza in Santa Cruz. In 1849, he married Carmel Castro Lodge, daughter of local landowner Martina Cota Castro and her husband Michael Lodge, owners of Rancho Soquel. In 1852, Fallon sold his plaza property to the County of Santa Cruz for use as a courthouse. Shortly thereafter and Carmel moved their family to Texas. Following the death of several of their children, they returned to San Jose. In San Jose, Fallon built the Fallon House in Downtown San Jose; the house is preserved as a museum, across from the Peralta Adobe. In 1856, Fallon was elected to the San Jose Common Council. In 1857, he was elected to the city's Board of Trustees for one year, he was elected Mayor of San Jose in 1859, served a single one-year term. According to one account, in 1876 Carmel found Thomas and the family maid in a compromising position, filed for divorce. Carmel used the divorce settlement to build several hotels and other buildings, including the Carmel Fallon Building at 1800 Market Street in San Francisco, now part of the San Francisco LGBT Community Center.
Thomas Fallon died in San Francisco in 1885. In the 1980s, San Jose Mayor Tom McEnery had the city commission a statue of Fallon raising the U. S. flag in San Jose at a cost of over $800,000. The statue was completed in 1988, was scheduled to be located in the City Park Plaza near the site of the flag raising; however local groups, including Hispanic Americans, protested that Fallon represented American imperialism and repression of the Mexican population. The statue was stored until 2002, when it was displayed in Pellier Park northwest of the original proposed location, near Julian and St. James Streets. Peralta Adobe and Fallon House Historic Site in San Jose Carmel Fallon Building in San Francisco
California State Route 87
State Route 87, locally called the Guadalupe Freeway, is a north–south state highway within the City of San Jose, United States. A small portion between the Curtner Avenue exit and the Capitol Expressway Auto Mall exit is unincorporated county, its name was changed from Guadalupe Parkway in 2004 after its entire constructed length was upgraded to a freeway. For most of its length in Downtown San Jose, the highway follows the course of the Guadalupe River, its southern terminus is at SR 85, its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 just north of San Jose International Airport. Unusually, it crosses over Interstate 880 without an interchange. SR 87 has carpool lanes for its entire length. SR 87 begins at SR 85 in southern San Jose. VTA light-rails run parallel to this freeway from SR 85 to I-280. After intersecting CR G21, SR 87 runs through a small pass in Communications Hill. SR 87 intersects I-280 in southwestern Downtown San Jose runs parallel to the western border of Downtown San Jose. Unusually, SR 87 crosses above I-880 without an interchange.
Located between Taylor Street and Skyport Drive, the site where the two freeways cross has two restrictions that prevent the construction of any connecting ramps. First, because of its proximity to the runways at San Jose International Airport, any elevated ramps running above the SR 87 mainline would interfere with flight paths. Second, tunneling underneath would make a significant environmental impact to the nearby Guadalupe River. Drivers from SR 87 to I-880 and vice versa have to use First and Taylor Streets to get on the freeways. SR 87 runs east of the Mineta San Jose International Airport before terminating at US 101 in northwestern San Jose; this route is unconstructed from US 101 to SR 237 in Santa Clara, legislatively defined to run north from US 101 through suburban San Jose and Santa Clara, terminating at SR 237, as this route is defined as Route 85 in the vicinity of Santa Teresa Boulevard to Route 101 in the vicinity of Guadalupe River and San Jose easterly of Route 101 to Route 237.
SR 87 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, except for a small portion south of I-280 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. In 2014, SR 87 had an annual average daily traffic of 88000 at US 101, 176000 between I-280 and CR G8, the latter of, the highest AADT for the highway; the SR 87 Bikeway is a 4.1-mile-long pedestrian and bicycle path that runs alongside portions of SR 87. The path was constructed by Caltrans as part of the final phase of the SR 87 project, it opened to the public on September 1, 1993. The north end of this path is at Willow Street; the south end is at the 87-85 interchange. Along this route, the path runs along the east side of the freeway; the path diverges from the freeway for 0.7 miles near Curtner Avenue and again for 1.1 miles near Capitol Expressway, running along city streets near the highway. This path provides connections for other trails in the area, including the Guadalupe River Trail and Los Gatos Creek Trail.
