History of American journalism

Journalism in America began as a "humble" affair and became a political force in the campaign for American independence. Following independence, the first amendment to the U. S. Constitution guaranteed freedom of the press and speech and the American press grew following the American Revolution; the press became a key support element to the country's political parties but organized religious institutions. During the 19th century, newspapers began to expand and appear outside eastern U. S. cities. From the 1830s onward the penny press began to play a major role in American journalism and technological advancements such as the telegraph and faster printing presses in the 1840s helped expand the press of the nation as it experienced rapid economic and demographic growth. By 1900 major newspapers had become profitable powerhouses of advocacy and sensationalism, along with serious, objective news-gathering. In the early 20th century, before television, the average American read several newspapers per day.

Starting in the 1920s changes in technology again morphed the nature of American journalism as radio and television, began to play important roles. In the late 20th century, much of American journalism merged into big media conglomerates. With the coming of digital journalism in the 21st Century, newspapers faced a business crisis as readers turned to the internet for news and advertisers followed them; the history of American journalism began in 1690, when Benjamin Harris published the first edition of "Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic" in Boston. Harris had strong trans-Atlantic connections and intended to publish a regular weekly newspaper along the lines of those in London, but he did not get prior approval and his paper was suppressed after a single edition; the first successful newspaper, The Boston News-Letter, was launched in 1704. This time, the founder was John Campbell, the local postmaster, his paper proclaimed that it was "published by authority." As the colonies grew in the 18th century, newspapers appeared in port cities along the East Coast started by master printers seeking a sideline.

Among them was James Franklin, founder of The New England Courant, where he employed his younger brother, Benjamin Franklin, as a printer's apprentice. Like many other colonial newspapers, it was aligned with party interests. Ben Franklin was first published in his brother's newspaper, under the pseudonym Silence Dogood in 1722, his brother did not know his identity at first. Pseudonymous publishing, a common practice of that time, protected writers from retribution from government officials and others they criticized to the point of what today would be considered libel; the content included advertising of newly landed products, locally produced news items based on commercial and political events. Editors exchanged their papers and reprinted news from other cities. Essays and letters to the editor anonymous, provided opinions on current issues. While the religious news was thin, writers interpreted good news in terms of God's favor, bad news as evidence of His wrath; the fate of criminals was cast as cautionary tales warning of the punishment for sin.

Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia in 1728 and took over the Pennsylvania Gazette the following year. Ben Franklin expanded his business by franchising other printers in other cities, who published their own newspapers. By 1750, 14 weekly newspapers were published in the six largest colonies; the largest and most successful of these could be published up to three times per week. The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed paper, the burden of the tax fell on printers, who led a successful fight to repeal the tax. By the early 1770s, most newspapers supported the Patriot cause. Publishers up and down the colonies reprinted the pamphlets by Thomas Paine "Common Sense", his Crisis essays first appeared in the newspaper press starting in December, 1776, when he warned: These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman; when the war for independence began in 1775, 37 weekly newspapers were in operation.

The British blockade curtailed imports of paper and new equipment. When the war ended in 1782, there were 35 newspapers with a combined circulation of about 40,000 copies per week, an actual readership in the hundreds of thousands; these newspapers played a major role in defining the grievances of the colonists against the British government in the 1765-1775 era, in supporting the American Revolution. Every week the Maryland Gazette of Annapolis promoted the Patriot cause and reflected informed Patriot viewpoints. From the time of the Stamp Act, publisher Jonas Green vigorously protested British actions; when he died in 1767, his widow Anne Catherine Hoof Green became the first woman to hold a top job at an American newspaper. A strong supporter of colonial rights, she published the newspapers as well as many pamphlets with the help of two sons. During the war, contributors debated disestablishment of the Anglican church in several states, use of coercion against neutrals and Loyalists, the meaning of Paine's "Common Sense", the confiscation of Loyalist property.

Much attention was devoted to the details of military campaigns with an upbeat optimistic tone. Patrio

Ghost Brothers of Darkland County

Ghost Brothers of Darkland County is a musical by John Mellencamp, Stephen King, T Bone Burnett. It debuted at the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012. A touring production began in late 2013 through the Midwest. A soundtrack was released featuring country and rock musicians; the story is a Southern Gothic tale of two brothers who hate each other and are forced by their father to spend time in a haunted cabin, where they are visited by the ghosts of dead brothers who hated each other. In 2002, Mellencamp talked about his vision for the project: "I plan to have every person sing from their generation; this is what I'm thinking right now. When the 18-year-old sings, he'll be rapping at you; when the people in their 70s are singing, they'll be singing in the style of Broadway or the style of Frank Sinatra or country. I intend to cover any type of music that Americans have invented." He did not wind up following this format, as all the songs in the final production are performed in a folk and roots rock style.

Mellencamp provided this update of the musical's progress November 2010: T Bone and I and Stephen King are working on a musical. All the music has been recorded. We had Kris Kristofferson, Neko Case, Elvis Costello, Taj Mahal, all singing different characters' roles. I wrote 17 songs. Produced, it sounds like the Sgt. Pepper of Americana to me. Forget about the play, just the songs, the way these people sing them. I'm sitting there listening to it and thinking, "Did Rosanne Cash just kill that song or what!" The play is called "Ghost Brothers of Darkling County," about two brothers. If you could imagine Tennessee Williams meets Stephen King. King and Mellencamp chose Atlanta. "We wanted a place, cosmopolitan but not out of touch with country roots. Atlanta seemed like the middle of the bulls-eye", King said. "You know that song,'If you can make it here, you can make it anywhere?' That's how I feel about Atlanta and this show."Ghost Brothers began preview shows at the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta on April 4, 2012, opened April 11 and played until May 13, 2012.

The musical was directed by Alliance Theatre director Susan V. Booth, with musical supervision by T Bone Burnett; the band included Mellencamp's guitarist and musical director, Andy York, as well as Nashville session bassist David Roe. The copyist and vocal coach was Peggy Still Johnson; the cast included nominee Emily Skinner. Other cast members included Justin Guarini, Jake La Botz, Lucas Kavner, Kate Ferber, Christopher Morgan and Dale Watson. Completing the cast were Peter Albrink, Kylie Brown, Lori Beth Edgeman, Gwen Hughes, Joe Jung, Joe Knezevich, Rob Lawhon, Royce Mann, Travis Smith, Jeremy Aggers, Russell Cook, Stephanie Laubscher, Joseph Signa, DeWayne Woods; the show featured the blood effects of Joseph Jefferson Award-winning special effects artist Steve Tolin, notable for his international work on Martin McDonagh's, The Lieutenant of Inishmore. The show went on a 20-city U. S. tour of the Midwest and Southeast in October–November 2013 and an 18-city tour of the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Upper Midwest, West regions in late 2014.

Describing the plot, Mellencamp said, "I can tell what it's not going to be like: It won't be'Jack and Diane' meets Cujo. He's written the story—it's beautiful, more like The Green Mile. It's an American story about an American family; some of the characters are 100 years old, some are 15. So that will give me the opportunity to write for each character in a different style. I ain't writing a bunch of rock songs." In a interview he said, " two brothers. The father takes them to the family vacation place, a cabin that the boys hadn't been to since they were kids. What has happened is that the father had two older brothers who hated each other and killed each other in that cabin. There's a confederacy of ghosts who live in this house; the older brothers are there, they speak to the audience, they sing to the audience. That's all I want to say, except through this family vacation, many things are learned about the family, many interesting songs are sung." The official production synopsis reads: "In the tiny town of Lake Belle Reve, Mississippi in 1967, a terrible tragedy took the lives of two brothers and a beautiful young girl.

During the next forty years, the events of that night became the stuff of local legend. But legend is just another word for lie. Joe McCandless knows what happened; the question is whether or not he can bring himself to tell the truth in time to save his own troubled sons, whether the ghosts left behind by an act of violence will help him—or tear the McCandless family apart forever." A writer for Esquire magazine visited a New York rehearsal of the show in the fall of 2007 and said, "Musicals aren't a guy thing. This one, though, is not only tolerable, it's good, it may be the first-ever musical written by men for men. There's no orchestra, just a band with two twangy acoustic guitars, bass guitar, drums, an accordion, a fiddle; the songs are both haunting and all-American."The Atlanta Journal-Constitution noted in 2013 that "reviews were mixed" of the original production but "the problems that required tweaking all resided in Stephen King's book—particularly an overlong, muddled second act—never in the music of John Mellencamp."The newspaper called the musical "a pretty awesome spectacle", praising Mellencamp's "rousing score, a fusion of blues and rock that's superbly performed by [director Susan