A Guadalupe Parkway connection between Downtown San Jose and the present day US 101 had existed since the early 1960s. However, construction on a freeway over the same path and southward beyond Downtown began a decade and stretched across 30 years; the first stage of the SR 87 freeway, its 4-level interchange with I-280, replaced an old downtown neighborhood in the mid 1960s. A ramp to Julian Street, north of the interchange with I-280, was completed in the mid-1970s; the freeway extension north to Taylor Street was completed in May 1988. Construction of SR 87 in the 1980s is shown in this photo; the southern part, from I-280 to SR 85, was opened to Almaden Expressway in September-October 1992 and to SR 85 in August 1993, built in conjunction with the construction of a light rail line. Local-express lanes were constructed along this segment, the Northbound segment running from I-280 to Julian Street and the Southbound extension from I-280 to Alma Avenue. At SR 87's northern terminus, its 3-level interchange with Highway 101 and North First Street was completed in 1992.
With all grade-level intersections replaced by grade separations, construction of the six-lane freeway between Taylor Street and the Highway 101/North First interchange began in the late 1990s was completed in 2004, with the final ramps at the Skyport interchange opening in 2005. The widening of the southern segment, from Taylor Street to Highway 85, to six lanes was completed in 2007. Two lanes are regular traffic and one lane is an HOV lane; the right-of-way for SR 87 south of I-280 includes two tracks for the Guadalupe line of the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority light rail system. Stations are accessible from the streets via elevators. Beyond 87's terminus, the line continues southeastward in the median of SR 85. SR 87, as once defined legislatively, would have extended from its current northern terminus, skirting the edge of San Francisco Bay as the Bayfront Freeway to San Francisco; this would have provided an eastern bypass to US 101 along the Peninsula. The route would have ended at SR 480 underneath the Bay Bridge, it would have connected to the approaches to the unconstructed San Francisco Bay Southern Crossing.
Along with SR 61, a similar project on the eastern shore of t
Dentistry known as Dental and Oral Medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity in the dentition but the oral mucosa, of adjacent and related structures and tissues in the maxillofacial area. Although associated with teeth among the general public, the field of dentistry or dental medicine is not limited to teeth but includes other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint and other supporting, lymphatic, nervous and anatomical structures. Dentistry is also understood to subsume the now defunct medical specialty of stomatology for which reason the two terms are used interchangeably in certain regions. Dental treatments are carried out by a dental team, which consists of a dentist and dental auxiliaries. Most dentists either work in dental hospitals or institutions; the history of dentistry is as ancient as the history of humanity and civilization with the earliest evidence dating from 7000 BC.
Remains from the early Harappan periods of the Indus Valley Civilization show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years. It is thought; the term dentistry comes from dentist, which comes from French dentiste, which comes from the French and Latin words for tooth. The term for the associated scientific study of teeth is odontology – the study of the structure and abnormalities of the teeth. Dentistry encompasses practices related to the oral cavity. According to the World Health Organization, oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe, with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups; the majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries and periodontal disease. Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth, extraction or surgical removal of teeth and root planing and endodontic root canal treatment. All dentists in the United States undergo at least three years of undergraduate studies, but nearly all complete a bachelor's degree.
This schooling is followed by four years of dental school to qualify as a "Doctor of Dental Surgery" or "Doctor of Dental Medicine". Dentists need to complete additional qualifications or continuing education to carry out more complex treatments such as sedation and maxillofacial surgery, dental implants. By nature of their general training they can carry out the majority of dental treatments such as restorative, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, extraction of teeth, as well as performing examinations and diagnosis. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics and any other drugs used in patient management. Dentists encourage prevention of oral diseases through proper hygiene and regular, twice yearly, checkups for professional cleaning and evaluation. Oral infections and inflammations may affect overall health and conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of systemic diseases, such as osteoporosis, celiac disease or cancer. Many studies have shown that gum disease is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, preterm birth.