Solo Flight: The Genius of Charlie Christian

Solo Flight: The Genius of Charlie Christian is a 1972 double album collecting many of the few recordings that captured performances by Charlie Christian. Most of the selections are from sessions with Benny Goodman's bands; until the advent of CD, it was considered to be the definitive "Charlie Christian" collection On some tunes, the producers spliced various takes together to include more of Christian's solos, or to create a better overall tune. "Rose Room" – Benny Goodman Sextet - 2:45 "Memories of You" – Benny Goodman Sextet - 3:06 "Seven Come Eleven" – Benny Goodman Sextet - 2:46 "Honeysuckle Rose" - Benny Goodman and His Orchestra - 3:01 "All Star Strut" - Metronome All Star Nine - 3:10 "Till Tom Special" - Benny Goodman Sextet - 3:00 "Gone With "What" Wind" - Benny Goodman Sextet - 3:20 "I Got Rhythm", G. Gershwin – Charlie Christian Quintet - 5:46. A combination of two separate recordings. "Stardust" – Charlie Christian Quintet - 5:30 "Tea for Two" – Charlie Christian Quintet - 4:28.

Above 3 are amateur recordings at a Minneapolis nightclub. "Boy Meets Goy" – Benny Goodman Sextet - 2:50 "Six Appeal" - Benny Goodman Sextet - 3:18 "Good Enough to Keep" - Benny Goodman Sextet - 2:54 "Wholly Cats" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:03 "Wholly Cats" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:01 "As Long As I Live" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:16 "Benny's Bugle" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:03 "Royal Garden Blues" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 2:59 "Breakfast Feud" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet - 3:06 "I Can't Give You Anything But Love" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet - 3:20 "Gilly" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet - 2:33 "Breakfast Feud" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 4:24 "On the Alamo" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:23 "I've Found a New Baby" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet featuring Count Basie - 3:00 "Solo Flight" - Benny Goodman and His Orchestra - 2:45 "Blues in B" - Charlie Christian Jammers - 1:43 "Waitin' for Benny" - Charlie Christian Jammers - 5:06.

The Jammers were members of the Benny Goodman Sextet. "Good Enough to Keep" - Benny Goodman and His Sextet - 3:45 MusicalTrack 1 Side 1 recorded in New York, 2 October 1939. Tracks 2 & 3 Side 1 recorded in New York 22 Nov 1939. Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Lionel Hamptonvibes Fletcher Hendersonpiano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernsteinbass Nick Fatool — drumsTrack 4 Side 1 recorded in New York, 22 Nov 1939. Personnel: Jimmy Maxwell, Ziggy Elman, Johnny Martel — trumpets Red Ballard, Vernon Brown, Ted Vesely — trombones Benny Goodman — clarinet Toots Mondello, Buff Estes — alto saxophones Bus Bassey, Jerry Jerometenor saxophones Fletcher Henderson — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bass Nick Fatool — drumsTrack 5 Side 1 recorded in New York, 7 Feb 1940. Personnel was drawn from Metronome Magazine's annual reader's poll for the top instrumentalists. Metronome gathered the winners to record a few tracks together, released the results on various record labels of the day.

Metronome All Star Nine: Harry Jamestrumpet Jack Teagardentrombone Benny Goodman — clarinet Benny Carter — alto saxophone Eddie Miller — tenor saxophone Jess Stacy — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Bob Haggart — bass Gene Krupa — drumsTrack 6 Side 1 recorded in New York, 7 Feb 1940. Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Lionel Hampton — vibes Count Basie — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bassTrack 7 Side 1 recorded in New York, 7 Feb 1940. Personnel: Same as Track 6, adding: Nick Fatool — drumsTracks 1-3 Side 2 recorded at a club in Minneapolis, MN, early Mar 1940, on acetate discs, by a local disc jockey. Personnel: Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Jerry Jerome — tenor saxophone Frankie Hines — piano unknown — bass, drumsTrack 4 Side 2 recorded in Los Angeles, 16 Apr 1940. Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Lionel Hampton — vibes Johnny Guarnieri — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bass Nick Fatool — drumsTracks 5 & 6, Side 2 recorded in Los Angeles, 20 Jun 1940.

Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Lionel Hampton — vibes Dudley Brooks — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bass Nick Fatool — drumsTrack 7, Side 2 recorded in New York, 7 Nov 1940. Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Cootie Williams — trumpet George Auld — tenor saxophone Count Basie — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bass Harry Jaeger — drumsTracks 1-4, Side 3 recorded in New York, 7 Nov 1940. Personnel: Benny Goodman — clarinet Cootie Williams — trumpet George Auld — tenor saxophone Count Basie] — piano Charlie Christian — amplified guitar Artie Bernstein — bass Harry Jaeger — drumsTrack