The concept that oral health can affect systemic health and disease is referred to as "oral-systemic health". Dr. John M. Harris started the world's first dental school in Bainbridge and helped to establish dentistry as a health profession, it opened on 21 February 1828, today is a dental museum. The first dental college, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, opened in Baltimore, Maryland, US in 1840; the second in the United States was the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, established in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1845. The Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery followed in 1852. In 1907, Temple University accepted a bid to incorporate the school. Studies show that dentists that graduated from different countries, or from different dental schools in one country, may make different clinical decisions for the same clinical condition. For example, dentists that graduated from Israeli dental schools may recommend the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molar more than dentists that graduated from Latin American or Eastern European dental schools.
In the United Kingdom, the 1878 British Dentists Act and 1879 Dentists Register limited the title of "dentist" and "dental surgeon" to qualified and registered practitioners. However, others could describe themselves as "dental experts" or "dental consultants"; the practice of dentistry in the United Kingdom became regulated with the 1921 Dentists Act, which required the registration of anyone practising dentistry. The British Dental Association, formed in 1880 with Sir John Tomes as president, played a major role in prosecuting dentists practising illegally. Dentists in the United Kingdom are now regulated by the General Dental Council. In Korea, Japan, Sweden, Chile, the United States, Canada, a dentist is a healthcare professional qualified to practice dentistry after graduating with a degree of either Doctor of Dental Surgery or Doctor of Dental Medicine; this is equivalent to the
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are diesel fuel. A filling station that sells only electric energy is known as a charging station, while a typical filling station can be known as a fueling or gas station, gasoline stand or SS, petrol pump or petrol bunk, petrol garage, petrol station, service station, a services, or servo, or fuel station. Fuel dispensers are used to pump petrol/gasoline, compressed natural gas, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, liquid hydrogen, alcohol fuel, biofuels, or other types of fuel into the tanks within vehicles and calculate the financial cost of the fuel transferred to the vehicle. Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Besides fuel dispensers, one other significant device, found in filling stations and can refuel certain vehicles is an air compressor, although these are just used to inflate car tyres. Many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings have electricity sockets.
The convenience stores found in filling stations sell candy, soft drinks, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items, such as milk. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business. Conversely, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount stores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises; the term "gas station" is used in the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean, where the fuel is known as "gasoline" or "gas" as in "gas pump". In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as "petrol", the term "petrol station" or "petrol pump" is used. In the United Kingdom and South Africa "garage" is still used. In Australia, the term "service station" describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, a used term is gasoline stand, although the abbreviation SS is used. In Indian English, it is called a petrol bunk.
In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world. The UK has 8,422 petrol stations as of December 2017, down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s; the USA had 114,474 filling stations in 2012, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, down from 118,756 in 2007 and 121,446 in 2002. In Canada, the number is on the decline; as of December 2008, 12,684 were in operation down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989. In Japan, the number dropped from a peak of 60,421 in 1994 to 40,357 at the end of 2009. In Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India – 60,799 Russia – there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, there are 3,916 gas stations after a 2% decrease from the previous year. Total – 8200 stations Shell – 7800 stations BP – 7000 stations Esso – 6100 stations Eni – 5500 stations Repsol – 4700 stations Q8 – 4600 stations Avia – 3000 stations PKN Orlen – 2800 stations Circle K 2700 stations The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, where Bertha Benz refilled the tank of the first automobile on its maiden trip from Mannheim to Pforzheim back in 1888.
Shortly thereafter other pharmacies sold gasoline as a side business. Since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event; the first "posto de gasolina" of South America was opened in Santos, Brazil, in 1920. It was located in the Ana Costa Ave. in front of the beach, in a corner that nowadays is located the Hotel Atlantico. It was an Esso Gas Station, brought by a taxi entrepreneur; the increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the middle class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations. The world's first purpose-built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, Missouri in 1905 at 420 S. Theresa Avenue; the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington, at what is now Pier 32. Reighard's Gas Station in Altoona, claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations"; the first "drive-in" filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the motoring public in Pittsburgh on December 1, 1913, at Baum Blvd & St Clair's Street.
Prior to this, automobile drivers pulled into any general or hardware store, or blacksmith shops in order to fill up their tanks. On its first day, the station sold 30 gallons of gasoline at 27 cents per gallon; this was the first architect-designed station and the first to distribute free road maps. The first alternative fuel station was opened in San Diego, California, by Pearson Fuels in 2003. In Russia, the first filling sta
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. The northern, urbanized end of the valley is part of a region locally known as the "South Bay" and part of the electronics and technology area known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara Valley consists of most of Santa Clara County, including its county seat, San Jose, as well as a small portion of San Benito County; the valley, named after the Spanish Mission Santa Clara, was for a time known as the Valley of Heart's Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit producing and packing region in the world with 39 canneries. Once agricultural because of its fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian; the most northern urban areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not an actual valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region as well.
Locally, the urbanized areas of Santa Clara Valley are referred to as part of the South Bay. Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, but the Santa Clara Valley American Viticultural Area remains a large wine-making region, it was one of the first commercial wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the southern tip of the San Francisco Bay, the southern end is in the vicinity of Hollister; the valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest, which separate Santa Clara Valley from the Pacific Ocean, by the Diablo Range on the northeast. The valley is 30 miles long by 15 miles wide, its largest city, by an 86.7% margin, is San Jose. The population of the valley is 1.81 million people along with 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate; the earliest inhabitants on the Santa Clara Valley are the Ohlone people, who had eight distinct languages and tribes in the coastal region.
Mission Santa Clara de Asís, which had control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy, was founded by Franciscans in 1777. San Jose was California's first town and was founded in 1777 by Spain as an agricultural pueblo. There were 66 original settlers. In Spanish and Mexican times the land was devoted to cattle. Following the Mexican–American War San Jose was the Capital of California; the influx of Americans resulted in relocation of many of the native Mexican and Indian people of San Jose to the mission at Santa Clara, under control of Jesuits from 1850. In 1860, as an American town, the population of San Jose was 4,579, with cattle ranching still the main agricultural activity. For a time wheat became the main crop, but in the 1870s fruit became the main crop and processing of fruit by drying or canning the predominant industry; the railroad reached San Jose in 1860. The valley with its scenic beauty, mild climate, thousands of acres of blooming fruit trees was known as "The Valley of Heart's Delight".
Various fruit cooperatives were formed in the area to deals with economic issues, including The California Fruit Union and the Santa Clara County Fruit Exchange. Prunes were a major crop, the valley was producing the majority of prunes in California by 1900 and they were shipped internationally. Water was supplied from an artesian aquifer and when the water table dropped, wells were pumped. Many orchards were small with fruit growing in a dispersed pattern. By the 1920s and 1930s, the agricultural and horticultural industries were doing well in the valley and included 18 canneries, 13 dried-fruit packing houses, 12 fresh-fruit and vegetable shipping firms, they were shipping internationally. Del Monte and Sunsweet are two brands; the need for workers exceeded the local population and in the nineteenth century and Japanese immigrants met that need. Toward the end of the nineteenth century many Italians and other immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe came to the valley and worked in the orchards and canneries.
During the 20th century there were Filipino immigrants and increasing numbers of immigrants from Mexico who during World War II became the dominant agricultural workforce. The town of San Jose was dominated by its business community, in part composed of Irish Catholics, who had a self-contained social life which did not include immigrant labor. There was marked prejudice against Asians Chinese, who left the valley. Deflation and overproduction hurt the orchards and packers of the Santa Clara Valley during the Great Depression. Bankrupt farmers from the Dust Bowl, the Okies, made the trek to California. Desperate to feed their families they joined a workforce, itself impacted by unemployment; the growers, with record low prices and surplus supply, could pay little. Labor organizers and goon squads battled in the labor camps. Woody Guthrie's songs were on the radio and he wrote a regular column in the San Francisco-based The Daily People's World. San Francisco had a strong labor union tradition. During the "March Inland" organizing drive the International Longshore and Warehouse Union backed the Cannery and Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union, a Communist-controlled union headquartered in San Jose, which had considerable success organizing farm and cannery workers in